Reference Type: Journal Article

Record Number: 21

Author: Regester, K. J.; Lips, K. R.; Whiles, M. R.

Year: 2006

Title: Energy flow and subsidies associated with the complex life cycle of ambystomatid salamanders in ponds and adjacent forest in southern Illinois

Journal: Oecologia

Volume: 147

Issue: 2

Pages: 303-314

Date: Mar

Short Title: Energy flow and subsidies associated with the complex life cycle of ambystomatid salamanders in ponds and adjacent forest in southern Illinois

Accession Number: ISI:000235271600013

Keywords: lake to land

water to land

amphibian emergence

aquatic control of terrestrial subsidy

Ambystoma

emergent biomass

pond ecosystem

secondary production

terrestrial-aquatic link

terrestrial-aquatic linkages

brook experimental forest

fresh-water

ecosystems

food-web

new-hampshire

community organization

secondary

production

trophic structure

organic-matter

stream

Abstract: Breeding adults and metamorphosing larval amphibians transfer energy between freshwater and terrestrial ecosystems during seasonal migrations and emergences, although rarely has this been quantified. We intensively sampled ambystomatid salamander assemblages (Ambystoma opacum,A. maculatum, and A. tigrinum) in five forested ponds in southern Illinois to quantify energy flow associated with egg deposition, larval production, and emergence of metamorphosed larvae. Oviposition by female salamanders added 7.0-761.4 g ash-free dry mass (AFDM) year(-1) to ponds (up to 5.5 g AFDM m(-2) year(-1)). Larval production ranged from 0.4 to 7.4 g AFDM m(-2) year(-1) among populations in three ponds that did not dry during larval development, with as much as 7.9 g AFDM m(-2) year(-1) produced by an entire assemblage. Mean larval biomass during cohort production intervals in these three ponds ranged from 0.1 to 2.3 g AFDM m(-2) and annual P/B (production/biomass) ranged from 4 to 21 for individual taxa. Emergent biomass averaged 10% (range=2-35%) of larval production; larval mortality within ponds accounted for the difference. Hydroperiod and intraguild predation limited larval production in some ponds, but emerging metamorphs exported an average of 70.0 +/- 33.9 g AFDM year(-1)(range=21.0-135.2 g AFDM year(-1)) from ponds to surrounding forest. For the three ponds where larvae survived to metamorphosis, salamander assemblages provided an average net flux of 349.5 +/- 140.8 g AFDM year(-1) into pond habitats. Among all ponds, net flux into ponds was highest for the largest pond and decreased for smaller ponds with higher perimeter to surface area ratios (r(2)=0.94, P < 0.05, n=5). These results are important in understanding the multiple functional roles of salamanders and the impact of amphibian population declines on ecosystems.

Notes: Week 3: Lake to Land; Salamander energy input to ponds (egg-laying) much higher than energy export via emergence. Magnitude of emergent biomass varies considerably with pond species composition because it controls larval survivorship. Role of aquatic consumers in controlling transfers to terrestrial system.

URL: <Go to ISI>://000235271600013

Reference Type: Journal Article

Record Number: 13

Author: Bataille, K. J.; Baldassarre, G. A.

Year: 1993

Title: Distribution and Abundance of Aquatic Macroinvertebrates Following Drought in 3 Prairie Pothole Wetlands

Journal: Wetlands

Volume: 13

Issue: 4

Pages: 260-269

Date: Dec

Short Title: Distribution and Abundance of Aquatic Macroinvertebrates Following Drought in 3 Prairie Pothole Wetlands

Accession Number: ISI:A1993MP63400004

Keywords: lake to land

water to land

insect emergence

aythya valisineria

canvasback

drought

invertebrates

manitoba

prairie potholes

wetlands

Abstract: We collected aquatic macroinvertebrates in a seasonal, semipermanent, and permanent pothole wetland in southwestern Manitoba, Canada to determine their abundance and distribution following drought in relation to the prelaying, egg-laying and brood-rearing periods of canvasbacks (Aythya valisineria). We collected 26 taxa of nektonic macroinvertebrates of which 6 major groups (Cladocera, Copepoda, Ostracoda, Culicidae, Dytiscidae, Gastropoda) collectively comprised >98% of the total number of individuals. The number of nektonic macroinvertebrates peaked during the egg-laying period, and crustaceans were the most abundant taxa in all 3 potholes during all 3 breeding periods. We collected 50 families of emergent insects and several unknown families in the orders Coleoptera and Diptera. Five major groups (Chironomidae, Culicidae, other Diptera, Coleoptera, Leptoceridae) collectively comprised >97% of the total number. Insect emergence increased during the breeding season to a peak during the brood-rearing period. Chironomids were the most abundant emergent insect during all 3 breeding periods and were most abundant in the permanent pothole. Chironomids collected on artificial substrates also were most abundant in the permanent pothole during all 3 breeding periods. The number of gastropods was greatest during the laying and brood-rearing periods. Following drought, it appeared that macroinvertebrates were abundant and widely distributed in the 3 potholes.

Notes: Week 3: Lake to Land; Discusses macroinvertebrates as important food source for wetland ducklings. Compares community composition of emerging insects at three time periods and in three types of wetlands, but the study fails to estimate insect biomass. Magnitude of lake to land effect: mean total number of emergent macroinvertebrates during study was 365 per square meter.

Times Cited: 18

Cited Reference Count: 0

URL: <Go to ISI>://A1993MP63400004

Reference Type: Journal Article

Record Number: 14

Author: Currie, R. S.; Fairchild, W. L.; Muir, D. C. G.

Year: 1997

Title: Remobilization and export of cadmium from lake sediments by emerging insects

Journal: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry

Volume: 16

Issue: 11

Pages: 2333-2338

Date: Nov

Short Title: Remobilization and export of cadmium from lake sediments by emerging insects

Accession Number: ISI:A1997YC08800019

Keywords: lake to land

water to land

insect emergence

cadmium

export

insect emergence

sediment

contaminants

metal accumulation

chironomids

contaminants

ontario

cd-109

birds

area

Abstract: Emerging insects including, Diptera, Odonata, Ephemeroptera, and Trichoptera were collected from Lake 382 (L382) in 1991 and 1992 to estimate quantitatively the export of Cd by aquatic insects from a natural system having elevated Cd concentrations in the water and sediment. L382 is a Canadian Shield lake, located within the Experimental Lakes Area in northwestern Ontario, that received experimental additions of Cd from 1987 to 1992. Emerging Diptera (mostly Chironomidae), Odonata, and Ephemeroptera had mean Cd concentrations of 1.41, 0.11, and 0.30 mu g/g wet weight, respectively. An estimated 1.32 to 3.90 g of Cd per year were exported from the sediments of L382 depending on the estimate of production rates used for these groups of insects. Approximately 0.05 to 0.17% of the whole-lake Cd load in L382 sediments was exported annually or 0.12 to 0.39% of the epilimnion Cd sediment load. Insect emergence may have resulted in greater Cd export from L382 relative to losses via the outflow. Cadmium exported from the sediments by insects may be remobilized and become more available to aquatic organisms or enter the terrestrial ecosystem and become available to insectivores.

Notes: Week 3: Lake to Land; Measures the role of insects for metal export from a small oligotropnhic lake. Heavy metals transported by water outflow and - to a larger extent, especially as water concentrations decrease - by emergent aquatic insects. Also good discussion of metal transport to detrital and riparian consumer food chains.

Times Cited: 7

Cited Reference Count: 35

URL: <Go to ISI>://A1997YC08800019

Reference Type: Journal Article

Record Number: 16

Author: King, R. S.; Wrubleski, D. A.

Year: 1998

Title: Spatial and diel availability of flying insects as potential duckling food in prairie wetlands

Journal: Wetlands

Volume: 18

Issue: 1

Pages: 100-114

Date: Mar

Short Title: Spatial and diel availability of flying insects as potential duckling food in prairie wetlands

Accession Number: ISI:000072925900012

Keywords: lake to land

water to land

insect emergence

week 3 discussion

Chironomidae

dabbling duck

ducklings

food availability

insects

North Dakota

prairie wetlands

sticky trap

waterfowl management

Woodworth Study Area

invertebrate abundance

delta-marsh

waterfowl

emergence

chironomidae

behavior

manitoba

habitat

diptera

length

Abstract: We examined spatial and diel availability of flying insects that are a critical food resource to young ducklings. We sampled insects in three native prairie wetlands on the Woodworth Study Area of south-central North Dakota. Insects were sampled with floating sticky traps within emergent macrophyte, edge, and open water microhabitat zones. Sampling took place from 12 June to 4 July 1995, a period that coincided with peak dabbling duck (Anas spp.) hatching in this region. Our sticky traps collected 28,527 insects and spiders totaling at least 32 families and 150 species. Chironomidae (Diptera) was the most abundant group, constituting 60% of the total insect count and 32.9% of the biomass (mg dry weight). Mixed-model ANOVA showed that a population of similar undisturbed wetlands may show differences in insect availability when considering both time and space, primarily due to differences in community structure among sites. In spite of these significant random effects, interactions between or among the fixed date, zone, and trap-height effects significantly influenced insect availability. Insects stratified near the water surface in open water areas on all dates except during cool, rainy weather (28 June); on this date, insects were virtually absent from open water. Vertical stratification of insects was less prevalent within and at the edge of stands of emergent vegetation, although most insects were present in the emergent zone near the water surface during inclement weather. ANOVA models from our diel study showed that a significant diel pattern in insect availability existed among zones, but this interaction also depended upon trap-height (chironomid biomass) or date (chironomid counts and biomass). Generally, more insect numbers and biomass were captured in and along stands of emergent macrophytes during the day but chiefly in open water near the surface at night. This diel-zone effect was especially apparent for large chironomids, which were essentially absent during daylight but abundant in open water and edge zones during night. Daytime chironomids were small and predominantly trapped in stands of emergent vegetation. Our results are consistent with previously documented brood foraging behavior and may indicate a trade-off between low energy foraging in the open at night and potentially safer but less productive foraging in stands of emergent vegetation during the day.

Notes: Week 3: Lake to Land; The research documents emergent insect biomass in three different wetlands, including three microhabitat zones: emergent macrophytes, edge-transition, open water. Larger chironomidae (comprising the highest biomass of all trapped insects and spiders) were much more abundant at night than during the day. Magnitude of lake to land effect: 33.7g of total biomass (22527 individuals) trapped in their 180 floating sticky traps (across 3 wetlands during four full days in mid-June to early July).

Times Cited: 7

Cited Reference Count: 53

URL: <Go to ISI>://000072925900012

Reference Type: Journal Article

Record Number: 20

Author: Polis, G. A.; Anderson, W. B.; Holt, R. D.

Year: 1997

Title: Toward an integration of landscape and food web ecology: The dynamics of spatially subsidized food webs

Journal: Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics

Volume: 28

Pages: 289-316

Short Title: Toward an integration of landscape and food web ecology: The dynamics of spatially subsidized food webs

Accession Number: ISI:000070961400012

Keywords: week 3 discussion

water to land

review paper

food webs

spatial subsidy

trophic dynamics

consumer-resource

dynamics

landscape ecology

intertidal community structure

beaver castor-canadensis

exploitation

ecosystems

bottom-up

secondary production

benguela ecosystem

stream

ecosystem

prey communities

river continuum

seabird guano

Abstract: We focus on the implications of movement, landscape variables, and spatial heterogeneity for food web dynamics. Movements of nutrients, detritus, prey, and consumers among habitats are ubiquitous in diverse biomes and can strongly influence population, consumer-resource, food web, and community dynamics. Nutrient and detrital subsidies usually increase primary and secondary productivity, both directly and indirectly. Prey subsidies, by movement of either prey or predators, usually enhance predator abundance beyond what local resources can support. Top-down effects occur when spatially subsidized consumers affect local resources by suppressing key resources and occasionally by initiating trophic cascades. Effects on community dynamics vary with the relative amount of input, the trophic roles of the mobile and recipient entities, and the local food web structure. Landscape variables such as the perimeter/area ratio of the focal habitat, permeability of habitat boundaries, and relative productivity of trophically connected habitats affect the degree and importance of spatial subsidization.

Notes: Week 3: Lake to Land; This key review paper outlines direct and indirect mechanisms of cross-system interactions among and within water and land systems. This is where spatial subsidy (any donor-controlled resource taken to a different habitat) was defined. Although it reviews several riverine systems, most of the water to land examples come from Polis' work on marine islands. With the exception of one reference to Hasler's 1975 book, the only lake citations are for the water to water processes. Community theory is discussed briefly in light of subsidies. As the title implies, the authors emphasize how sub-disciplines of landscape ecology and community ecology can strengthen each other.

URL: <Go to ISI>://000070961400012

Reference Type: Journal Article

Record Number: 17

Author: Knight, T. M.; McCoy, M. W.; Chase, J. M.; McCoy, K. A.; Holt, R. D.

Year: 2005

Title: Trophic cascades across ecosystems

Journal: Nature

Volume: 437

Issue: 7060

Pages: 880-883

Date: Oct 6

Short Title: Trophic cascades across ecosystems

Accession Number: ISI:000232338600045

Keywords: lake to land

water to land

insect emergence

top-down

aquatic control of terrestrial subsidy

food webs

predator

terrestrial

visitation

diversity

subsidies

ecology

prey

Abstract: Predation can be intense, creating strong direct and indirect effects throughout food webs(1-4). In addition, ecologists increasingly recognize that fluxes of organisms across ecosystem boundaries can have major consequences for community dynamics(5,6). Species with complex life histories often shift habitats during their life cycles(7) and provide potent conduits coupling ecosystems(5,6). Thus, local interactions that affect predator abundance in one ecosystem (for example a larval habitat) may have reverberating effects in another (for example an adult habitat). Here we show that fish indirectly facilitate terrestrial plant reproduction through cascading trophic interactions across ecosystem boundaries. Fish reduce larval dragonfly abundances in ponds, leading to fewer adult dragonflies nearby. Adult dragonflies consume insect pollinators and alter their foraging behaviour. As a result, plants near ponds with fish receive more pollinator visits and are less pollen limited than plants near fish-free ponds. Our results confirm that strong species interactions can reverberate across ecosystems, and emphasize the importance of landscape-level processes in driving local species interactions.

Notes: Week 3: Lake to Land; This trophic cascade involved 4 trophic levels and a complex life history (of dragonflies) linking pond and riparian systems. Researchers found supporting evidence for all links in the chain, although some treatment effects were only weakly significant. Despite high variance, more bees were found at the 9 ponds with fish, and more flies were at the 9 fish-free ponds. Their pollen supplementation experiments provide good support for the latter half of the trophic cascade. The authors hypothesize that fish predation affects terrestrial plants via many other insects and amphibians.

URL: <Go to ISI>://000232338600045

Reference Type: Journal Article

Record Number: 5

Author: Stagliano, D. M.; Benke, A. C.; Anderson, D. H.

Year: 1998

Title: Emergence of aquatic insects from 2 habitats in a small wetland of the southeastern USA: temporal patterns of numbers and biomass

Journal: Journal of the North American Benthological Society

Volume: 17

Issue: 1

Pages: 37-53

Date: MAR

Short Title: Emergence of aquatic insects from 2 habitats in a small wetland of the southeastern USA: temporal patterns of numbers and biomass

Alternate Journal: J N Am Benthol Soc

J N Am Benthol Soc

Accession Number: ISI:000073418600003

Label: North Amer Benthological Soc

Keywords: lake to land

water to land

insect emergence

subtropical wetland

secondary production

aquatic insects

nymphaea

water lily

chironomid

chironomidae diptera

stream

invertebrates

productivity

communities

growth

canada

marsh

Abstract: Emergence of aquatic insects from freshwater systems can provide information that is useful from both taxon-specific and ecosystem perspectives. Although numerous studies of emergence have been conducted in high-latitude systems, relatively few studies have been done in warm-water systems, particularly in wetlands, where multiple generations and long emergence periods are likely. We used emergence traps in a small beaver-impounded wetland in the southeastern USA to measure density and biomass of emerging insects, and deposition basins to measure adult return and potential export from the system. We focused on 2 major habitats of the wetland: a shallow (0-1.0 m) vegetated zone dominated by the white water-lily Nymphaea odorata and a deeper (>1 m) open-water zone, insects (primarily Chironomidae) emerged from the Nymphaea zone throughout the year, but peaked in April at 205 individuals. m(-2). d(-1) and then declined from mid June to November to 20-50. m(-2). d(-1). Emergence from November through January was <10. m(-2). d(-1), Insects (primarily Chironomidae) did not begin emerging from the open-water zone until late March, but continued emerging through November. Annual emergence in the Nymphaea zone of 16,128 individuals/m(2) and 2.39 g dry mass/m(2) was significantly higher than 4374/m(2) and 0.59 g/m(2) in the open-water zone. Tanytarsini (primarily Tanytarsus) chironomids accounted for >33% of the emergent biomass in the Nymphaea zone, whereas Chaoborus punctipennis and Cladopelma sp. accounted for 19% and 21% of the emergent biomass, respectively, from the open-water zone. The emerging densities and biomasses of at least 6 taxa were significantly higher in the Nymphaea zone than in the open-water zone, and only Chaoborus was higher in the open water. Depositional trapping showed that deposition of adult insects in the aquatic environment averaged 25% of emerging numbers and biomass. The mayfly Caenis diminuta was common in deposition traps (1253 individuals. m(-2). y(-1), but avoided emergence traps. Both emergent and depositional trapping appeared necessary to quantify terrestrial activities of aquatic insects. Future comparisons of emergence and deposition data with larval production in the wetland will enable us to determine the fraction of production that is represented by emergence and the fraction that returns to the aquatic environment.

Notes: Week 3: Lake to Land; Times Cited: 16

Article

English

Cited References Count: 40

Zl298

Unique feature of the study: estimated both emergence and input to the system. Addresses whether emergence represents a net export of matter from the aquatic system. Data showing deposition, but lack of emergence of a single species may indicate failure to capture particular species in emergence traps, or may represent a net input to the system with low survival of larval stages. Researchers witnessed a seasonality in emergence with peaks from March until May, despite year roun inundation and warm temperatures (though emergence was prolonged at relatively high levels for 8 months). Notes that emergence data may tend to exagerate the importance of chironomids (since other invertebrates are present in the benthos, but are not sampled in emergence traps). Variable response of chironomid emergence to environmental cues makes it difficult to generalize patterns of emergence with water depth or vegetation, instead variation seems to be a result of differential ability to withstand dessication.

Estimated the return of ~25% of emergent insect biomass and numbers to the surface of the wetland (as measured by deposition traps). Calls for further comparison of emergence and deposition rates to quantify the balance between production leaving and returning to the aquatic environment.

URL: <Go to ISI>://000073418600003

Author Address: Benke, A. C.

Univ Alabama, Dept Biol Sci, Aquat Biol Program, Box 870206, Tuscaloosa, AL 35487 USA

Univ Alabama, Dept Biol Sci, Aquat Biol Program, Tuscaloosa, AL 35487 USA

Reference Type: Journal Article

Record Number: 7

Author: Whiles, Matt R.; Goldowitz, Beth S.; Charlton, Ralph E.

Year: 1999

Title: Life History and Production of a Semi-Terrestrial Limnephilid Caddisfly in an Intermittent Platte River Wetland

Journal: Journal of the North American Benthological Society

Publisher: The North American Benthological Society

Volume: 18

Issue: 4

Pages: 533-544

Date: 1999/12

Short Title: Life History and Production of a Semi-Terrestrial Limnephilid Caddisfly in an Intermittent Platte River Wetland

ISSN: 0887-3593

Keywords: lake to land

water to land

Aquatic invertebrates, Trichoptera, Secondary production, Wetlands, Insect emergence, Benthic macroinvertebrates, Ironoquia, Life history

Abstract: The life history and ecosystem significance of a recently discovered species of Ironoquia (Trichoptera:Limnephilidae) were examined in a riparian slough of the central Platte River, Nebraska, USA. Monthly benthic samples were collected for 1 y and adult emergence was monitored to examine I. plattensis life history in this harsh, intermittent habitat. Ecosystem significance of this caddisfly was assessed by estimating larval secondary production and consumption of coarse particulate organic matter (CPOM), biomass exported from the slough during larval migration onto land, and adult emergence production from the riparian prairie where pupation occurred. The life cycle of I. plattensis appeared intimately linked to the hydroperiod, with larval migration to land and adult emergence coinciding with drying and inundation of the slough, respectively. Total larval production in a 20-m reach of slough, adjusted for average wetted area during sampling intervals, was 429-536 g ash-free dry mass (AFDM)/y, depending upon the method of calculation. Biomass that left the slough via larval migration to land was estimated at 109 g AFDM (similar to 23% of larval production), and total adult emergence was 69 g AFDM (similar to 16% of larval production). Turnover rate of larval biomass was 10-12/y. CPOM consumption estimates indicated that larvae in the study site consumed 8690 g AFDM/y, similar to 13% of the annual average CPOM standing stock in the site. Results demonstrate that this leaf-shredding trichopteran is a productive component of this prairie wetland system, representing an abundant invertebrate food resource for aquatic and terrestrial predators and facilitating decomposition processes. However, its distribution along the central Platte River may be limited because of habitat destruction and its adaptation to a specific hydrologic regime.

Notes: Week 3: Lake to Land; TY - JOUR

M1 - Article type: Full Length Article / Full publication date: Dec., 1999 (199912). / Copyright 1999 The North American Benthological Society

This paper is focused on the life history characteristics of a particular species of Trichoptera (caddisfly, I. plattensis). Life history traits (migration(May-June) and emergence(September))) are closely tied to the hydrologic characteristics of the wetland.

109g of final instars migrated from wetland to surrounding prarie, followed by the emergence of 69g of adults amounting to 40% of total insect emergence from this site.

Larvae consumed ~13% of the CPOM standing stock in the study area.

These estimates of production are large in comparison to similar studies on other Ironoquia species, and can possibly be explained by copious food resources(CPOM from macrophyte veg.), low competition, or high temperatures during late spring.

URL: http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0887-3593%28199912%2918%3A4%3C533%3ALHAPOA%3E2.0.CO%3B2-P

Reference Type: Journal Article

Record Number: 11

Author: Anderson, W. B.; Polis, G. A.

Year: 1999

Title: Nutrient fluxes from water to land: seabirds affect plant nutrient status on Gulf of California islands

Journal: Oecologia

Volume: 118

Issue: 3

Pages: 324-332

Date: MAR

Short Title: Nutrient fluxes from water to land: seabirds affect plant nutrient status on Gulf of California islands

Alternate Journal: Oecologia

Oecologia

Accession Number: ISI:000079391900006

Label: Springer Verlag

Keywords: water to land

atriplex

desert nutrients opuntia

seabird guano

spatial subsidies

terrestrial food webs

nitrogen

guano

productivity

ecosystem

dynamics

communities

herbivory

marine

Abstract: Energy and nutrient fluxes across habitat boundaries can exert profound direct and indirect effects on the dynamics of recipient systems. Transport from land to water is common and well studied: here. we document a less recognized process, substantial flows from water to land. On hyperarid, naturally nutrient poor islands in the Gulf of California, nutrient input via seabird guano directly increases N and P concentrations LIP to 6-fold in soils: these nutrients enrich plants. Nutrients in a long-lived cactus, a short-lived shrub, and annuals were 1.6- to 2.4-fold greater on bird versus nonbird islands. Because plant quality affects consumer growth and reproduction, we suggest that nutrient enrichment via guano ramifies to affect the entire food web on these islands.

Notes: Week 3: Lake to Land;

Times Cited: 36

Article

English

Cited References Count: 66

180nk

Guano cover was used as an index of seabird nutrient input, which was assessed categorically. Seabird activity greatly increased the area of islands covered by guano (34% compared to <1%). Primarily served as an input of nutrients to terrestrial plants, with guano having a stronger statistical relationship with plant nutrient concentration than soil nutrient concentration. The relationship between guano and plant nutrient condition was confirmed with stable isotope analysis (N15) of guano, soil nutrients and short-lived annual plant species (Amaranthus barclayana). Birds are wide-spread on Gulf of California islands (using >50% for nesting or roosting), which are nutrient poor systems. Also, drawing on other research, the authors note that populations of herbivores, detritivores and predators are 3X to 24X larger on bird vs. non-bird islands. Suggest that the flow of nutrient is of equal or greater importance compared to energy in some systems. These allochthonous inputs are not just "subsidies", but are of fundamental importance to the functioning of some ecosystems.

URL: <Go to ISI>://000079391900006

Author Address: Anderson, W. B.

Drury Coll, Dept Biol, 900 N Benton Ave, Springfield, MO 65802 USA

Vanderbilt Univ, Dept Biol, Nashville, TN 37235 USA

Reference Type: Book

Record Number: 15

Author: Hasler, Arthur D.; International Association for Ecology.

Year: 1975

Title: Coupling of land and water systems

Series Title: Ecological studies, v. 10

City: New York,

Publisher: Springer-Verlag

Number of Pages: xvi, 309

Short Title: Coupling of land and water systems

ISBN: 0387067078

Call Number: QH541.5.W3 H37

574.5/263

Keywords: lake to land

water to land

detrital subsidies

nutrient subsidies

Aquatic ecology

Landscape protection

Notes: Week 3: Lake to Land;

74008931

Edited by Arthur D. Hasler.

"The International Association of Ecology (INTECOL) brought the contributors to this volume together in an author's conference at the 18th International Limnological Congress, convened at Leningrad."

Includes bibliographies.

International Limnological Congress, 18th, Leningrad.

Most relevant section:

CHAPTER 11: Pieczynska, E. Ecological interactions between land and the littoral zones of lakes. p. 263-276.

One of the earliest examples of research that considers the importance of the flux of matter across land-water boundaries, particularly in the direction of water to land. Speaks of the eulittoral (area of land between high and low water mark) as a unique habitat, as an ecotone, as a microenvironment and as a "store" and "factory" for conversion of organic matter from both lake and land. In a Polish lake, Mikolajskie Lake, flux of matter from the lake to eutlittoral amounted to 740 g/m/yr of mineral substance, and 7440 g/m/yr (4860kcl/m^2/yr). This is compared to an accumulation of terrestrial organic matter of 1940 kcal/m^2/yr. Primary production in the eulittoral zone was on the order of 2100 kcal/m^2/yr. The chapter also covers the influence of physical processes (water-level fluctuation and erosion/accumulation) and biological organisms (plants, animals and decomposers) on the eulittoral zone.

Citations in this chapter refer to many very old papers concerning the ecology of the littoral zone of lakes.

Contents of the book include the following: Nutrient-Hydrologic Interaction, Balances in Man-made Lakes, Bog Mires and Their Influence on Landscapes, Effects of Marshed on Water Quality, Mangrove Forests and Aquatic Productivity, Food Relations and Behavior of Salmonid Fishes, Natural and Modified Plat Communities as Related to Runoff and Sediment Yields, Landscapes of River Basins, Trophic Conditions of Italian Lakes as a Consequence of Human Pressures, The Supply of Minerals to Tropical Rivers and Lakes, Ecological Interactions Between Land and the Littoral Zones of Lakes, Silica and Nitrate Depletion as Related to Rate of Eutrophication in Lakes Michigan, Huron and Superior.

Reference Type: Journal Article

Record Number: 6

Author: Whiles, M. R.; Goldowitz, B. S.

Year: 2001

Title: Hydrologic influences on insect emergence production from central Platte River wetlands

Journal: Ecological Applications

Volume: 11

Issue: 6

Pages: 1829-1842

Date: DEC

Short Title: Hydrologic influences on insect emergence production from central Platte River wetlands

Alternate Journal: Ecol Appl

Ecol Appl

Accession Number: ISI:000172456700021

Label: Ecological Soc Amer

Keywords: lake to land

water to land

aquatic invertebrates

central platte river (USA)

disturbance

diversity

floodplain

hydrology

insect emergence

productivity

wetland management

wetlands

aquatic insects

management strategies

chironomidae diptera

species-diversity

stream

habitats

communities

biodiversity

disturbance

abundance

Abstract: The physical template of freshwater ecosystems has a pervasive influence on biological communities and processes. To examine the influence of hydrology on wetland insect communities, we quantified insect emergence from five riparian sloughs in the central Platte River valley. Annual hydroperiods of the wetlands ranged from 94 to 365 d/yr, and frequency and magnitude of drying events were inversely proportional to hydroperiod length. Three emergence traps were placed in each wetland from April through November 1997. Most insects collected in traps were identified to genus, and individual dry mass (DM) also was determined. Abundance of emerging insects (24 124 individuals/m(2)) and emergence production (5.1 g DM.m(-2).yr(-1)) were highest from the site with an intermediate hydroperiod of 296 d. Sites with longer and shorter hydroperiods had lower emergence abundance and production. Emergence production front the perennial site, which contained fish year-round, was only 0.26 g DM.m(-2).yr(-1). Diptera generally dominated emergence trap catches. Chironomidae, Culicidae, and Ceratopogonidae were among the dominant contributors to abundance, whereas Sciomyzidae and Muscidae were important contributors to biomass at most sites.
Quadratic equations best described relationships between taxa richness and annual hydroperiod (r(2) = 0.78 P < 0.05) or number of drying events/yr (r(2) = 0.81, P < 0.05), reflecting a peak in richness at intermediate levels of both. These relationships followed predictions of the intermediate disturbance hypothesis, but specific mechanisms underlying patterns were difficult to discern. Like emergence production, taxa richness was also highest at intermediate hydroperiods. Hence, insect diversity (measured as richness) and emergence production were positively correlated (r(2) = 0.85, P < 0.05). Results indicate that the hydrology of central Platte River wetlands exerts a strong influence on insect species richness and emergence production, and that intermittent sites harbor the highest insect diversity and produce more emergent insect biomass. However, trends in seasonal emergence patterns and taxonomic shifts across the hydrologic gradient in this study suggest that a landscape containing a mosaic of hydrologically distinct wetlands will maximize aquatic insect diversity and productivity at larger spatial and temporal scales.

Notes: Week 3: Lake to Land; Times Cited: 8

Article

English

Cited References Count: 71

497lj

Results from other studies (in warmer,perrenial wetlands (Alabama, Stagliano et al. (1998))) show production and abundance estimates that are 9X those found in perrenial wetlands in the current study. However, estimates from an intermittent wetland (lacking fish) in this study showed production and abundance estimates that exceeded those found in Alabama. This may suggest that effect of hydrology and fish presence may override the importance of climate in determining aquatic insect emergence abundances and production.

Sampling, conducted solely using emergence traps, may have underestimated abundance and diversity (esp. large odonates, Hemiptera and Coleoptera). However, 80% of insect species typically found (using a variety of sampling methods) in this wetland area, were in fact collected during this study using emergence traps.

Diversity-productivity relationships were touched upon and results indicate a positive diversity-productivity relationship for emerging aquatic insects in these wetlands.

URL: <Go to ISI>://000172456700021

Author Address: Whiles, M. R.

So Illinois Univ, Dept Zool, Carbondale, IL 62901 USA

Kansas State Univ, Dept Entomol, Manhattan, KS 66506 USA

Platte River Whooping Crane Maintenance Trust Inc, Wood River, NE 68883 USA

Reference Type: Book

Record Number: 9

Author: Likens, Gene E.

Year: 1985

Title: An Ecosystem approach to aquatic ecology: Mirror Lake and its environments

City: New York

Publisher: Springer-Verlag

Number of Pages: xiv, 516

Short Title: An Ecosystem approach to aquatic ecology: Mirror Lake and its environments

ISBN: 0387961062

Call Number: QH105.N4 E3 1985

574.5/26322/097423

Keywords: lake to land

water to land

insect emergence

Freshwater ecology New Hampshire Mirror Lake Watershed (Grafton County)

Lake ecology New Hampshire Mirror Lake (Grafton County)

Limnology New Hampshire Mirror Lake (Grafton County)

Mirror Lake (Grafton County, N.H.)

Notes: Week 3: Lake to Land;

84026686

edited by Gene E. Likens.

Includes indexes.

Bibliography: p. [445]-496.

Focused on the ecology of Mirror Lake from an ecosystem perspective. Contains comparisons of insect emergence in Mirror Lake vs. a number of other lakes. Insect emergence only accounts for transport of < 1% of primary production.

Reference Type: Journal Article

Record Number: 10

Author: Leeper, D. A.; Taylor, B. E.

Year: 1998

Title: Insect emergence from a South Carolina (USA) temporary wetland pond, with emphasis on the Chironomidae (Diptera)

Journal: Journal of the North American Benthological Society

Volume: 17

Issue: 1

Pages: 54-72

Date: MAR

Short Title: Insect emergence from a South Carolina (USA) temporary wetland pond, with emphasis on the Chironomidae (Diptera)

Alternate Journal: J N Am Benthol Soc

J N Am Benthol Soc

Accession Number: ISI:000073418600004

Label: North Amer Benthological Soc

Keywords: lake to land

water to land

insect emergence

insecta

emergence

chironomidae

depression wetlands

temporary ponds

carolina bays

south carolina

community structure

northwestern ontario

aquatic insects

water chemistry

abundance

canada

phenology

duration

drought

pools

Abstract: At Rainbow Bay, a 1.5-ha temporary wetland pond in South Carolina, 115 taxa of aquatic and semi-aquatic insects from 29 families representing 7 orders (Diptera, Coleoptera, Hemiptera, Trichoptera, Megaloptera, Odonata, Ephemeroptera) were collected using emergence traps from Math 1992 through June 1993, a period including 2 hydroperiod cycles. The Chironomidae were the most diverse group (59 species), followed by the Coleoptera (23 species). The Chironomini were the most diverse and abundant chironomids. The chironomid assemblage included many taxa with wide distributions from a variety of southeastern habitats, but several species, including some of the dominant species, are typical of acidic, dystrophic habitats. Several taxa of chironomids collected at the wetland represent new species or generic records for South Carolina or the southeastern USA. Ckironomid assemblages at Rainbow Bay and other local depression wetlands were moderately dissimilar, in accordance with reports for other aquatic organisms. Most other insect groups collected at Rainbow Bay are common to other depression wetlands of the region. Cumulative insect emergence was moderate (2774 and 1017 individuals m(-2) y(-1) in 1992 and 1993), and was dominated by the Chironomidae (93% of the total). Annual variation in emergence was probably most strongly influenced by annual variation in hydrology.

Notes: Week 3: Lake to Land;

Times Cited: 12

Article

English

Cited References Count: 69

Zl298

Reiterates the importance of wetland hydrology in the production of emergent insects. This study is focused on a bay wetland that is temporarily inundated (dries during summer).

Total insects: 1017 - 2774.2 individuals/m^2. Dominated by Chironomids, of which the diversity was higher than typically reported for temporary ponds.

Found Odonates to be particularly rare, perhaps due to lack of oviposition sites durinig dry summer months.

Hydrology affects DO levels, food resources and colonization dynamics, thus setting the stage for emergence of chironomids. Variations in hydrology may explain year to year variation observed in chironomid emergence. Increased water level lead to a decrease in chironomid emergence. Also, salamander abundances (predators) were higher in the year with high water and low emergence.

Authors offer many comparisons of observed emergence rates with other emergence data in the literature.

URL: <Go to ISI>://000073418600004

Author Address: Leeper, D. A.

SW Florida Water Management Dist, 2379 Broad St, Brooksville, FL 34609 USA

Univ Georgia, Savannah River Ecol Lab, Aiken, SC 29802 USA

Reference Type: Journal Article

Record Number: 24

Author: Christensen, D. L.; Herwig, B. R.; Schindler, D. E.; Carpenter, S. R.

Year: 1996

Title: Impacts of lakeshore residential development on coarse woody debris in north temperate lakes

Journal: Ecological Applications

Volume: 6

Issue: 4

Pages: 1143-1149

Date: Nov

Short Title: Impacts of lakeshore residential development on coarse woody debris in north temperate lakes

Accession Number: ISI:A1996VR85600019

Notes: Week 4: Land to Lake;

URL: <Go to ISI>://A1996VR85600019

Reference Type: Journal Article

Record Number: 25

Author: Cole, J. J.; Caraco, N. F.; Likens, G. E.

Year: 1990

Title: Short-Range Atmospheric Transport - a Significant Source of Phosphorus to an Oligotrophic Lake

Journal: Limnology and Oceanography

Volume: 35

Issue: 6

Pages: 1230-1237

Date: Sep

Short Title: Short-Range Atmospheric Transport - a Significant Source of Phosphorus to an Oligotrophic Lake

Accession Number: ISI:A1990EP94300002

Notes: Week 4: Land to Lake;

URL: <Go to ISI>://A1990EP94300002

Reference Type: Journal Article

Record Number: 108

Author: Elser, J. J.; Marzolf, E. R.; Goldman, C. R.

Year: 1990

Title: Phosphorus and Nitrogen Limitation of Phytoplankton Growth in the Fresh-Waters of North-America - a Review and Critique of Experimental Enrichments

Journal: Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences

Volume: 47

Issue: 7

Pages: 1468-1477

Date: Jul

Short Title: Phosphorus and Nitrogen Limitation of Phytoplankton Growth in the Fresh-Waters of North-America - a Review and Critique of Experimental Enrichments

ISSN: 0706-652X

Accession Number: ISI:A1990DM93500022

Notes: Week 4: Land to Lake;

URL: <Go to ISI>://A1990DM93500022

Author Address: Elser, Jj

Univ Calif Davis,Div Environm Studies,Davis,Ca 95616

Language: English

Reference Type: Journal Article

Record Number: 113

Author: Houser, J. N.; Bade, D. L.; Cole, J. J.; Pace, M. L.

Year: 2003

Title: The dual influences of dissolved organic carbon on hypolimnetic metabolism: organic substrate and photosynthetic reduction

Journal: Biogeochemistry

Volume: 64

Issue: 2

Pages: 247-269

Date: Jun-Jul

Short Title: The dual influences of dissolved organic carbon on hypolimnetic metabolism: organic substrate and photosynthetic reduction

Alternate Journal: Biogeochemistry

Accession Number: ISI:000184414400006

Keywords: allochthonous carbon

carbon budget

dissolved organic carbon

hypolimnion

metabolism

methane production

water color

Inorganic carbon

fresh-water

vertical diffusion

oxygen-consumption

northern wisconsin

stratified lake

ontario lakes

humic content

shield lakes

matter

Abstract: We investigated the effect of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) on hypolimnetic metabolism (accumulation of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) and methane (CH4)) in 21 lakes across a gradient of DOC concentrations (308 to 1540 mumol C L-1). The highly colored nature of the DOC in these lakes suggests it is mostly of terrestrial origin. Hypolimnetic methane accumulation was positively correlated with epilimnetic DOC concentration (Spearman rank correlation = 0.67; p < 0.01), an indicator of allochthonous DOC inputs, but not with photic zone chlorophyll a concentration (Spearman rank correlation = 0.30; p = 0.22). Hypolimnetic DOC concentrations declined in 19 of 21 lakes during the stratified period at rates that ranged from 0.06 to 53.9 mmol m(-2) d(-1). The hypolimnetic accumulation of DIC + CH4 was positively correlated with, and, in most cases of comparable magnitude to, this DOC decline suggesting that DOC was an important substrate for hypolimnetic metabolism. The percentage of surface irradiance reaching the thermocline was lower in high DOC lakes (&SIM;0.3%) than in low DOC lakes (&SIM;6%), reducing hypolimnetic photosynthesis (as measured by the depth and magnitude of the deep dissolved oxygen maxima) in the high DOC lakes. In June, the hypolimnia of lakes with < 400 mumol L-1 DOC had high concentrations of dissolved oxygen and no CH4, while the hypolimnia of lakes with DOC > 800 mumol L-1 were completely anoxic and often had high CH4 concentrations. Thus, DOC affects hypolimnetic metabolism via multiple pathways: DOC was significant in supporting hypolimnetic metabolism; and at high concentrations depressed photosynthesis (and therefore oxygen production and DIC consumption) in the hypolimnion.

Notes: Week 4: Land to Lake;

URL: <Go to ISI>://000184414400006

Reference Type: Journal Article

Record Number: 114

Author: Johnson, P. T. J.; Chase, J. M.

Year: 2004

Title: Parasites in the food web: linking amphibian malformations and aquatic eutrophication

Journal: Ecology Letters

Volume: 7

Issue: 7

Pages: 521-526

Date: Jul

Short Title: Parasites in the food web: linking amphibian malformations and aquatic eutrophication

Alternate Journal: Ecol. Lett.

Accession Number: ISI:000221853400001

Keywords: amphibian malformations

deformities

emerging disease

eutrophication

food webs

parasites

Ribeiroia

Limb deformities

trematode infection

diseases

biodiversity

ecosystems

deposition

phosphorus

responses

nitrogen

exposure

Abstract: Emerging diseases are an ever-growing affliction of both humans and wildlife. By exploring recent increases in amphibian malformations (e.g. extra or missing limbs), we illustrate the importance of food web theory and community ecology for understanding and controlling emerging infections. Evidence points to a native parasite, Ribeiroia ondatrae, as the primary culprit of these malformations, but reasons for the increase have remained conjectural. We suggest that the increase is a consequence of complex changes to aquatic food webs resulting from anthropogenic disturbance. Our results implicate cultural eutrophication as a driver of elevated parasitic infection: (1) eutrophication causes a predator-mediated shift in snail species composition toward Planorbella spp., (2) Planorbella are the exclusive first intermediate hosts of R. ondatrae and (3) Ribeiroia infection is a strong predictor of amphibian malformation levels. Our study illustrates how the effects of anthropogenic disturbance on epidemic disease can be mediated through direct and indirect changes in food web structure.

Notes: Week 4: Land to Lake;

URL: <Go to ISI>://000221853400001

Reference Type: Journal Article

Record Number: 118

Author: Kritzberg, E. S.; Cole, J. J.; Pace, M. M.; Graneli, W.

Year: 2006

Title: Bacterial growth on allochthonous carbon in humic and nutrient-enriched lakes: Results from whole-lake C-13 addition experiments

Journal: Ecosystems

Volume: 9

Issue: 3

Pages: 489-499

Date: Apr

Short Title: Bacterial growth on allochthonous carbon in humic and nutrient-enriched lakes: Results from whole-lake C-13 addition experiments

Alternate Journal: Ecosystems

Accession Number: ISI:000237121600013

Keywords: lakes

bacteria

dissolved organic carbon

allochthonous carbon

autochthonous carbon

stable isotope

Dissolved organic-matter

aquatic food webs

terrestrial support

temperate lakes

gas-exchange

water

metabolism

bacterioplankton

phytoplankton

variability

Abstract: Organic carbon (C) in lakes originates from two distinct sources-primary production from within the lake itself (autochthonous supply) and importation of organic matter from the terrestrial watershed (allochthonous supply). By manipulating the C-13 of dissolved inorganic C, thereby labeling within-lake primary production, we examined the relative importance of autochthonous and allochthonous C in supporting bacterial production. For 35 days, (NaHCO3)-C-13 was added daily to two small, forested lakes. One of the lakes (Peter) was fertilized so that primary production exceeded total respiration in the epilimnion. The other lake (Tuesday), in contrast, was low in productivity and had high levels of colored dissolved organic C (DOC). To obtain bacterial C isotopes, bacteria were regrown in situ in particle-free lake water in dialysis tubes. The contribution of allochthonous C to bacterial biomass was calculated by applying a two-member mixing model. In the absence of a direct measurement, the isotopic signature of the autochthonous end-member was estimated indirectly by three different approaches. Although there was excess primary production in Peter Lake, bacterial biomass consisted of 43-46% allochthonous C. In Tuesday Lake more than 75% of bacterial growth was supported by allochthonous C. Although bacteria used autochthonous C preferentially over allochthonous C, DOC from the watershed contributed significantly to bacterial production. In combination with results from similar experiments in different lakes, our findings suggest that the contribution of allochthonous C to bacterial production can be predicted from ratios of chromophoric dissolved organic matter (a surrogate for allochthonous supply) and chlorophyll a (a surrogate for autochthonous supply).

Notes: Week 4: Land to Lake;

URL: <Go to ISI>://000237121600013

Reference Type: Journal Article

Record Number: 119

Author: Lennon, J. T.

Year: 2004

Title: Experimental evidence that terrestrial carbon subsidies increase CO2 flux from lake ecosystems

Journal: Oecologia

Volume: 138

Issue: 4

Pages: 584-591

Date: Mar

Short Title: Experimental evidence that terrestrial carbon subsidies increase CO2 flux from lake ecosystems

Alternate Journal: Oecologia

Accession Number: ISI:000220365700011

Keywords: bacteria

DOC

DOM

plankton

subsidy

Dissolved organic-carbon

food-web dynamics

humic substances

boreal

lakes

bacterial-growth

chemical characteristics

dioxide

supersaturation

ultraviolet-radiation

elemental composition

allochthonous inputs

Abstract: Subsidies are donor-controlled inputs of nutrients and energy that can affect ecosystem-level processes in a recipient environment. Lake ecosystems receive large inputs of terrestrial carbon (C) in the form of dissolved organic matter (DOM). DOM inputs may energetically subsidize heterotrophic bacteria and determine whether lakes function as sources or sinks of atmospheric CO2. I experimentally tested this hypothesis using a series of mesocosm experiments in New England lakes. In the first experiment, I observed that CO2 flux increased by 160% 4 days following a 1,000 muM C addition in the form of DOM. However, this response was relatively short lived, as there was no effect of DOM enrichment on CO2 flux beyond 8 days. In a second experiment, I demonstrated that peak CO2 flux from mesocosms in two lakes increased linearly over a broad DOM gradient (slope for both lakes=0.02+/-0.001 mM CO2.m(-2) day(-1) per muM DOC, mean+/-SE). Concomitant changes in bacterial productivity and dissolved oxygen strengthen the inference that increasing CO2 flux resulted from the metabolism of DOM. I conducted two additional studies to test whether DOM-correlated attributes were responsible for the observed change in plankton metabolism along the subsidy gradient. First, terrestrial DOM reduced light transmittance, but experimental shading revealed that this was not responsible for the observed patterns of CO2 flux. Second, organically bound nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) accompanied DOM inputs, but experimental nutrient additions (without organic C) caused mesocosms to be satuated with CO2. Together, these results suggest that C content of terrestrial DOM may be an important subsidy for freshwater bacteria that can influence whether recipient aquatic ecosystems are sources or sinks of atmospheric CO2.

Notes: Week 4: Land to Lake;

URL: <Go to ISI>://000220365700011

Reference Type: Journal Article

Record Number: 120

Author: Lennon, J. T.; Pfaff, L. E.

Year: 2005

Title: Source and supply of terrestrial organic matter affects aquatic microbial metabolism

Journal: Aquatic Microbial Ecology

Volume: 39

Issue: 2

Pages: 107-119

Date: May 30

Short Title: Source and supply of terrestrial organic matter affects aquatic microbial metabolism

Alternate Journal: Aquat. Microb. Ecol.

Accession Number: ISI:000229867200001

Keywords: allochthonous

bacteria

DOC

DOM

ecosystem

plankton

stoichiometry

subsidy

Bacterial-growth efficiency

dissolved humic substances

elemental

composition

bacterioplankton growth

planktonic bacteria

nutrient

limitation

community structure

precambrian shield

soil solutions

forest floor

Abstract: Aquatic ecosystems are connected to their surrounding watersheds through inputs of terrestrial-derived dissolved organic matter (DOM). The assimilation of this allochthonous resource by recipient bacterioplankton has consequences for food webs and the biogeochemistry of aquatic ecosystems. We used laboratory batch experiments to examine how variation in the source and supply (i.e. concentration) of DOM affects the productivity, respiration and growth efficiency of heterotrophic lake bacterioplankton. We created 6 different DOM sources from soils beneath near-monotypic tree stands in a temperate deciduous - coniferous forest. We then exposed freshwater microcosms containing a natural microbial community to a 1100 mu M supply gradient of each DOM source. Bacterial productivity (BP) and bacterial respiration (BR) increased linearly over the broad gradient, on average consuming 7% of the standing pool of dissolved organic carbon (DOC). Bacterial metabolism was also influenced by the chemical composition of the DOM source. Carbon-specific productivity declined exponentially with an increase in the carbon:phosphorus (C:P) ratio of the different DOM sources, consistent with the predictions of ecological stoichiometry. Together, our short-term laboratory experiments quantitatively describe the metabolic responses of freshwater bacterioplankton to variation in the supply of terrestrial-derived DOM. Furthermore, our results suggest that dissolved organic phosphorus (DOP) content, which may be linked to the identity of terrestrial vegetation, is indicative of DOM quality and influences the productivity of freshwater bacterioplankton.

Notes: Week 4: Land to Lake;

URL: <Go to ISI>://000229867200001

Reference Type: Journal Article

Record Number: 121

Author: Moore, J. C.; Berlow, E. L.; Coleman, D. C.; de Ruiter, P. C.; Dong, Q.; Hastings, A.; Johnson, N. C.; McCann, K. S.; Melville, K.; Morin, P. J.; Nadelhoffer, K.; Rosemond, A. D.; Post, D. M.; Sabo, J. L.; Scow, K. M.; Vanni, M. J.; Wall, D. H.

Year: 2004

Title: Detritus, trophic dynamics and biodiversity

Journal: Ecology Letters

Volume: 7

Issue: 7

Pages: 584-600

Date: Jul

Short Title: Detritus, trophic dynamics and biodiversity

Alternate Journal: Ecol. Lett.

Accession Number: ISI:000221853400009

Keywords: decomposers

detritus

diversity

ecosystems

food chain

food web

primary productivity

processing chains

subsidies

trophic dynamics

Fresh-water ecosystems

food-chain length

energy-flow

species

richness

organic-matter

interspecific interactions

aquatic

ecosystems

lake productivity

nutrient addition

stable-isotopes

Abstract: Traditional approaches to the study of food webs emphasize the transfer of local primary productivity in the form of living plant organic matter across trophic levels. However, dead organic matter, or detritus, a common feature of most ecosystems plays a frequently overlooked role as a dynamic heterogeneous resource and habitat for many species. We develop an integrative framework for understanding the impact of detritus that emphasizes the ontogeny and heterogeneity of detritus and the various ways that explicit inclusion of detrital dynamics alters generalizations about the structure and functioning of food webs. Through its influences on food web composition and dynamics, detritus often increases system stability and persistence, having substantial effects on trophic structure and biodiversity. Inclusion of detrital heterogeneity in models of food web dynamics is an essential new direction for ecological research.

Notes: Week 4: Land to Lake;

URL: <Go to ISI>://000221853400009

Reference Type: Journal Article

Record Number: 122

Author: Muhammetoglu, A.; Muhammetoglu, H.; Soyupak, S.

Year: 2002

Title: Evaluation of efficiencies of diffuse allochthonous and autochthonous nutrient input control in restoration of a highly eutrophic lake

Journal: Water Science And Technology

Volume: 45

Issue: 9

Pages: 195-203

Short Title: Evaluation of efficiencies of diffuse allochthonous and autochthonous nutrient input control in restoration of a highly eutrophic lake

Alternate Journal: Water Sci. Technol.

Accession Number: ISI:000176222600024

Keywords: diffuse pollution

eutrophication

macrophytes

Mogan Lake

sediment

dredging

water quality

Abstract: Mogan Lake is an important recreational area for Metropolitan Ankara-Turkey. It is a shallow eutrophic lake with a dense growth of macrophytes. The main contributors of nutrients and other pollutants to the lake are the creeks carrying the runoff water from the watershed and upland farming land, in addition to the domestic and industrial wastewater discharges from a nearby town and industries. Hydrodynamic and water quality modeling techniques were used to determine the optimum management schemes for the lake restoration and diffuse pollution control. Management scenarios were devised and tested to control allochthonous and autochthonous nutrient inputs to the lake. Phosphorus and nitrogen load reductions were the main test elements for the control of allochthonous nutrient inputs. The scenario analysis revealed that reduction of phosphorus and nitrogen loads from diffused sources will have a marginal effect on controlling eutrophication if macrophyte growth is left uncontrolled. Scenarios employing macrophyte harvesting and sediment dredging have been evaluated for autochthonous nutrient input control. Sediment dredging alone has been shown to yield the most favorable conditions for water quality improvement in Mogan Lake. Further, control of diffuse pollution was an essential final step to achieve an acceptable long-term sustainable water quality improvement in the lake.

Notes: Week 4: Land to Lake;

URL: <Go to ISI>://000176222600024

Reference Type: Journal Article

Record Number: 22

Author: Pace, M. L.; Cole, J. J.; Carpenter, S. R.; Kitchell, J. F.; Hodgson, J. R.; Van de Bogert, M. C.; Bade, D. L.; Kritzberg, E. S.; Bastviken, D.

Year: 2004

Title: Whole-lake carbon-13 additions reveal terrestrial support of aquatic food webs

Journal: Nature

Volume: 427

Issue: 6971

Pages: 240-243

Date: Jan 15

Short Title: Whole-lake carbon-13 additions reveal terrestrial support of aquatic food webs

Accession Number: ISI:000188068100042

Notes: Week 4: Land to Lake;

URL: <Go to ISI>://000188068100042

Reference Type: Journal Article

Record Number: 123

Author: Schindle.Dw; Broecker, W. S.; Brunskil.Gj; Peng, T. H.; Emerson, S.

Year: 1972

Title: Atmospheric Carbon-Dioxide - Its Role In Maintaining Phytoplankton Standing Crops

Journal: Science

Volume: 177

Issue: 4055

Pages: 1192-&

Short Title: Atmospheric Carbon-Dioxide - Its Role In Maintaining Phytoplankton Standing Crops

Alternate Journal: Science

Accession Number: ISI:A1972N555800020

Notes: Week 4: Land to Lake;

URL: <Go to ISI>://A1972N555800020

Reference Type: Journal Article

Record Number: 124

Author: Schindler, D. E.; Carpenter, S. R.; Cole, J. J.; Kitchell, J. F.; Pace, M. L.

Year: 1997

Title: Influence of food web structure on carbon exchange between lakes and the atmosphere

Journal: Science

Volume: 277

Issue: 5323

Pages: 248-251

Date: Jul 11

Short Title: Influence of food web structure on carbon exchange between lakes and the atmosphere

Alternate Journal: Science

Accession Number: ISI:A1997XK41800048

Keywords: Blue-green-algae

phytoplankton

phosphorus

ecosystems

fractionation

delta-c-13

isotopes

dioxide

biomass

flow

Abstract: Top predators and nutrient loading in lakes were manipulated to assess the influence oi food web structure on carbon flux between lakes and the atmosphere. Nutrient enrichment increased primary production, causing lakes to become net sinks for atmospheric carbon (C-atm). Changes in top predators caused shifts in grazers. At identical nutrient loading, C-atm invasion was greater to a lake with low grazing than to one with high grazing. Carbon stable-isotope distributions corroborated the drawdown of lake carbon dioxide and traced C-atm transfer from algae to top predators Thus, top predators altered ecosystem carbon fixation and linkages to the atmosphere.

Notes: Week 4: Land to Lake;

URL: <Go to ISI>://A1997XK41800048

Reference Type: Journal Article

Record Number: 125

Author: Schindler, D. E.; Scheuerell, M. D.

Year: 2002

Title: Habitat coupling in lake ecosystems

Journal: Oikos

Volume: 98

Issue: 2

Pages: 177-189

Date: Aug

Short Title: Habitat coupling in lake ecosystems

Alternate Journal: Oikos

Accession Number: ISI:000177713700001

Keywords: Fresh-water ecosystems

north temperate lakes

coarse woody debris

food-web structure

residential development

atmospheric deposition

trophic interactions

oligotrophic lake

largemouth bass

riparian zones

Abstract: Lakes are complex ecosystems composed of distinct habitats coupled by biological, physical and chemical processes. While the ecological and evolutionary characteristics of aquatic organisms reflect habitat coupling in lakes, aquatic ecology has largely studied pelagic, benthic and riparian habitats in isolation from each other. Here, we summarize several ecological and evolutionary patterns that highlight the importance of habitat coupling and discuss their implications for understanding ecosystem processes in lakes. We pay special attention to fishes because they play particularly important roles as habitat couplers as a result of their high mobility and flexible foraging tactics that lead to inter-habitat omnivory. Habitat coupling has important consequences for nutrient cycling, predator-prey interactions, and food web structure and stability. For example, nutrient excretion by benthivorous consumers can account for a substantial fraction of inputs to pelagic nutrient cycles. Benthic resources also subsidize carnivore populations that have important predatory effects on plankton communities. These benthic subsidies stabilize population dynamics of pelagic carnivores and intensify the strength of their interactions with planktonic food webs. Furthermore, anthropogenic disturbances such as eutrophication, habitat modification, and exotic species introductions may severely alter habitat connections and, therefore, the fundamental flows of nutrients and energy in lake ecosystems.

Notes: Week 4: Land to Lake;

URL: <Go to ISI>://000177713700001

Reference Type: Journal Article

Record Number: 23

Author: Wehr, J. D.; Holen, D. A.; MacDonald, M. M.; Lonergan, S. P.

Year: 1998

Title: Effects of different organic carbon sources on a freshwater plankton community

Journal: Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences

Volume: 55

Issue: 9

Pages: 2150-2160

Date: Sep

Short Title: Effects of different organic carbon sources on a freshwater plankton community

Accession Number: ISI:000077001400016

Notes: Week 4: Land to Lake;

URL: <Go to ISI>://000077001400016

Reference Type: Journal Article

Record Number: 77

Author: Schindler, D. E.; Geib, S. I.; Williams, M. R.

Year: 2000

Title: Patterns of fish growth along a residential development gradient in north temperate lakes

Journal: Ecosystems

Volume: 3

Issue: 3

Pages: 229-237

Date: May-Jun

Short Title: Patterns of fish growth along a residential development gradient in north temperate lakes

Alternate Journal: Ecosystems

Accession Number: ISI:000087774400002

Keywords: bluegill sunfish

largemouth bass

coarse woody debris

riparian

management

littoral habitat

lakeshore development

fish production

fish growth

competition

prey

consequences

sunfishes

bluegill

predator

surface

niche

Abstract: Residential development of lakeshores is expected to change a variety of key lake features that include increased nutrient loading, increased invasion rate of nonnative species, increased exploitation rates of fishes by anglers, and alteration of littoral habitats. All of these factors may alter the capacity of lakes to support productive native fish populations. Fourteen north temperate lakes were surveyed to examine how growth rates Of two common fish species (bluegill sunfish, Leponis macrochirus; largemouth bass, Micropterus salmoides) varied along a residential development gradient. Size-specific growth rates for both species were negatively correlated with the degree of lakeshore residential development, although this trend was not statistically significant for largemouth bass. On average, annual growth rates for bluegill sunfish were 2.6 times lower in heavily developed lakes than in undeveloped lakes. This effect of lakeshore development on fish growth was not size specific for bluegills between 60 and 140 mm in total length. An index of population production rate that accounted for both the size-specific growth rate and the size distribution of fishes showed that bluegill populations were approximately 2.3 times less productive in highly developed lakes than in undeveloped lakes. Our results suggest that extensive residential development of lakeshores may reduce the fish production capacity of aquatic ecosystems.

Notes: Week 4: Land to Lake;

ANNOTATED

Another follow up on the idea that wood is asubsidy to lakes because it provides critical habitat that structures the food web, and especially fish/fish growth. This is another paper actually identifies the "so what" as fish production.cause no one buys a Scenedesmus license each spring. This particular paper is popular in the literature, with ecologists, and with resource managers.

Times Cited: 17

Cited Reference Count: 35

Cited References:

*NRC, 1992, REST AQ EC

*WI DEP NAT RES, 1996, NO WISC LAK SHOR REP

BEARD TD, 1997, N AM J FISH MANAGE, V17, P525

BECKER GC, 1983, FISHES WISCONSIN

BROWN RT, 1952, ECOL MONOGR, V22, P217

CARLANDER KD, 1982, T AM FISH SOC, V111, P332

CARPENTER SR, 1993, TROPHIC CASCADE LAKE

CARPENTER SR, 1998, ECOL APPL, V8, P559

CHRISTENSEN DL, 1996, ECOL APPL, V6, P1143

CROWDER LB, 1982, ECOLOGY, V63, P1802

CURTIS JT, 1959, VEGETATION WISCONSIN

DILLON PJ, 1975, J FISH RES BOARD CAN, V32, P1519

DILLON PJ, 1994, LAKE RESERV MANAGE, V8, P121

DRAKE MT, 1997, N AM J FISH MANAGE, V17, P496

EDER S, 1984, N AM J FISH MANAGE, V4, P469

EHLINGER TJ, 1997, N AM J FISH MANAGE, V17, P508

ELSER JJ, 1987, ARCH HYDROBIOL, V111, P171

GABELHOUSE DW, 1987, N AM J FISH MANAGE, V7, P81

GOEDDE LE, 1981, T AM FISH SOC, V110, P594

GUY CS, 1990, AM J FISHERIES MANAG, V10, P338

HANSON JM, 1982, CAN J FISH AQUAT SCI, V39, P257

HRABIK TR, 1998, CAN J FISH AQUAT SCI, V55, P1364

MAGNUSON JJ, 1994, AM ZOOL, V34, P437

MITTELBACH GG, 1984, ECOLOGY, V65, P499

MITTELBACH GG, 1988, ECOLOGY, V69, P614

MITTELBACH GG, 1993, ECOLOGY, V74, P2381

OLSON MH, 1995, ECOLOGY, V76, P1758

OLSON MH, 1996, ECOLOGY, V77, P179

OLSON MH, 1996, OECOLOGIA, V108, P757

OSENBERG CW, 1992, ECOLOGY, V73, P255

PARDUE GB, 1973, T AM FISH SOC, V102, P622

SCHINDLER DW, 1978, LIMNOL OCEANOGR, V23, P478

STEARNS FW, 1951, ECOLOGY, V32, P245

WERNER EE, 1983, ECOLOGY, V64, P1540

WERNER EE, 1984, ANNU REV ECOL SYST, V15, P393

English

Article

ECOSYSTEMS

327CB

URL: <Go to ISI>://000087774400002

Author Address: Univ Wisconsin, Ctr Limnol, Madison, WI 53706 USA.

Schindler, DE, Univ Washington, Dept Zool, Box 351800, Seattle, WA 98195 USA.

Reference Type: Journal Article

Record Number: 45

Author: Wantzen, K. M.; Machado, F. D.; Voss, M.; Boriss, H.; Junk, W. J.

Year: 2002

Title: Seasonal isotopic shifts in fish of the Pantanal wetland, Brazil

Journal: Aquatic Sciences

Volume: 64

Issue: 3

Pages: 239-251

Short Title: Seasonal isotopic shifts in fish of the Pantanal wetland, Brazil

Alternate Journal: Aquat. Sci.

Accession Number: ISI:000179471200002

Keywords: stable isotope

seasonal floodplain

food web

South America

data

analysis

stable carbon isotopes

trophic position

food webs

nitrogen isotopes

energy-sources

amazon river

mato-grosso

delta-c-13

floodplain

delta-n-15

Abstract: Seasonal inundations shape the floodplain characteristics of the Pantanal, a large wetland in Central South America. In the first study combining stable carbon and nitrogen isotope analysis with classical stomach content analysis in this region, we investigated the influence of the annual inundation on diet and isotopic composition of floodplain fish. Apart from potential food items, 33 fish species from the Coqueiro Lake were analyzed, 10 of which were present during both the wet and dry season 1999. A delta(13)C and delta(15)N plot of the floodplain ecosystem allowed us to assess a foodchain of 3-4 trophic levels. However, the wide overlap of nitrogen values suggested that the organisms act on-trophic continua rather than on distinct levels. The foodweb was based mainly on C-3-plant carbon. However, fish species capable of feeding on terrestrial invertebrates (e.g., Brycon microlepis) had delta(13)C values above -25parts per thousand, indicating 13-30% intake of C-4-plant based carbon during the flooding period. The novel use of vector coordinates and 2-dimensional ANOVA showed that the seasonal isotopic shifts of delta(13)C and 51 IN were highly significant for some feeding guilds. delta(15)N values increased from the wet to dry season in most fish species, and these shifts were highly significant for omnivores (Astyanax bimaculatus, Triportheus nematurus, Tetragonopterus argenteus and Moenkhausia dichroura), and significant for invertivores (Gymnogeophagus balzanii and Poptella paraguayensis) and carnivores (Serrasalmus spilopleura). Average carbon isotope ratios decreased at the same time in the herbivores (Methynnis mola: 3.4parts per thousand) and detritivores (Psectrogaster curviventris: 5.3parts per thousand), but they did not change in the hypostomatic herbivore Sturisoma robustum. We explain these shifts by abundant and variable food sources during the inundation period and increasing carnivory and starvation during the dry season when the lake is confined to its central basin. Isotopic shifts between seasons were more prominent in less specialized species of omnivores, invertivores and some carnivores, whereas more specialized herbivores and detritivores appeared to be more influenced by changes in the carbon isotope ratio of the diet affected by biogeochemical processes such as respiration and methanogenesis. A general model for the interpretation of isotope data of floodplain fish considering different time-scales is given.

Notes: Week 4: Land to Lake; ANNOTATED

I know, I know, one more "floodeding increase terrestrial subsidies to the lake" but this one is different for two reasons. One it is one of the first papers that tries to do some vector analysis on food web changes of the C and N isotopes, and (2) it used changes in nitrogen to show that subsidies can cahnbe the trophic level of some organisms. Good example of direct subsidy that changes a food web.

Times Cited: 5

Cited Reference Count: 40

Cited References:

ADAMS TS, 2000, LIMNOL OCEANOGR, V45, P601

ADIS J, 2001, ISOT ENVIRON HEALT S, V37, P193

ARAUJOLIMA CARM, 1986, SCIENCE, V234, P1256

BEAUDOIN CP, 1999, OECOLOGIA, V120, P386

BUNN SE, 1993, OECOLOGIA, V96, P85

CABANA G, 1996, P NATL ACAD SCI USA, V93, P10844

DACUNHA CN, 2001, INT J ECOL ENV SCI, V27, P63

DASILVA CJ, 2001, BIODIVERSITY WETLAND, V2, P187

DELONG MD, 2001, REGUL RIVER, V17, P217

DENIRO MJ, 1981, GEOCHIMICA COSMOCHIM, V45, P341

FOCKEN U, 1998, OECOLOGIA, V115, P337

FORSBERG BR, 1993, ECOLOGY, V74, P643

FRANCE R, 1998, MAR ECOL-PROG SER, V174, P301

FRY B, 1999, CAN J FISH AQUAT SCI, V56, P2167

FRY B, 1999, CAN J FISH AQUAT SCI, V56, P590

GOOD P, 2000, SPRINGER SERIES STAT

GREY J, 2001, LIMNOL OCEANOGR, V46, P505

HAMILTON SK, 1992, OECOLOGIA, V89, P324

HAMILTON SK, 1995, BIOGEOCHEMISTRY, V30, P115

HAMILTON SK, 1996, ARCH HYDROBIOL, V137, P1

HECKMAN CW, 1994, INT REV GES HYDROBIO, V79, P397

JONES RI, 1999, OIKOS, V86, P97

JUNK WJ, 1985, AMAZONIANA, V9, P315

JUNK WJ, 1989, CANADIAN SPECIAL PUB, V106, P110

JUNK WJ, 1995, LIMNOLOGY BRAZIL, P196

KIYASHKO SI, 2001, AQU MICROB ECOL, V24, P202

LEWIS WM, 2001, J N AM BENTHOL SOC, V20, P241

MARTINELLI LA, 1991, NATURE, V353, P57

MINAGAWA M, 1984, GEOCHIM COSMOCHIM AC, V48, P1135

OREILLY CM, 2002, LIMNOL OCEANOGR, V47, P306

OVERMAN NC, 2001, CAN J FISH AQUAT SCI, V58, P1253

PETERSON BJ, 1987, ANNU REV ECOL SYST, V18, P293

SAZIMA I, 1990, ENVIRON BIOL FISH, V28, P17

SCHESSL M, 1999, PHYTON-ANN REI BOT A, V39, P303

TIESZEN LL, 1983, OECOLOGIA, V57, P32

VANDERZANDEN MJ, 1997, CAN J FISH AQUAT SCI, V54, P1142

VANDERZANDEN MJ, 1999, ECOLOGY, V80, P1395

VAZ MM, 1999, FISHERIES MANAG ECOL, V6, P121

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WINEMILLER KO, 1998, J FISH BIOL A, V53, P267

English

Article

AQUAT SCI

619HU

URL: <Go to ISI>://000179471200002

Author Address: Max Planck Inst Limnol, D-24302 Plon, Germany. Univ Fed Mato Grosso, Inst Biociencias, BR-78080900 Cuiaba, MT, Brazil. Baltic Sea Res Inst, D-18119 Rostock, Germany. Univ Aarhus, Inst Genet & Ecol, DK-8000 Aarhus, Denmark.

Wantzen, KM, Univ Konstanz, Inst Limnol, D-78464 Constance, Germany.

Reference Type: Journal Article

Record Number: 36

Author: France, R.

Year: 1996

Title: Ontogenetic shift in crayfish delta C-13 as a measure of land-water ecotonal coupling

Journal: Oecologia

Volume: 107

Issue: 2

Pages: 239-242

Date: Jul

Short Title: Ontogenetic shift in crayfish delta C-13 as a measure of land-water ecotonal coupling

Alternate Journal: Oecologia

Accession Number: ISI:A1996VA14800012

Keywords: crayfish

allochthonous detritus

delta C-13

ontogeny

stable carbon-isotope

oligotrophic lakes

aquatic ecosystems

feeding

diversity

energy-sources

food webs

fish

invertebrates

stream

productivity

Abstract: Although ontogenetic changes in the carbon isotope ratios of marine fauna have been well studied those of freshwater organisms have not. As a result, we may have a less than adequate assessment of the incorporation of allochthonous detritus into freshwater food-webs. This study found a delta(13)C range of 9 parts per thousand for crayfish (Orconectes virilis) from oligotrophic Canadian Shield lakes. Much (60-83%) of this variability was explained by body size. A simple isotopic mixing model suggests that by their third year of life, crayfish in these lakes rely more substantially upon terrestrial detritus than epilithic algae for energy.

Notes: Week 4: Land to Lake; ANNOTATED

This is one of the first papers that "sparked" the idea of looking for cross system boundaries in lakes, not because it found a lake to land link, but because of the use of stable isotopes to show the link. Dr. France is one of the most respected ecologists when it comes to stable isotope trends in natural settings. It should be noted that the study site of this a paper was in the olligotrophic Canadian Shield lakes. The low productivity/ identifiable subsidy correlation continues.

Times Cited: 20

Cited Reference Count: 49

Cited References:

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BUNN SE, 1993, OECOLOGIA, V96, P85

CAPELLI GM, 1975, THESIS U WISCONSIN M

CROCKER DW, 1968, HDB CRAYFISHES ONTAR

DABRAMO LR, 1989, CHEM RUBBER COMP CRI, V4, P711

FLINT RW, 1975, LIMNOL OCEANOGR, V20, P935

FORSBERG BR, 1993, ECOLOGY, V74, P643

FRANCE R, 1991, CAN J FISH AQUAT SCI, V48, P2324

FRANCE R, 1995, CAN J FISH AQUAT SCI, V52, P651

FRANCE R, 1995, ESTUAR COAST SHELF S, V41, P737

FRANCE RL, 1985, CAN J FISH AQUAT SCI, V42, P1096

FRANCE RL, 1991, HYDROBIOLOGIA, V220, P9

FRANCE RL, 1994, MAR ECOL-PROG SER, V115, P205

FRANCE RL, 1995, CONSERV BIOL, V9, P35

FRANCE RL, 1995, ECOGRAPHY, V18, P318

FRANCE RL, 1995, ENVIRON MANAGE, V20, P249

FRANCE RL, 1995, FRESHWATER BIOL, V34, P495

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FRANCE RL, 1996, IN PRESS HYDROBIOLOG

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FRANCE RL, 1996, IN PRESS VEGETATIO

FRY B, 1979, ESTUAR COAST MAR SCI, V8, P499

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HALL RO, 1995, J N AMER BENTHOL SOC, V14, P269

HAMILTON SK, 1992, OECOLOGIA, V89, P324

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JACKSON D, 1987, OIKOS, V48, P258

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JUNGER M, 1994, CAN J FISH AQUAT SCI, V51, P52

LIKENS GE, 1984, VERH INT VEREIN LIMN, V22, P1

LORMAN JG, 1978, FISHERIES, V3, P8

MASON JC, 1974, CRAYFISH PRODUCTION

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RAU GH, 1992, MAR ECOL-PROG SER, V84, P1

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English

Article

OECOLOGIA

VA148

URL: <Go to ISI>://A1996VA14800012

Author Address: France, R, MCGILL UNIV,DEPT BIOL,1205 AVE DR PENFIELD,MONTREAL,PQ H3A 1B1,CANADA.

Reference Type: Journal Article

Record Number: 42

Author: Mehner, T.; Ihlau, J.; Dorner, H.; Holker, F.

Year: 2005

Title: Can feeding of fish on terrestrial insects subsidize the nutrient pool of lakes?

Journal: Limnology and Oceanography

Volume: 50

Issue: 6

Pages: 2022-2031

Date: Nov

Short Title: Can feeding of fish on terrestrial insects subsidize the nutrient pool of lakes?

Alternate Journal: Limnol. Oceanogr.

Accession Number: ISI:000233370600029

Keywords: alburnus-alburnus l

aquatic food webs

southeastern alaska

arthropod

inputs

riparian zones

streams

phosphorus

dynamics

bleak

prey

Abstract: We estimated consumption and excretion rates of terrestrial-borne phosphorus by a population of the insect-feeding fish species bleak (Alburnus alburnus) in a 0.12-km(2) mesotrophic take of the German lowlands. Fish abundance, growth rates, and diet composition were determined, and consumption and nutrient metabolism were calculated by a bioenergetics model. Mean bleak abundance was about 77,000 ind. km(-2). About 84% of bleak consumption consisted of terrestrial insects. Annual consumption of lake-external phosphorus (P) by bleak was 432 g, representing similar to 2.1% of the lake internal P-pool. Annual excretion of terrestrial-derived phosphorus by bleak was equivalent to similar to 11% of the mean epilimnetic SRP concentration. A substantial subsidy of lake nutrient pools by insectivorous fish is more likely in lakes <0.03 km(2) owing to the increasing perimeter-to-area ratio between donor and recipient habitats. Terrestrial nutrient subsidy by fish feeding may be important only in small oligotrophic lakes in forested areas.

Notes: Week 4: Land to Lake; ANNOTATED

This paper is an interesting example because it both integrates a subsidy into whole food web and shows the importance of the "back loop". That is in this case fish populations create nutrients through excretion of terrestrially derived carbon. In oder to show ecosystem level effects of subsidies a paper should show adequate precision in the various portionms of the food web. This paper does an excellent job of bounding the effect that fish could have on the ecosystem. In the discussion the authors note that lake size is a critical component of this subsidy having an effect on the food web. Make note of the reciprical subsidiy of lakes to land.

Times Cited: 2

Cited Reference Count: 44

Cited References:

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English

Article

LIMNOL OCEANOGR

985IK

URL: <Go to ISI>://000233370600029

Author Address: Leibniz Inst Freshwater Ecol & Inland Fisheries, Dept Biol & Ecol Fishes, D-12561 Berlin, Germany.

Mehner, T, Leibniz Inst Freshwater Ecol & Inland Fisheries, Dept Biol & Ecol Fishes, Muggelseedamm 310,POB 850 119, D-12561 Berlin, Germany.

mehner@igb-berlin.de

Reference Type: Journal Article

Record Number: 67

Author: Scheuerell, M. D.; Schindler, D. E.

Year: 2004

Title: Changes in the spatial distribution of fishes in lakes along a residential development gradient

Journal: Ecosystems

Volume: 7

Issue: 1

Pages: 98-106

Date: Jan

Short Title: Changes in the spatial distribution of fishes in lakes along a residential development gradient

Alternate Journal: Ecosystems

Accession Number: ISI:000220252200008

Keywords: spatial distribution

lakeshore development

morphometry

model

hydroacoustics

juvenile sockeye-salmon

north temperate lakes

fresh-water lakes

habitat fragmentation

predation risk

ecology

state

eutrophication

communities

populations

Abstract: As the human demand for freshwater natural resources such as fish and drinking water increases' we may rely more heavily on models to predict the response of aquatic ecosystems to natural and anthropogenic disturbance. Theses models in turn implicitly depend on the underlying spatial distribution of organisms. In terrestrial ecosystems, increased natural resource utilization has transformed habitat and changed the spatial distribution of organisms, with subsequent negative effects on biota. Recent studies in lakes demonstrate that human development of lakeshores alters the physical habitat and nutrient cycles. The impact of such disturbance by humans on the spatial distribution of aquatic organisms, however, remains unknown. Here we quantify the effect of lakeshore development on the spatial distribution of fishes in 23 lakes in the US Pacific Northwest. We found a significant decrease in the spatial aggregation of fishes with increased shoreline development by humans, reflecting a loss of refugia and resource heterogeneity that favors aggregation among fishes. We also found that lakes with a high perimeter-surface-area ratio and a relatively shallow littoral zone had much higher levels of fish aggregation, suggesting the importance of terrestrial inputs to lakes. Finally, we found a marginally significant decrease in fish spatial aggregation with increased total phosphorus concentration, but no effect of chlorophyll concentration, water transparency, the predator-prey ratio, or number of species on fish spatial distributions. These results suggest that anthropogenic modification of shorelines is significantly altering the spatial distribution of important aquatic organisms, and that these changes may have important implications for predictive modeling of ecosystem dynamics.

Notes: Week 4: Land to Lake; ANNOTATED

A follow up on the idea that wood is asubsidy to lakes because it provides critical habitat that structures the food web, and especially fish/fish growth. This is another paper in the "so what" category, people are wrecking one of the subsidies, don't build so close to the lake and don't pull the wood out and the ecosystem will work better with its natural subsidy.

Times Cited: 6

Cited Reference Count: 56

Cited References:

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BORTLESON GC, 1976, RECONNAISSANCE DATA, P1

BRABRAND A, 1993, OECOLOGIA, V95, P38

BRAZNER JC, 1997, J GREAT LAKES RES, V23, P36

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DEBINSKI DM, 2000, CONSERV BIOL, V14, P342

DEROOS AM, 2002, P NATL ACAD SCI USA, V99, P12907

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FAHRIG L, 2002, ECOL APPL, V12, P346

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GARRISON PJ, 2000, J PALEOLIMNOL, V24, P369

GUIDETTI P, 2002, MAR ENVIRON RES, V53, P77

GULATI RD, 2002, HYDROBIOLOGIA, V478, P73

HAILA Y, 2002, ECOL APPL, V12, P321

JACKSON DA, 2001, CAN J FISH AQUAT SCI, V58, P157

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JENNINGS MJ, 1999, N AM J FISH MANAGE, V19, P18

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English

Article

ECOSYSTEMS

803TA

URL: <Go to ISI>://000220252200008

Author Address: Univ Washington, Dept Zool, Seattle, WA 98195 USA. NOAA Fisheries, NW Fisheries Sci Ctr, Seattle, WA 98112 USA.

Scheuerell, MD, Univ Washington, Dept Zool, POB 351800, Seattle, WA 98195 USA.

mark.scheuerell@noaa.gov

Reference Type: Patent

Record Number: 28

Inventor: Perga, M. E.; Arfi, R.; Gerdeaux, D.

Year: 2005

Title: Seasonal variations in fish delta C-13 and delta N-15 in two West African reservoirs, Selingue and Manantali (Mali): modifications of trophic links in relation to water level

Published Source: Isotopes in Environmental and Health Studies

Patent Version Number: 41

Application Number: 2

Pages: 109-123

Date: Jun

Short Title: Seasonal variations in fish delta C-13 and delta N-15 in two West African reservoirs, Selingue and Manantali (Mali): modifications of trophic links in relation to water level

Accession Number: ISI:000230763500002

Keywords: carbon sources

carbon-13

diet

fish

natural variations

nitrogen-15

rivers

seasons

trophic relationships

river food webs

isotope ratios

lake chad

carbon

fractionation

Abstract: Most regions in the tropics undergo high seasonal precipitation that produces cyclic patterns of riverine discharge, resulting in periods characterized by low and high water levels. Many chemical and biological factors are affected by this hydrologic seasonality, and it therefore appeared to be very likely that aquatic food webs would also differ during the low and high water periods. Available carbon sources for fish are thought to be less varied during low water periods, but flooding during high water periods could bring fish into contact with a greater abundance and diversity of food sources such as terrestrial plants or the biofilms that grow on submerged terrestrial plants. At low water levels, higher fish densities may lead to more piscivory and less omnivory when compared with the high water periods. Therefore, trophic links within the fish communities may then be modified by water level changes in tropical reservoirs. To address this prediction, we performed stable isotope analyses of the most common species in Selingue and Manantali, two large reservoirs in Mali (West Africa). Allochthonous and littoral carbon sources were shown to support fish production to a significant extent, even during low water periods. However, the allochthonous or littoral carbon contributions that sustained the top-predators production were indeed greater during the high water periods as expected. The expected higher omnivory in the high water period might have shortened the food chain when compared with the low water period. Some carnivorous fish species were shown to feed at lower trophic levels during high water periods in both reservoirs, but this was not a general pattern. Flooding did not, therefore, necessarily result in a shorter food chain when water levels were high.

Notes: Week 4: Land to Lake; ANNOTATED

A great paper for summing up the general mechanisms that flooding and subsequent subsides have on the fish end of the food web. Interestingly, they predicted that these reservoirs that were filled 20+ years ago should be running on autochthonous sources during the dry season, but they weren't. Allochthony increased from the dry to the wet season, but it went from high to higher. Not sure their cut off from BPOM to FPOM, gross and fine particulate organic matter makes biological sense to me?

Times Cited: 0

Cited Reference Count: 21

Cited References:

ALHOUSSEINI S, 1999, THESIS U PROVENCE, P227

AMARASINGHE US, 2002, ENVIRON BIOL FISH, V65, P327

ANNE J, 1994, INT REV GES HYDROBIO, V79, P61

ARFI R, 2003, LAKES RESERV RES MAN, V8, P247

BOOTSMA HA, 1996, ECOLOGY, V77, P1286

DEMERONA B, 2003, ACTA OECOL, V24, P147

DENIRO MJ, 1977, SCIENCE, V197, P261

FORSBERG BR, 1993, ECOLOGY, V74, P643

GU BH, 1996, CAN J FISH AQUAT SCI, V53, P875

JEPSEN DB, 2002, OIKOS, V96, P46

LAE R, 1994, DIAGNOSTIC HALIETIQU, P73

LAUZANNE L, 1975, CAHIERS ORSTOM H, V9, P105

LAUZANNE L, 1976, CAH ORSTOM H, V10, P267

LEHMANN MF, 2004, LIMNOL OCEANOGR, V49, P415

LEWIS WM, 2001, J N AM BENTHOL SOC, V20, P241

LOWEMCCONNELL RH, 1985, NIGER ITS NEIGHBOURS, P101

MATTHEWS B, 2004, OECOLOGIA, V140, P361

MCCONNAUGHEY T, 1979, MAR BIOL, V53, P257

PAUGY D, 1989, REV HYDROBIOL TROP, V22, P295

WANTZEN KM, 2002, AQUAT SCI, V64, P239

WINEMILLER KO, 1998, J FISH BIOL A, V53, P267

English

Article

ISOT ENVIRON HEALTH STUD

949CW

URL: <Go to ISI>://000230763500002

Author Address: Author Address

Reference Type: Journal Article

Record Number: 29

Author: Dufour, E.; Gerdeaux, D.

Year: 2001

Title: Contribution of stable isotopes to fish ecological studies

Journal: Cybium

Volume: 25

Issue: 4

Pages: 369-382

Short Title: Contribution of stable isotopes to fish ecological studies

Alternate Journal: Cybium

Accession Number: ISI:000172953600002

Keywords: ecology

stable isotopes

trophic web

migration

pollutant

bioaccumulation

food-web

nitrogen isotopes

trophic position

carbon isotopes

bone-collagen

otoliths

animals

salmon

ratios

diet

Abstract: Over the last 20 years stable isotopes have become a useful tool for ecological studies; Stable isotopes are widely used for studying ecological features of fishes, including trophic position within and between communities and populations, mechanisms of pollutant bioaccumulation, identification of origins, stocks and migrations. These applications are based on (1) the existence of systematic, well-understood natural and-or anthropogenic isotopic variations in the environment, and (2) the relationship between the isotopic signal of fish and that of its diet and aquatic environment. Most studies have been performed on whole fish or muscle, which integrate long term average dietary signal. Intra-individual analysis of otoliths is a recently developed method that provides a continuous! detailed record of trophic and chemical environmental variations during the life span of a fish. Examples are provided of the contribution of isotopic analysis to fish ecology that complement traditional methods. Despite its great potential, the isotopic approach remains too poorly used by European ichtyoecologists.

Notes: Week 4: Land to Lake; ANNOTATED

Intersting paper, seemingly good review paper, that is if I coluld figure out how to get it translated from FRENCH!

Times Cited: 3

Cited Reference Count: 54

Cited References:

BEAUDOIN CP, 1999, OECOLOGIA, V120, P386

BOSLEY KL, 1999, CAN J FISH AQUAT SCI, V56, P2481

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CAMPANA SE, 1985, CAN J FISH AQUAT SCI, V42, P1014

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DENIRO MJ, 1981, GEOCHIMICA COSMOCHIM, V45, P341

DUFOUR E, 1999, J ARCHAEOL SCI, V26, P617

DUFOUR E, 1999, THESIS U PIERRE MARI

EPSTEIN S, 1953, GEOLOGICAL SOC AM B, V64, P1315

ESTEP MLF, 1985, CAN J FISH AQUAT SCI, V42, P1712

FORSBERG BR, 1993, ECOLOGY, V74, P643

FRANCE RL, 1995, MAR ECOL-PROG SER, V124, P307

FRY B, 1979, ESTUAR COAST MAR SCI, V8, P499

FRY B, 1984, CONTRIB MAR SCI, V27, P13

FRY B, 1999, CAN J FISH AQUAT SCI, V56, P590

GAO YW, 1999, CAN J FISH AQUAT SCI, V56, P2062

GRIFFITHS H, 1998, STABLE ISOTOPES INTE

HAMILTON SK, 1992, OECOLOGIA, V89, P324

HANSSON S, 1997, ECOLOGY, V78, P2249

HARRINGTON RR, 1998, CHEM GEOL, V147, P281

HESSLEIN RH, 1991, CAN J FISH AQUAT SCI, V48, P2258

HESSLEIN RH, 1993, CAN J FISH AQUAT SCI, V50, P2071

HOBSON KA, 1995, CAN J FISH AQUAT SCI, V52, P1195

KAPLAN IR, 1963, GEOCHIM COSMOCHIM AC, V27, P297

KENNEDY BP, 1997, NATURE, V387, P766

KIRILUK RM, 1995, CAN J FISH AQUAT SCI, V52, P2660

KLINE TC, 1999, CAN J FISH AQUAT S1, V56, P94

KOCH PL, 1992, EARTH PLANET SC LETT, V108, P277

LAJTHA K, 1994, STABLE ISOTOPES ECOL

MINAGAWA M, 1984, GEOCHIM COSMOCHIM AC, V48, P1135

NIER AO, 1947, REV SCI INSTRUM, V18, P398

NORTHCOTE TG, 1992, ECOL FRESHW FISH, V1, P61

PARKER PL, 1964, GEOCHIM COSMOCHIM AC, V28, P1155

PATTERSON WP, 1993, CLIMATE CHANGE CONTI, P191

PATTERSON WP, 1999, GEOLOGY, V27, P199

PETERSON BJ, 1987, ANNU REV ECOL SYST, V18, P293

RICQLES D, 1991, BONE, P1

RUNDEL PW, 1989, STABLE CARBON ISOTOP

SALA E, 1997, MAR ECOL-PROG SER, V152, P273

SCHOENINGER MJ, 1984, GEOCHIM COSMOCHIM AC, V48, P625

SCHWARCZ HP, 1998, CAN J FISH AQUAT SCI, V55, P1798

SHOLTODOUGLAS AD, 1991, MAR ECOL-PROG SER, V78, P23

SPIES RB, 1989, MAR ECOL-PROG SER, V54, P157

STREET GT, 1997, MAR ECOL-PROG SER, V152, P67

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VANDERZANDEN MJ, 1997, CAN J FISH AQUAT SCI, V54, P1142

VANDERZANDEN MJ, 1998, T AM FISH SOC, V127, P729

VANDERZANDEN MJ, 1999, NATURE, V401, P464

WAINRIGHT SC, 1993, MAR BIOL, V115, P481

French

Article

CYBIUM

506DA

URL: <Go to ISI>://000172953600002

Author Address: Syracuse Univ, Heroy Geol Lab, Dept Earth Sci, Syracuse, NY 13244 USA. INRA, Lab Hydrobiol Lacustre, F-74703 Thonon Les Bains, France.

Dufour, E, Syracuse Univ, Heroy Geol Lab, Dept Earth Sci, Syracuse, NY 13244 USA.

Reference Type: Journal Article

Record Number: 41

Author: Sass, G. G.; Kitchell, J. F.; Carpenter, S. R.; Hrabik, T. R.; Marburg, A. E.; Turner, M. G.

Year: 2006

Title: Fish community and food web responses to a whole-lake removal of coarse woody habitat

Journal: Fisheries

Volume: 31

Issue: 7

Pages: 321-330

Date: Jul

Short Title: Fish community and food web responses to a whole-lake removal of coarse woody habitat

Alternate Journal: Fisheries

Accession Number: ISI:000239285000007

Keywords: residential development gradient

ontogenic niche shifts

north

temperate lakes

largemouth bass

wisconsin lakes

bluegill sunfish

debris

growth

prey

availability

Abstract: As lakeshores are developed, property owners often thin the riparian forest and remove older logs or fallen limbs from the adjacent littoral zone. This practice alters fish habitat and produces unknown ecosystem changes. To assess potential effects on fish communities and food web interactions, we removed more than 75% of the coarse woody habitat (CWH) from the treatment basin of Little Rock Lake, Wisconsin, while leaving the reference basin unaltered. Prior to CWH removal, the food webs in both basins were similar and dominated by aquatic prey. After CWH removal, largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) in the treatment basin consumed less fish, ate more terrestrial prey, and grew more slowly relative to the population in the reference basin. Yellow perch (Perca flavescens) in the treatment basin declined to extremely low densities as a consequence of predation and little or no recruitment. In contrast, perch in the reference basin were replenished by several successful cohorts produced in consecutive years. Maintenance of CWH appears to be crucial for sustaining desirable fishes and fisheries in lakes. Changes in CWH produce complex, long-lasting effects at the ecosystem scale.

Notes: Week 4: Land to Lake; ANNOTATED

The concept of the land providing a habitat subsidy to the lake is less obvious the nutrient run off or invertebrates falling into the lake, however the effect on the food web can be substantial. Sass, in this and other papers have shown that without the CWH subsidy from the land, largemouth bass can deplete forgage fish populations and be forced to forage on "less profitable" terrestrial invertebrates. This work in a good example of determining the "so what " of a subsidy, by experimentally removing the subsidy and tracking the food web changes that follow.

Times Cited: 0

Cited Reference Count: 46

Cited References:

*NAT RES COUNC, 1992, REST AQ EC

ANGERMEIER PL, 1984, T AM FISH SOC, V113, P716

BEECHIE TJ, 1997, T AM FISH SOC, V126, P217

CARLANDER KD, 1982, T AM FISH SOC, V111, P332

CARPENTER SR, 1995, N AM J FISH MANAGE, V15, P519

CARPENTER SR, 2003, REGIME SHIFTS LAKE E

CHRISTENSEN DL, 1996, ECOL APPL, V6, P1143

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EHLINGER TJ, 1997, N AM J FISH MANAGE, V17, P508

GOEDDE LE, 1981, T AM FISH SOC, V110, P594

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GOTCEITAS V, 1990, COPEIA, P409

GUYETTE RP, 1999, CAN J FISH AQUAT SCI, V56, P496

HANSON JM, 1982, CAN J FISH AQUAT SCI, V39, P257

HILTON J, 1986, LIMNOL OCEANOGR, V31, P125

HINKE JT, 2001, THESIS U WISCONSIN M

HINKE JT, 2004, ECOLOGY SOC, V9

HJELM J, 2000, OECOLOGIA, V122, P190

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HUNT J, 2002, N AM J FISH MANAGE, V22, P1201

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English

Article

FISHERIES

067ER

URL: <Go to ISI>://000239285000007

Author Address: Univ Wisconsin, Ctr Limnol, Madison, WI 53706 USA. Univ Minnesota, Duluth, MN 55812 USA. Univ Wisconsin, Dept Zool, Madison, WI 53706 USA.

Sass, GG, Univ Wisconsin, Ctr Limnol, Madison, WI 53706 USA.

ggsass@wisc.edu

Reference Type: Journal Article

Record Number: 47

Author: Lobon-Cervia, J.; Bennemann, S.

Year: 2000

Title: Temporal trophic shifts and feeding diversity in two sympatric, neotropical, omnivorous fishes: Astyanax bimaculatus and Pimelodus maculatus in Rio Tibagi (Parana, Southern Brazil)

Journal: Archiv Fur Hydrobiologie

Volume: 149

Issue: 2

Pages: 285-306

Date: Sep

Short Title: Temporal trophic shifts and feeding diversity in two sympatric, neotropical, omnivorous fishes: Astyanax bimaculatus and Pimelodus maculatus in Rio Tibagi (Parana, Southern Brazil)

Alternate Journal: Arch. Hydrobiol.

Accession Number: ISI:000089972500007

Keywords: floodplain lake

river basin

amazon

ecology

Abstract: In this study, we explored whether the two dominant, morphologically divergent, omnivores, Astyanax bimaculatus (Characidae) and Pimelodus maculatus (Pimelodidae) in the high diversity (>100 species) fish assemblage of the Neotropical Rio Tibagi (southern Brazil) exhibited full overlap in the use of feeding resources similar to those reported for closely related species in Rio Amazonas. Monthly feeding patterns were assessed in two years of contrasting hydrological conditions and were compared with those reported for other, allopatric populations within their distributional range. Astyanax and Pimelodus fed at all trophic levels and exhibited an acute ability to shift prey as a response to environmental variations or food shortage. Although aquatic and terrestrial insects and seeds of native and introduced plants were the major food items, spatial separation across the water column and ecomorphological constrains seem to prevent a simultaneous use of the same food items by the two species. Except when cultivated seeds (i.e. maize) were most abundant after harvest, over-lap in the use of feeding resources was negligible, if any. We suggest that the assessment of trophic relationships in Neotropical fish assemblages require more detailed studies than those actually available.

Notes: Week 4: Land to Lake; ANNOTATED

This paper does a nice job of showing the seasonality of subsidies. In this case the subsidies are the usual floodplains provide subsidies to fish example, but this paper goes into some food web mechanisms, primarily competition, and how the subsidies can reduce or also focus competition.

Times Cited: 3

Cited Reference Count: 45

Cited References:

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FRYER G, 1972, CICHLID FISHES GREAT

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English

Article

ARCH HYDROBIOL

365WB

URL: <Go to ISI>://000089972500007

Author Address: CSIC, Museo Nacl Ciencias Nat, E-28006 Madrid, Spain. Univ Estadual Londrina, Ctr Ciencias Biol, Dept Biol Anim & Vegetal, BR-86051970 Londrina, Parana, Brazil.

Bennemann, S, CSIC, Museo Nacl Ciencias Nat, C Jose Gutierrez Abascal 2, E-28006 Madrid, Spain.

Reference Type: Journal Article

Record Number: 40

Author: Forsberg, B. R.; Araujolima, Carm; Martinelli, L. A.; Victoria, R. L.; Bonassi, J. A.

Year: 1993

Title: Autotrophic Carbon-Sources for Fish of the Central Amazon

Journal: Ecology

Volume: 74

Issue: 3

Pages: 643-652

Date: Apr

Short Title: Autotrophic Carbon-Sources for Fish of the Central Amazon

Alternate Journal: Ecology

Accession Number: ISI:A1993KU39900001

Keywords: amazon river floodplain

autotrophic energy sources

c4 grasses

detritivore

flooded forest

herbivore

periphyton

phytoplankton

plant

predator

stable carbon isotopes

tropical fish food web

floodplain lakes

ratios

detritus

isotope

river

food

Abstract: Effective management of the Amazon's commercial fish populations requires an understanding of the factors controlling their production. A fundamental step in the investigation of fish production is to identify the plant groups that contribute energy to fish foodwebs. Stable isotope data for plants and 35 fish species were used to identify autotrophic carbon sources for the central Amazon fish community. Adult fish, aquatic macrophytes, tree parts, periphyton, and phytoplankton were collected in lakes and other flooded environments along the central Amazon floodplain and analyzed for carbon stable isotope composition (deltaC-13) by mass spectroscopy. DeltaC-13 values for plants ranged from -39.4 to -11.9 parts per thousand with averages of -33.3, -28.8, -27.6, -26.2, and - 12.8 parts per thousand for phytoplankton, flooded forest trees, C3 aquatic macrophytes, periphyton, and C4 macrophytes, respectively. The average for all C3 Plants (phytoplankton, trees, C3 macrophytes, and periphyton) was -29.1 parts per thousand, while the average for C4 plants (mainly C4 macrophytes) was -12.8 parts per thousand. Mean deltaC-13 values for adult fish ranged from -37.0 to -19.8 parts per thousand with an average of -28.8 parts per thousand. Fish and plant data were used in an isotope mixing model to estimate the relative contribution of different plant groups to fish carbon. C4 macrophytes, which contributed over half of the primary production on the floodplain, accounted on average for only 2.5-17.6% (minimum to maximum) of the carbon in fish. The C3 plants, as a group, were the primary carbon source for 34 fish species, and accounted for an average of 82.4-97.5% of the carbon in all species. Phytoplankton, a minor C3 producer, accounted for a minimum of 36.6% of fish carbon on average, and was the principal carbon source for the commercially important characiform detritivores. Several alternative hypotheses are proposed to explain the apparent selective transfer of C3 carbon through Amazon fish foodchains.

Notes: Week 4: Land to Lake; ANNOTATED

While this paper does not expressly discern between terrestrial and aquatic plants, it does provide trends for which portions of plants are consumed. Nuts and seeds of trees are especially important, and represent a seasonal subsidy, made available by increased water levels. However the commercially important fish species primarily use phytoplanton resources. This paper is one of the few that distinguishes between commercially vs non-commercially valuable species. In this way it can be inferred "Do subsidies matter"? Yes for the diversity, no for the commercial species.

Times Cited: 80

Cited Reference Count: 37

Cited References:

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AGUIAR JPL, 1980, ACTA AMAZONICA, V10, P755

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BAYLEY PB, 1989, CAN SPEC PUBL FISH A, V106, P385

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BOWEN SH, 1984, LIMNOL OCEANOGR, V29, P1120

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GOULDING M, 1988, RIO NEGRO RICH LIFE

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English

Article

ECOLOGY

KU399

URL: <Go to ISI>://A1993KU39900001

Author Address: CTR ENERGIA NUCL AGR,BR-13400 PIRACICABA,SP,BRAZIL.

FORSBERG, BR, INST NACL PESQUISAS,CP 478,BR-69011 MANAUS,AMAZONAS,BRAZIL.

Reference Type: Journal Article

Record Number: 35

Author: France, R. L.

Year: 1997

Title: Stable carbon and nitrogen isotopic evidence for ecotonal coupling between boreal forests and fishes

Journal: Ecology of Freshwater Fish

Volume: 6

Issue: 2

Pages: 78-83

Date: Jun

Short Title: Stable carbon and nitrogen isotopic evidence for ecotonal coupling between boreal forests and fishes

Alternate Journal: Ecol. Freshw. Fish

Accession Number: ISI:A1997XL31500002

Keywords: ecotonal coupling

boreal forest

stable isotopes

orinoco river floodplain

energy-sources

algae

invertebrates

variability

ecosystems

delta-n-15

foodweb

streams

amazon

Abstract: As a result of water turbulence effects on boundary layer diffusion resistance and carbon isotopic discrimination, the delta(13)C values (ratios of C-13:C-12) of attached algae may often overlap those of terrestrial plants, thereby making it impossible to distinguish between the relative importance of these two potential food sources for aquatic animals. The present study used a dual isotope approach (delta(13)C and delta(15)N) to refine measurements of the incorporation of allochthonous organic matter into freshwater fishes; The dependence of five species of littoral fishes on terrestrial detritus for part of their energy sustenance was demonstrated. The littoral zones of boreal Canadian Shield lakes are, therefore, not isolated from their surrounding riparian forests in terms of carbon flow as present day timber management guidelines erroneously assume, but instead exhibit a measurable degree of ecotonal land-water coupling. As a result, clearcut logging of riparian forests to the lakeshore edge, permissible by law in most Canadian provinces containing boreal forests, may have to be reassessed as a forest harvesting strategy.

Notes: Week 4: Land to Lake; ANNOTTATED

A follow up paper on his 1996 paper, France explicitly notes that the forest is linked to the land. As with most of France's papers he demonstrates a new technique of analyzing stable isotoes, that of using carbon and nitrogen to quantify the imprtance of allochthonous materials in supporting a food chain. Still in oligotrophic lakes, where subsidies are easy to "see" cause there aren't any other nutrients! Also of note, France takes his work to the real world by implicating his results into forestry management practices. This paper is often cited in forestry journals, once could argue that is a true measure of the improtance of a subsidy, if the other side (land) cites your (water) papers.

Times Cited: 13

Cited Reference Count: 40

Cited References:

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ANGARDI TR, 1994, J N AM BENTHOL SOC, V13, P479

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BUNN SE, 1989, CAN J FISH AQUAT SCI, V46, P1769

BUNN SE, 1993, OECOLOGIA, V96, P85

CABANA G, IN PRESS P NAT AC SC

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FORSBERG BR, 1993, ECOLOGY, V74, P643

FRANCE R, 1995, CAN J FISH AQUAT SCI, V52, P651

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FRANCE RL, 1991, HYDROBIOLOGIA, V220, P9

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English

Article

ECOL FRESHW FISH

XL315

URL: <Go to ISI>://A1997XL31500002

Author Address: France, RL, MCGILL UNIV,DEPT BIOL,1205 DR PENFIELD AVE,MONTREAL,PQ H3A 1B1,CANADA.

Reference Type: Journal Article

Record Number: 110

Author: Graham, M. D.; Vinebrooke, R. D.; Turner, M.

Year: 2006

Title: Coupling of boreal forests and lakes: Effects of conifer pollen on littoral communities

Journal: Limnology And Oceanography

Volume: 51

Issue: 3

Pages: 1524-1529

Date: May

Short Title: Coupling of boreal forests and lakes: Effects of conifer pollen on littoral communities

Alternate Journal: Limnol. Oceanogr.

Accession Number: ISI:000237748300028

Keywords: Atmospheric deposition

temperate lakes

phosphorus

canada

area

Abstract: Conifer pollen deposition is a visually striking spring event in boreal lakes, representing a potentially major allochthonous input of limiting nutrients. We conducted a lake survey and mesocosm experiment at the Experimental Lakes Area in northwestern Ontario to test the hypothesis that jack pine (Pinus banksiana) pollen inputs subsidize littoral nutrient levels and stimulate algal growth and zooplankton abundance. A series of floating litterfall collectors were deployed along transects that span a 0.27-km(2) headwater lake (Lake 373) and monitored after ice-out to quantify pollen deposition over a 45-d period. Lake 373 (L373) received 11-56 mu mol P m(-2) d(-1) from pollen, or an annual total of about 10 kg of P. These data were used to determine pollen amendment levels (ambient, 3X, 10X) for an experiment involving 18, 1-m(3) littoral mesocosms distributed over three lakes (L239, L373, and L442). Pollen amendments significantly increased total phytoplankton and herbivorous zooplankton biomass, resulting in greater abundance of inedible filamentous green algae and large diatoms. Pollen also exerted a positive lake-specific effect. Periphyton biomass also increased in response to pollen additions, especially filamentous green algae and diatoms in L239 and L442. Conifer pollen subsidizes nutrient levels and promotes production in small boreal takes.

Notes: Week 4: Land to Lake; As folks who visit small lakes surrounded by forest know, the lake surface can be substantially powdered with pollen at certain times of the year. This study couples measurements of deposition with addition experiments to show that conifer pollen is indeed a nutrient subsidy to small boreal lakes which has important implications for primary production, and the community structure of primary producers.

URL: <Go to ISI>://000237748300028

Reference Type: Journal Article

Record Number: 115

Author: Kitchell, J. F.; Schindler, D. E.; Herwig, B. R.; Post, D. M.; Olson, M. H.; Oldham, M.

Year: 1999

Title: Nutrient cycling at the landscape scale: The role of diel foraging migrations by geese at the Bosque del Apache National Wildlife Refuge, New Mexico

Journal: Limnology and Oceanography

Volume: 44

Issue: 3

Pages: 828-836

Date: May

Short Title: Nutrient cycling at the landscape scale: The role of diel foraging migrations by geese at the Bosque del Apache National Wildlife Refuge, New Mexico

Alternate Journal: Limnol Oceanogr

Limnol Oceanogr

ISSN: 0024-3590

Accession Number: ISI:000080326600009

Keywords: lesser snow geese

salt-marsh

waterfowl

vectors

wetland

lakes

Abstract: Wildlife refuges are sites of dense aggregations of wintering waterfowl. Refuge managers are concerned about local water-quality effects and the amount of birdborne nutrient load that might cause eutrophication in roosting ponds and(or) be exported to downstream systems. We initiated this research effort to test the hypothesis that daily feeding migrations by geese represented a significant source of nutrients to wetland systems at the Bosque del Apache National Wildlife Refuge in the middle Rio Grande River valley of New Mexico. We documented the role of geese in translocating nutrients through a combination of time budget and mass balance models for birds, bioassays of phytoplankton growth, and stable isotope methods that trace the source of nitrogen to food webs. Geese increased the nutrient loading rates in some wetland ponds by up to 40% for total nitrogen and 75% for total phosphorus. Bioassays revealed that nitrogen was consistently limiting to primary production by algae in the ponds. Chlorophyll levels increased in proportion to bird densities. Fish and crayfish from the ponds intensively used by birds had very low stable nitrogen signatures relative to those from the Rio Grande River. This result derived from the low N-15 in alfalfa and corn, which were the primary forage for birds, and accumulated through food webs in proportion to bird use of individual ponds as roosting areas. In general, the wetland ponds functioned efficiently in retaining the birdborne, allochthonous nutrient load and only modest amounts of the total nitrogen or phosphorus were exported downstream.

Notes: Week 4: Land to Lake; Biological agents move terrestrial material to aquatic systems: This paper shows that nutrients from agricultural subsidies (corn, alfalfa) to migrating birds (geese) act as a large subsidy of nutrients to wetland ponds in the Bosque del Apache National Wildlife Refuge. The study shows (using stable istoptes of N) that the nutrient subsidy passes through several trophic levels to fish and crayfish. Whether the subsidy increases the production of fish and crayfish is not addressed.

Part 2

196UU

Times Cited:17

Cited References Count:22

URL: <Go to ISI>://000080326600009

Author Address: Kitchell, JF

Univ Wisconsin, Ctr Limnol, 680 N Pk St, Madison, WI 53706 USA

Univ Wisconsin, Ctr Limnol, Madison, WI 53706 USA
US Fish & Wildlife Serv, Bosque Apache Natl Wildlife Refuge, Socorro, NM 87801 USA

Language: English

Reference Type: Journal Article

Record Number: 128

Author: Thomas, J. D.

Year: 1997

Title: The role of dissolved organic matter, particularly free amino acids and humic substances, in freshwater ecosystems

Journal: Freshwater Biology

Volume: 38

Issue: 1

Pages: 1-36

Date: Aug

Short Title: The role of dissolved organic matter, particularly free amino acids and humic substances, in freshwater ecosystems

Alternate Journal: Freshw. Biol.

Accession Number: ISI:A1997XR47300001

Keywords: Chain carboxylic-acids

biomphalaria-glabrata say

liquid-chromatographic determination

trout oncorhynchus-mykiss

hydrobia-ventrosa montagu

integumentary uptake

schistosoma-mansoni

seasonal-changes

natural-waters

lake water

Abstract: 1. Although the mass of dissolved organic matter (DOM) often exceeds that of living organisms in freshwaters, little is known about the roles of its constituent molecules as sources of energy and information for aquatic organisms. In the present review attention is focused on free amino acids (FAA) and humic substances (HS) as examples of labile and refractory components within DOM. 2. The following questions are addressed. (i) What are spatiotemporal patterns in the distribution of DOM, HS and FAA? (ii) What are the origins of the components of DOM and how are their concentrations regulated? (iii) What is the significance of the spatial and temporal distributional patterns of DOM, HS and FAA to detritivorous invertebrates and other organisms associated with them? (iv) What is the relevance of DOM to the food web concept and to the biochemical ecology of freshwater ecosystems? 3. Concentrations of DOM, FAA and HS within lentic ecosystems are ranked as follows: Sediment pore water > Air-water interface > Midwater column. Comparisons between water bodies show that the concentrations of labile constituents of DOM, such as FAA, are usually positively correlated with base cations, nutrients and biological activity. In contrast, HS concentrations are negatively correlated with base cations or nutrients but positively correlated with the rate of biological degradation (the maximum values occurring in the autumn). The FAA:HS ratios might serve therefore as an indicator of the potential productivity of a water body. 4. External sources of DOM in general, and FAA and HS in particular, include rainwater, windborne material, surface flow and groundwater. The relative importance of these allochthonous sources of DOM decreases along the length of lotic ecosystems and also with increase in size of lentis ecosystems. Internal sources of FAA and HS include synthesis or polymerization from existing organic matter, degradation of organic matter and release from both living and dead organisms. The net accumulation of DOM released by living bacteria, phytoplankton, epilithon, macrophytes and invertebrates is much reduced due to heterotrophic uptake. Hence, most of the allochthonous DOM in freshwater originates from dead organic matter deposited on the sediment. Phytoplankton-dominated ecosystems may, however, differ, as most of their DOM may be recycled within the water column. 5. The factors that determine the external concentrations of DOM, FAA and HS are discussed. Evidence is cited in support of the following testable hypotheses. (i) The rates of production of DOM components will be favoured by increasing base cation and nutrient concentrations. (ii) Colloidal clay, base cations, biopolymers and living organisms, particularly bacteria, facilitate the removal of HS. Consequently, base-rich eutrophic waters tend to have lower HS concentrations than oligotrophic, base-deficient waters. (iii) As a result of higher productivity and selective removal of FAA, eutrophic waters tend to have higher FAA concentrations than those that are oligotrophic. 6. Labile DOM components, such as FAA, act as sources of information for aquatic organisms. More research is needed in this field. There is a consensus that DOM acts as an important source of energy for aquatic bacteria, thus forming the microbial leap. However, higher eukaryotic organisms also utilize DOM, including components released by bacteria and plants as metabolic end-products and photoassimilates, respectively. As a result, these DOM components may be more important as food for macrodecomposers than the microdecomposers themselves, HS may also benefit aquatic organisms by promoting their growth and protecting them from inimical forces. Conversely, the removal of photons and the release of toxins by HS may be detrimental to aquatic organisms. 7. It is concluded that the central dogma of the foodweb, and its implicit assumption that the energy flow in aquatic ecosystems can be quantified solely by measuring rates of photosynthesis, ingestion of solid food and its digestion by higher organisms, is invalid. To extend our understanding of the role of DOM as a source of nutrition and information to aquatic organisms it is suggested that the subject should be studied within the context of 'modules' which have the following properties: (i) the components have co-evolved; (ii) the more vulnerable components will have protective mechanisms; (iii) the components will derive mutual benefits from co-existence; (iv) sedentary components will release kairomonal attractants or developmental primers; fv) living components will exchange energy and information; (vi) the module will collapse following the removal of strongly interactive keystone species. An example of a three-component, three-subset module, is provided by tubificid worms, epithilic bacteria and algae. A more complex module consisting of pulmonate snails, associated macrophytes, their epiphytic bacteria and algae has four components and six subsets. The elucidation of the interactive mechanisms within such modules demands an interdisciplinary approach, involving microbiology, biochemistry and behavioural biology.

Notes: Week 4: Land to Lake; DOM is often present in large concentrations in aquatic ecosystems. Cole et al (2006, reviewed here) argued that the terrestrial DOM was not an important part of the food web. Here, Thomas argues that DOM may be very important, but this importance may not be due to direct consumption. Rather, the effects may be indirect: through providing a source of nutrients to decomposers, filtering light from the water column, presence of toxins, etc. The author concludes that this is an area that needs more study (surprise!) and that the effect of DOM should be examined in more than the context of direct food-web effects.

URL: <Go to ISI>://A1997XR47300001

Reference Type: Journal Article

Record Number: 127

Author: Tammi, J.; Lappalainen, A.; Mannio, J.; Rask, M.; Vuorenmaa, J.

Year: 1999

Title: Effects of eutrophication on fish and fisheries in Finnish lakes: a survey based on random sampling

Journal: Fisheries Management and Ecology

Volume: 6

Issue: 3

Pages: 173-186

Date: Jun

Short Title: Effects of eutrophication on fish and fisheries in Finnish lakes: a survey based on random sampling

Alternate Journal: Fisheries Manag Ecol

Fisheries Manag Ecol

ISSN: 0969-997X

Accession Number: ISI:000082699500001

Keywords: eutrophication

finland

fish

fisheries

lake survey

total phosphorus

productivity gradient

acidification

communities

percids

Abstract: The effects of eutrophication on fish and fisheries in Finnish lakes were determined by an extensive lake survey conducted in 1995 and 1996. The study lakes (873) were chosen by stratified random sampling from all Finnish lakes with a surface area greater than or equal to 0.04 km(2) (29 515 lakes in all). The chemical parameters of the lake water were determined for water samples taken in autumn 1995, Information on the fish stocks of the study lakes was collected by means of a postal questionnaire sent to local fishing authorities and lake owners. The results show that the fish community structure is cyprinid dominated, reflecting eutrophication in 2100 lakes (7% of all the target lakes). Strong fouling of the fishing gear, as well as a great abundance of unwanted species in the catch of passive gears, were considered to be a continuous problem in more than 10% of the lakes. Roach, Rutilus rutilus (L.), and bream, Abramis brama (L.), were the most common species to have increased in abundance in the study lakes, whereas burbot, Lota lota (L.), and vendace, Coregonus albula (L.), decreased, especially in highly eutrophic lakes. High total phosphorus and cyprinid dominance in lakes were found mainly in the most intensive agricultural regions in the western and southern parts of Finland.

Notes: Week 4: Land to Lake; Increased nutrient runoff from agricultural regions of Finland led to eutrophication which had cascading effects on the fish community structure. Eutrophic lakes had high cyprinid dominance, while burbot and vendance (Coregonus albula) decreased with eutrophication. Terrestrial (anthropogenic) subsidies of nutrients were shown to have a significant effect on the fish community and thus likely the food web.

238FD

Times Cited:6

Cited References Count:40

URL: <Go to ISI>://000082699500001

Author Address: Tammi, J

Finnish Game & Fisheries Res Inst, POB 6, FIN-00721 Helsinki, Finland

Finnish Game & Fisheries Res Inst, FIN-00721 Helsinki, Finland
Finnish Environm Inst, Helsinki, Finland
Finnish Game & Fisheries Res Inst, Evo Fisheries Res & Aquaculture, Evo, Finland

Language: English

Reference Type: Journal Article

Record Number: 109

Author: France, R. L.; Peters, R. H.

Year: 1995

Title: Predictive model of the effects on lake metabolism of decreased airborne litterfall through riparian deforestation

Journal: Conservation Biology

Volume: 9

Issue: 6

Pages: 1578-1586

Date: Dec

Short Title: Predictive model of the effects on lake metabolism of decreased airborne litterfall through riparian deforestation

Alternate Journal: Conserv. Biol.

Accession Number: ISI:A1995TL67200025

Keywords: Organic-matter

subalpine lake

productivity

ecosystems

ontario

Abstract: The importance of airborne allochthonous litter to the carbon and nutrient budgets of lakes has been seldom studied. We compiled data on the input of terrestrial litter to develop a simple and speculative model to predict the potential consequences of riparian deforestation on one aspect of lake metabolism, specifically the balance between phytoplankton production and plankton respiration. During the autumn of 1992, 56 litter traps were deployed around the littoral zones of four oligotrophic lakes in a densely forested region of northwestern Ontario, Canada. The airborne litter input was estimated to be 32 g dry weight per meter of forested shoreline per year Allochthonous litter input per unit offshore distance teas related to the size of riparian trees, their proximity to the shoreline, and the elevation of their canopy. Combining our data with those from other studies suggests that terrestrial litter can contribute up to 15% of the total carbon supply to oligotrophic lakes and up to 10% of the total phosphorus supply to lakes with a large surface area relative to that of their drainage basin. These results were incorporated into a simple model that predicts that removal of shoreline trees could increase the ratio of plankton production to respiration in oligotrophic lakes situated within small drainage basins. Such lakes may therefore shift from allotrophy to increasing autotropy (energy self-sustenance) following riparian deforestation.

Notes: Week 4: Land to Lake; Riparian forests may constribute significantly to lake metabolic balance. Terrestrial material may support heterotrophy by providing a carbon source for heterotrophs other than insitu primary production. The authors created a simple model based on measured and literature values of litterfall to predict the effect of decreased P and C entering the lake via airborne inputs. Decreased P should reduce planktonic production, while decreased C shoule decrease allochthonous planktonic respiration. The authors contend that terrestrial litter should provides a higher percentage of the lake's C than P, and thus deforestation should drive a lake to be more autotrophic.

URL: <Go to ISI>://A1995TL67200025

Reference Type: Journal Article

Record Number: 107

Author: Duarte, C. M.; Prairie, Y. T.

Year: 2005

Title: Prevalence of heterotrophy and atmospheric CO2 emissions from aquatic ecosystems

Journal: Ecosystems

Volume: 8

Issue: 7

Pages: 862-870

Date: Nov

Short Title: Prevalence of heterotrophy and atmospheric CO2 emissions from aquatic ecosystems

Alternate Journal: Ecosystems

Accession Number: ISI:000233326500009

Keywords: aquatic ecosystems

metabolism

heterotrophy

respiration

CO2

Dissolved organic-matter

north-atlantic ocean

community respiration

metabolic balance

planktonic community

net heterotrophy

carbon

balance

lakes

terrestrial

waters

Abstract: Recent, parallel developments in the study of freshwater and marine ecosystems have provided evidence that net heterotrophic systems (those in which respiratory organic matter destruction exeeds photosynthetic production) are more prevalent than hitherto believed, including most rivers, oligo- to mesotrophic lakes and some oligotrophic regions of the ocean. In parallel, these aquatic ecosystems have been shown to act as CO2 sources to the atmosphere, as expected from the heterotrophic nature of the communities they contain. The prevalence of net heterotrophic aquatic ecosystems indicates that they must receive significant inputs of organic carbon from adjacent ecosystems, assigning an important role to the lateral exchanges of carbon between land and aquatic ecosystems, between coastal and open ocean ecosystems, as well as internal redistribution within large or complex aquatic ecosystems in determining their metabolic status and the gaseous exchange with the atmosphere. The examination of the carbon budget of ecosystems requires, therefore, an integrative approach that accounts for exchanges between compartments often studied in isolation. These recent findings conform a new paradigm of the functioning of aquatic ecosystems, and the metabolic connectivity between ecosystems in the biosphere.

Notes: Week 4: Land to Lake; The authors review recent literature showing that many aquatic ecosystems are net heterotrophic (rivers, oligo and meso-trophic lakes, and some regions of the ocean). They argue that in order for this net heterotrophy to persist, significant inputs of terrestrial organic material must make its way into these regions, and therefore carbon cycling in aquatic systems must be examinined not in isolation from neighboring ecosystems.

URL: <Go to ISI>://000233326500009

Reference Type: Journal Article

Record Number: 104

Author: Cole, J. J.; Carpenter, S. R.; Pace, M. L.; Van de Bogert, M. C.; Kitchell, J. L.; Hodgson, J. R.

Year: 2006

Title: Differential support of lake food webs by three types of terrestrial organic carbon

Journal: Ecology Letters

Volume: 9

Issue: 5

Pages: 558-568

Date: May

Short Title: Differential support of lake food webs by three types of terrestrial organic carbon

Alternate Journal: Ecol Lett

Ecol Lett

ISSN: 1461-023X

Accession Number: ISI:000236799600006

Keywords: c-13

allochthony

food web

model

subsidy

whole-lake experiments

stable-isotope analysis

oligotrophic lake

northern sweden

c-13 addition

humic lakes

metabolism

zooplankton

subsidies

dynamics

exchange

Abstract: Organic carbon inputs from outside of ecosystem boundaries potentially subsidize recipient food webs. Four whole-lake additions of dissolved inorganic C-13 were made to reveal the pathways of subsidies to lakes from terrestrial dissolved organic carbon (t-DOC), terrestrial particulate organic carbon (t-POC) and terrestrial prey items. Terrestrial DOC, the largest input, was a major subsidy of pelagic bacterial respiration, but little of this bacterial C was passed up the food web. Zooplankton received < 2% of their C from the t-DOC to bacteria pathway. Terrestrial POC significantly subsidized the production of both zooplankton and benthic invertebrates, and was passed up the food web to Chaoborus and fishes. This route supplied 33-73% of carbon flow to zooplankton and 20-50% to fishes in non-fertilized lakes. Terrestrial prey, by far the smallest input, provided some fishes with > 20% of their carbon. The results show that impacts of cross-ecosystem subsidies depend on characteristics of the imported material, the route of entry into the food web, the types of consumers present, and the productivity of the recipient system.

Notes: Week 4: Land to Lake; The authors used whole-lake tracer additions coupled with a food-web model to trace the pathways of terrestrial organic matter into the aquatic food web. Terrestrial carbon was divided into dissolved, particulate, and biological components. The importance of terrestrial carbon to the food web did not reflect the abundance of the subsidy in the ecosystem: DOC was the most abundant resource but was not significantly passed up the food web. At the other extreme, terrestrial prey made up very little of the subsidy but supported some fishes with more than 20% of their carbon.

URL: <Go to ISI>://000236799600006

Author Address: Cole, JJ

Inst Ecosyst Studies, Box AB 65 Sharon Turnpike, Millbrook, NY 12545 USA

Inst Ecosyst Studies, Millbrook, NY 12545 USA
Univ Wisconsin, Ctr Limnol, Madison, WI 53706 USA
St Norbert Coll, Dept Biol, De Pere, WI 54115 USA

Language: English

Reference Type: Journal Article

Record Number: 116

Author: Klug, J. L.

Year: 2002

Title: Positive and negative effects of allochthonous dissolved organic matter and inorganic nutrients on phytoplankton growth

Journal: Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences

Volume: 59

Issue: 1

Pages: 85-95

Date: Jan

Short Title: Positive and negative effects of allochthonous dissolved organic matter and inorganic nutrients on phytoplankton growth

Alternate Journal: Can J Fish Aquat Sci

Can J Fish Aquat Sci

ISSN: 0706-652X

Accession Number: ISI:000174022200010

Keywords: humic substances

community structure

food-web

lake

phosphorus

carbon

water

competition

depression

radiation

Abstract: Dissolved organic matter (DOM) can have both positive and negative effects on phytoplankton growth. The magnitude of these effects may vary depending on the source of DOM and the composition of the phytoplankton community. Here, I address the relative importance of the positive and negative effects of DOM extracts on phytoplankton growth. In short-term experiments with phytoplankton from West Long Lake, a small, moderately coloured lake in northern Michigan, U.S.A., the net effect of doubling ambient DOM on phytoplankton growth was positive. Increasing DOM concentrations from similar to10 mg C.L-1 to similar to20 mg C.L-1 had a negative effect on total phytoplankton growth by reducing irradiance and thus reducing the depth to which growth was positive. However, inorganic nutrients in the DOM extracts increased growth at each irradiance level. The positive effect on phytoplankton growth owing to the nutrients associated with DOM was greater than the negative effect caused by shading. Although the positive effects of allochthonous DOM inputs outweighed the negative effects for the nutrient-limited phytoplankton in these experiments, the net effect depends on the concentration and availability of nutrients associated with allochthonous DOM as well as the physiological status of the phytoplankton community.

Notes: Week 4: Land to Lake; The base for the classically considered aquatic food web (phytoplankton) can be significantly altered by terrestrial dissolved organic matter. High concentrations of terrestrial dissolved organic matter are common in many lakes. This DOM can have varying effects on the aquatic food web at many levels. This study compared the postive and negative effects of DOM on phytoplankton production in an experimental lake. On one hand, DOM provides increased nutrients for phytoplankton, while on the other, it can reduce the amount of light available for photosynthesis.

524PN

Times Cited:3

Cited References Count:42

URL: <Go to ISI>://000174022200010

Author Address: Klug, JL

Fairfield Univ, Dept Biol, Fairfield, CT 06430 USA

Univ Wisconsin, Dept Zool, Madison, WI 53706 USA

Language: English

Reference Type: Journal Article

Record Number: 112

Author: Hadwen, W. L.; Bunn, S. E.

Year: 2005

Title: Food web responses to low-level nutrient and N-15-tracer additions in the littoral zone of an oligotrophic dune lake

Journal: Limnology And Oceanography

Volume: 50

Issue: 4

Pages: 1096-1105

Date: Jul

Short Title: Food web responses to low-level nutrient and N-15-tracer additions in the littoral zone of an oligotrophic dune lake

Alternate Journal: Limnol. Oceanogr.

Accession Number: ISI:000230585100007

Keywords: Allochthonous organic-carbon

n-15 tracer addition

stable-isotopes

florida everglades

subtropical lake

periphyton

phytoplankton

enrichment

nitrogen

plants

Abstract: We used natural abundance stable isotopes to establish the structure of the littoral zone food web of an oligotrophic, perched dune lake on Fraser Island, Australia. Mixing model analyses incorporating riparian vegetation, seston, and periphyton sources indicated that periphyton carbon was the most significant food resource for aquatic consumers, despite the abundance of allochthonous carbon sources. In order to examine the consequences of nutrient inputs from tourists visiting this remote lake, repeated additions of low levels of phosphate and N-15-enriched ammonium nitrate were made to three littoral zone sites. Additions led to significant increases in periphyton chlorophyll a (Chl a) concentrations in enriched sites but had no measurable effect on phytoplankton Chl a concentrations. Periphyton collected 5 h after the first nutrient addition had substantially enriched delta(15)N signatures, suggesting that periphyton rapidly assimilated the added nutrients (and N-15-tracer). After 10 d of additions, all other primary food sources for consumers also became N-15-enriched, indicating that ongoing nutrient inputs are likely to lead to increased primary production and detrital processing. Substantially enriched consumer delta(15)N signatures were also measured, indicating that the added nutrients were assimilated and passed through multiple trophic levels. Our results indicate that ongoing low-level nutrient additions by tourists to oligotrophic lakes could lead to increased primary (periphyton) and secondary (consumer) production. However, increases in periphyton production and biomass accrual could eventually escape control by grazers, leading to adverse ecological and aesthetic effects.

Notes: Week 4: Land to Lake; This paper is experiments showed that low-level addtions of nutrients to the littoral zone of an oligotrophic lake were quickly assimilated and passed through multiple trophic levels. Further it showed that the littoral zone is the first-affected area of the lake from low level nutrient additions; thus anthropogenic fertilization due to increased tourism could change the production and structure of the littoral zone.

URL: <Go to ISI>://000230585100007

Reference Type: Journal Article

Record Number: 102

Author: Biddanda, B. A.; Cotner, J. B.

Year: 2002

Title: Love handles in aquatic ecosystems: The role of dissolved organic carbon drawdown, resuspended sediments, and terrigenous inputs in the carbon balance of Lake Michigan

Journal: Ecosystems

Volume: 5

Issue: 5

Pages: 431-445

Date: Aug

Short Title: Love handles in aquatic ecosystems: The role of dissolved organic carbon drawdown, resuspended sediments, and terrigenous inputs in the carbon balance of Lake Michigan

Alternate Journal: Ecosystems

Accession Number: ISI:000177449200002

Keywords: land-lake linkages

carbon balance

respiration

bacterial growth

efficiency

dissolved organic carbon

sediment resuspension

terrigenous matter

southern Lake Michigan

Lawrence great-lakes

plankton respiration

temperate lakes

surface

waters

microbial loop

sargasso sea

spring bloom

bacteria

phytoplankton

metabolism

Abstract: During the unstratified (winter) and stratified (summer) periods of 1999 and 2000, we examined carbon (C) dynamics in the upper water column of southern Lake Michigan. We found that (a) bacterial respiration (BR) and planktonic respiration (PR) were major sinks for C, (b) C flux through bacteria (CFTB) was diminished in winter because of reduced bacterial production (BP) and increased bacterial growth efficiency (BGE) at colder temperatures, and (c) PR exceeded primary production (PP) during the spring-summer transition. Draw-down of dissolved organic C (DOC), resuspended organic matter from the lake floor, and riverine organic matter likely provided organic C to compensate for this temporal deficit. DOC in the water column decreased between winter and summer (29-91 mg C m(2) d(-1)) and accounted for 20%-53% of CFTB and 11%-33% of PR. Sediment resuspension events supported elevated winter heterotrophy in the years that they occurred with greatest intensities (1998 and 2000) and may be important to interannual variability in C dynamics. Further, riverine discharge, containing elevated DOC (5X) and dissolved P (10X) relative to lake water, peaked in the winter-spring season in southern Lake Michigan. Collectively, terrigenous inputs (river, stream, and groundwater discharges; storm water runoff; and atmospheric precipitation) may support approximately 10%-20% of annual in-lake heterotrophy as well as autotrophy. Terrestrial subsidies likely play a key role in the C balance of even very large lakes, representing a critical linkage between terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems.

Notes: Week 4: Land to Lake; This paper notes that while terrestrial subsidies are widely believed to be important for small lakes, they may also be quite important for large lakes such as the Great Lakes of the US and Canada. Based on measurements of river input to the lake and BGE, the authors conclude that 10% of the carbon used by bacteria, and 20% of the P used by phytoplankton may come from terrestrial inputs. Furthermore, riverine DOM was more efficiently used by bacteria than lake DOM (66% and 18% respectively).

URL: <Go to ISI>://000177449200002

Reference Type: Journal Article

Record Number: 103

Author: Birge, E.A.; Juday, C.

Year: 1927

Title: The organic content of the water of small lakes

Journal: Proc. Am. Phil. Soc.

Volume: 66

Pages: 357-372.

Short Title: The organic content of the water of small lakes

Notes: Week 4: Land to Lake; This paper was among the first (if not the first) to distinguish between autotrophic lakes and allotrophic lakes, thus making the point that some lakes receive a significant portion of their carbon from terrestrial sources.

Reference Type: Journal Article

Record Number: 126

Author: Schindler, D. W.

Year: 1977

Title: Evolution of Phosphorus Limitation in Lakes

Journal: Science

Volume: 195

Issue: 4275

Pages: 260-262

Short Title: Evolution of Phosphorus Limitation in Lakes

Alternate Journal: Science

Science

ISSN: 0036-8075

Accession Number: ISI:A1977CS05800008

Notes: Week 4: Land to Lake; This paper was among the first to use whole-lake experiments to show that carbon subsidies to lakes was not the cause of eutrophication; instead, subsidies of phosphorus and nitrogen to experimental lakes caused changes in the abundance and community structure of primary producers.

Cs058

Times Cited:821

Cited References Count:24

URL: <Go to ISI>://A1977CS05800008

Author Address: Canada Dept Environment,Inst Freshwater,Winnipeg R3T 2N6,Manitoba,Canada

Language: English

Reference Type: Journal Article

Record Number: 106

Author: Delgiorgio, P. A.; Peters, R. H.

Year: 1994

Title: Patterns In Planktonic P-R Ratios In Lakes - Influence Of Lake Trophy And Dissolved Organic-Carbon

Journal: Limnology And Oceanography

Volume: 39

Issue: 4

Pages: 772-787

Date: Jun

Short Title: Patterns In Planktonic P-R Ratios In Lakes - Influence Of Lake Trophy And Dissolved Organic-Carbon

Alternate Journal: Limnol. Oceanogr.

Accession Number: ISI:A1994PC98200003

Keywords: Primary productivity

respiration

matter

streams

water

bacterioplankton

calibration

morphometry

budgets

flux

Abstract: A comparative analysis of planktonic metabolism in 20 southern Quebec lakes was carried out to test the hypothesis that planktonic P:R ratios reflect gradients of both nutrient enrichment and dissolved organic carbon (DOC). Mean epilimnetic phytoplankton photosynthesis ranged from 8 to 377 mg C m-3 d-1, and the amount of C respired by the plankton in excess of phytoplankton photosynthesis ranged from 30 to 86 mg C m-3 d-1. Plankton community respiration was 2-8 times greater than phytoplankton photosynthesis in all oligotrophic and mesotrophic lakes during the growing season, and this imbalance narrowed toward the more productive lakes. P:R ratios were positively related to chlorophyll and total P concentration, and inversely related to water color and DOC concentration. The strong influence of DOC on planktonic P:R ratios was almost exclusively due to its depressing effect on phytoplankton photosynthesis; DOC had no statistical effect on respiration. The calculated DOC loading for these lakes suggests that organic C loss through epilimnetic respiration in excess of phytoplankton photosynthesis is comparable to the estimated DOC loss within the lakes and that summer plankton metabolism could be supported by external DOC inputs in most lakes. The highly significant intercept of the respiration to production relationship, 27 mg C m-3 d-1, may indicate the baseline metabolism supported by external sources of C that occurs in these temperate lakes. Estimates of respiratory CO2 production from the pelagial of these lakes range from 11 to 60 mmol CO2 m-2 d-1, depending on lake trophy and DOC concentration. These estimates suggest that the planktonic metabolism of allochthonous DOC probably constitutes a major source of CO2 in lakes.

Notes: Week 4: Land to Lake; This was one of the earlier papers to point out that planktonic respiraton is often dominated by processess which are independent from phytoplankton production. This paper examined the role of terrestrial DOC in the support of planktonic respiration within lakes of varying trophic statuses (oligo- to eutrophic). Oligotrophic lakes have low P:R ratios indicative of external support of respiration. The paper leaves the question of whether the respired external subsidies find their way to higher trophic levels unanswered and comments that it is still (1994) a point of contention.

URL: <Go to ISI>://A1994PC98200003

Reference Type: Journal Article

Record Number: 111

Author: Grant, S. C. H.; Tonn, W. M.

Year: 2002

Title: Effects of nutrient enrichment on recruitment of age-0 fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas): potential impacts of environmental change on the Boreal Plains

Journal: Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences

Volume: 59

Issue: 5

Pages: 759-767

Date: May

Short Title: Effects of nutrient enrichment on recruitment of age-0 fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas): potential impacts of environmental change on the Boreal Plains

Alternate Journal: Can J Fish Aquat Sci

Can J Fish Aquat Sci

ISSN: 0706-652X

Accession Number: ISI:000177395100002

Keywords: 1st winter

lake

size

fertilization

survival

fishes

mechanisms

mortality

patterns

program

Abstract: Eutrophication in lakes on the Canadian Boreal Plains is predicted to increase because of climate and land-use changes. The resulting increase in lake productivity might then increase recruitment of young fish via increased food availability, growth, and survival. To assess this hypothesis, we manipulated nutrient concentrations in experimental ponds and examined mechanisms influencing production and survival of age-0 fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas). Nutrient enrichment increased phytoplankton biomass (chlorophyll a) sevenfold in treatment compared to reference systems. In response, fish laid more eggs and survival of age-0 fish was enhanced, both of which contributed to a more than fivefold increase in total number of age-0 fish that survived to the end of the growing season in treatment versus reference systems. A complementary enclosure experiment suggested that enhanced growth and decreased susceptibility to starvation contributes to the greater survival of age-0 fish when food resources are increased. Furthermore, overwinter mortality of age-0 fathead minnows in experimental ponds was strongly size-selective; no fish smaller than 20 mm survived winter. Because of these effects on egg production and growth and survival of age-0 fish, environmental changes predicted for the Boreal Plains could significantly alter the dynamics of fish populations.

Notes: Week 4: Land to Lake; Through experimental enrichments, this paper clearly shows the effects of increased nutrient enrichment on multiple trophic levels of an ecosystem ultimately leading to large increases in fecundity and a fivefold increase in survival of fathead minnows at the end of the growing system.

URL: <Go to ISI>://000177395100002

Author Address: Tonn, WM

Univ Alberta, Dept Biol Sci, Edmonton, AB T6G 2E9, Canada

Univ Alberta, Dept Biol Sci, Edmonton, AB T6G 2E9, Canada

Language: English

Reference Type: Journal Article

Record Number: 27

Author: Oliveira, A. C. B.; Soares, M. G. M.; Martinelli, L. A.; Moreira, M. Z.

Year: 2006

Title: Carbon sources of fish in an Amazonian floodplain lake

Journal: Aquatic Sciences

Volume: 68

Issue: 2

Pages: 229-238

Date: Jun

Short Title: Carbon sources of fish in an Amazonian floodplain lake

Alternate Journal: Aquat. Sci.

Accession Number: ISI:000238454000009

Keywords: carbon

nitrogen

food source

feeding habits

Amazon floodplain

stable isotopes

models

Abstract: In a tropical floodplain lake in central Amazon (L. Camaleao), we investigated seasonal shifts in primary carbon sources for commercially important fish species over an hydrological cycle. Carbon and nitrogen stable isotope and stomach content analyses were conducted to investigate the feeding preferences of six species with different feeding habits: Cichla monoculus (piscivorous species), Schizodon fasciatus (herbivorous), Prochilodus nigricans (detritivorous), and the omnivorous species Triportheus angulatus, Colossoma macropomum and Mylossoma duriventre. Stomach content and isotopic analyses exhibited a high seasonal variation for four out of the six species. The dominant food items were fruits and seeds, plant material, zooplankton and aquatic and terrestrial insects. Over the hydrological cycle, C-3 plants were the major carbon source for all fish species. In addition, seston and aquatic C-4 macrophytes were very important carbon sources for most species. Our findings underpin the complex trophic linkages between floodplain lakes and the aquatic terrestrial transition zone as postulated by the Flood Pulse Concept.

Notes: Week 4: Land to Lake; Times Cited: 0

Cited Reference Count: 32

Cited References:

ADIS J, 2001, ISOT ENVIRON HEALT S, V37, P193

ARAUJOLIMA CAR, 1986, SCIENCE, V234, P256

ARAUJOLIMA CAR, 1998, OS FRUTOS TAMBAQUI E

ARAUJOLIMA CARM, 1998, PROC INT ASSOC THE 5, V26, P2177

BAYLEY PB, 1983, THESIS DALHOUSIE U H

BENEDITOCECILIO E, 2000, FISHERIES MANAGEMENT, V7, P1

BENEDITOCECILIO E, 2002, J FISH BIOL, V60, P1603

CERDEIRA RGP, 1997, ACTA AMAZONICA, V27, P213

DEOLIVEIRA ACB, 2003, THESIS CENA PIRACICA

FORSBERG BR, 1993, ECOLOGY, V74, P643

GOULDING M, 1980, FISHES FOREST EXPLOR

HAMILTON SK, 1992, OECOLOGIA, V89, P324

HOWARDWILLIAMS C, 1977, ARCH HYDROBIOL, V79, P449

HYSLOP EJ, 1980, J FISH BIOL, V17, P411

JUNK WJ, IN PRESS VERH INTERN

JUNK WJ, 1989, CANADIAN SPECIAL PUB, V106, P110

JUNK WJ, 1997, ECOL STUD, V126, P385

JUNK WJ, 2004, RAP PUBLICATION, P117

LEWIS WM, 2001, J N AM BENTHOL SOC, V20, P241

LOWEMCCONNELL RH, 1964, J LINN SOC LOND ZOOL, V45, P103

MELACK JM, 1999, BIOGEOCHEMISTRY AMAZ, P1

MERONA B, 1993, AMAZONIANA, V12, P415

PEARSON SF, 2000, OECOLOGIA, V135, P516

PHILLIPS DL, 2002, OECOLOGIA, V130, P114

POST DM, 2002, ECOLOGY, V83, P703

RUFFINO ML, 1994, ACTA BIOL VENEZ, V15, P37

SAINTPAUL U, 2000, ENVIRON BIOL FISH, V57, P235

SILVA JAM, 2000, REV BRAS BIOL, V60, P599

SOARES MGM, 1986, AMAZONIANA, V9, P511

WANTZEN KM, 2002, AQUAT SCI, V64, P239

YAMAMOTO KC, 2004, ACTA AMAZONICA, V34, P653

ZAR JH, 1996, BIOSTATISTICAL ANAL

English

Article

AQUAT SCI

055ME

URL: <Go to ISI>://000238454000009

Author Address: Univ Fed Amazonas, Dept Ciencias Pesqueiras, BR-69077000 Manaus, Amazonas, Brazil. Inst Nacl de Pesquisas da Amazonia, BR-69011090 Manaus, Amazonas, Brazil. Univ Sao Paulo, Ctr Energia Nucl Agr, BR-13470900 Piracicaba, SP, Brazil.

Oliveira, ACB, Univ Fed Amazonas, Dept Ciencias Pesqueiras, BR-69077000 Manaus, Amazonas, Brazil.

acbolive@ufam.edu.br

Reference Type: Journal Article

Record Number: 26

Author: Cecilio, E. B.; Pereira, A. L.; Sakuragui, C. M.

Year: 2004

Title: Effect of size on the energy acquired in species of the fish from a neotropical reservoir, Brazil

Journal: Environmental Biology of Fishes

Volume: 71

Issue: 4

Pages: 313-320

Date: Dec

Short Title: Effect of size on the energy acquired in species of the fish from a neotropical reservoir, Brazil

Alternate Journal: Environ. Biol. Fishes

Accession Number: ISI:000225323900001

Keywords: stable isotope

Leporinus friderici

ontogeny

isotope analysis

stable-isotopes

carbon-sources

food webs

delta-c-13

amazon

patterns

diet

Abstract: In this paper we analysed autotrophic sources of the carbon (delta(13)C) and the trophic position (delta(15)N) of Leporinus friderici in the influence area of Corumba Reservoir, Brazil. We collected samples of muscles of fish from different sizes riparian vegetation, C-4 grasses, zooplankton, periphyton and particulate organic carbon (POC). There were significant differences for the carbon isotope proportion found in muscles of L. friderici in the different size groups analysed. The highest values of delta(13)C recorded for middle sized individuals is attributed to the large contribution of C-4 plants in their diet. Small individuals sampled upstream also receive similar contribution from C-4 plants. In contrast the same size group sampled downstream from the reservoir, has a much smaller of C-4 plants. The delta(13)C negative character of small individuals from downstream is due to the larger contribution of C-3 plants (except periphyton). At larger sizes we found intermediate delta(13)C values. The delta(15)N proportions we found for each size group were not significantly different, however we found decreasing mean values with increasing size. The trophic level calculated from the dietary data was higher than that found with the delta(13\)C concentration in the muscle, except for small individuals, when the values were equal.

Notes: Week 4: Land to Lake; Times Cited: 0

Cited Reference Count: 35

English

Article

ENVIRON BIOL FISH

874AS

URL: <Go to ISI>://000225323900001

Author Address: Univ Estadual Maringa, Dept Biol, Curso Posgrad Ecol Ambientes Agua Doce, BR-87020900 Maringa, Parana, Brazil.

Cecilio, EB, Univ Estadual Maringa, Dept Biol, Curso Posgrad Ecol Ambientes Agua Doce, Av Colombo 5790, BR-87020900 Maringa, Parana, Brazil.

eva@nupelia.uem.br

Reference Type: Journal Article

Record Number: 53

Author: Campbell, L.; Hecky, R. E.; Dixon, D. G.; Chapman, L. J.

Year: 2006

Title: Food web structure and mercury transfer in two contrasting Ugandan highland crater lakes (East Africa)

Journal: African Journal of Ecology

Volume: 44

Issue: 3

Pages: 337-346

Date: Sep

Short Title: Food web structure and mercury transfer in two contrasting Ugandan highland crater lakes (East Africa)

Alternate Journal: Afr. J. Ecol.

Accession Number: ISI:000240034500004

Keywords: haplochromine cichlids

mercury

Nile perch

stable nitrogen and carbon

isotopes

tilapia

chain structure

winam gulfs

fresh-water

fish

victoria

methylmercury

bioaccumulation

accumulation

organisms

napoleon

Abstract: Volcanic crater lakes scattered throughout western Uganda are important local sources of water and fish. Two representative but contrasting crater lakes near the Kibale National Park were sampled in 2000; the hyper-eutrophic Lake Saka, which is highly affected by agricultural practices, and the mesotrophic Lake Nkuruba that is still surrounded by intact forest. The food web structures in these two lakes were assessed using stable nitrogen (delta N-15) and carbon (delta C-13) isotope analyses, and the mercury (THg) transfer patterns were quantified. The delta N-15 results indicate that food webs in both lakes are abbreviated, with only one to two trophic levels from primary consumers. The Lake Saka biota had distinctively enriched delta C-13 values compared with those in Lake Nkuruba, which may be due to C-12-limited phytoplankton blooms in this lake. In Lake Nkuruba, two introduced tilapiine species and the introduced guppy Poecilia reticulata fed predominantly upon invertebrates and decomposed terrestrial plant material. In Lake Saka, the introduced Nile perch Lates niloticus appeared to occupy the top trophic position, but stable isotope values of the endemic haplochromine cichlids exclude those as Nile perch prey items. THg was found to biomagnify through the food web, reaching highest concentrations in P. reticulata in Nkuruba, which tended to be higher than for L. niloticus in Saka, suggesting increased bioavailability of THg in Nkuruba. Maximum THg concentrations in fish never approached WHO recommended guidelines (200 ng g(-1)) designed to protect at-risk groups.

Notes: Week 4: Land to Lake; Times Cited: 0

Cited Reference Count: 38

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*REP UG, 1997, KAB DISTR ENV PROF

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BEADLE LC, 1981, INLAND WATERS TROPIC

BLOOM NS, 1992, CAN J FISH AQUAT SCI, V49, P1010

BOWLES KC, 2001, CAN J FISH AQUAT SCI, V58, P888

CABANA G, 1994, CAN J FISH AQUAT SCI, V51, P381

CABANA G, 1994, NATURE, V372, P255

CAMPBELL LM, 2003, ENVIRON POLLUT, V125, P281

CAMPBELL LM, 2003, J GREAT LAKES RES S2, V29, P243

CAMPBELL LM, 2003, J GREAT LAKES RES S2, V29, P267

CAMPBELL LM, 2003, J TOXICOL ENV HEAL B, V6, P325

CAMPBELL LM, 2004, AFR J AQUAT SCI, V29, P91

CAMPBELL LM, 2005, SCI TOTAL ENVIRON, V321, P247

CHAPMAN CA, 2002, COMP BIOCHEM PHYS A, V133, P861

CHAPMAN LJ, 1998, HYDROBIOLOGIA, V385, P201

CRISMAN TL, 2001, INT VER THEOR ANGEW, V27, P3474

ERICKSEN JA, 2003, ATMOS ENVIRON, V37, P1613

FOGEL ML, 1993, ORGANIC GEOCHEMISTRY

HECKY RE, 1991, ADV MERCURY TOXICOLO, P33

HECKY RE, 1995, J N AM BENTHOL SOC, V14, P631

IKINGURA JR, 2003, SCI TOTAL ENVIRON, V304, P355

KIDD KA, 1998, ENV TOXICOLOGY

KIDD KA, 2003, J GREAT LAKES RES S2, V29, P258

KIREMIRE BT, 1998, 938483 MAK U DEP CHE

KIZITO YS, 1993, LIMNOLOGICA, V23, P335

LASORSA B, 1995, WATER AIR SOIL POLL, V80, P905

MAKUNDI IN, 2001, J ENVIRON SCI HEAL A, V36, P909

MEILI M, 1991, WATER AIR SOIL POLL, V56, P439

MEILI M, 1997, MET IONS BIOL SYST, V34, P21

MELACK JM, 1978, ARCH HYDROBIOL, V84, P430

MUGGIDE R, 2001, THEISS U WATERLOO WA

OBEREMM A, 1999, ENVIRON TOXICOL, V14, P77

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PIETSCH C, 2001, ENVIRON TOXICOL, V16, P535

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STLOUIS VL, 1994, CAN J FISH AQUAT SCI, V51, P1065

English

Article

AFR J ECOL

077MW

URL: <Go to ISI>://000240034500004

Author Address: Queens Univ, Sch Environm Studies, Kingston, ON K7L 3N6, Canada. Univ Waterloo, Dept Biol, Waterloo, ON N2L 3G1, Canada. Univ Florida, Dept Zool, Gainesville, FL 32611 USA. Wildlife Conservat Soc, Bronx, NY USA.

Campbell, L, McGill Univ, Dept Biol, Montreal, PQ H3A 1B1, Canada.

campbelm@biology.queensu.ca

Reference Type: Journal Article

Record Number: 57

Author: Maguire, C. M.; Grey, J.

Year: 2006

Title: Determination of zooplankton dietary shift following a zebra mussel invasion, as indicated by stable isotope analysis

Journal: Freshwater Biology

Volume: 51

Issue: 7

Pages: 1310-1319

Date: Jul

Short Title: Determination of zooplankton dietary shift following a zebra mussel invasion, as indicated by stable isotope analysis

Alternate Journal: Freshw. Biol.

Accession Number: ISI:000238185600010

Keywords: archived

carbon

Lough Erne

stable isotope analysis

time series

dreissena-polymorpha

saginaw bay

lake huron

community structure

nitrogen isotopes

trophic levels

hudson river

food-web

carbon

delta-n-15

Abstract: 1. Freshwaters with established zebra mussel populations typically exhibit reduced chlorophyll a concentrations, but the subsequent impacts upon zooplankton are varied. We hypothesised that in an invaded system with less phytoplankton but available allochthonous subsidy, zooplankton may utilise greater proportions of allochthonous matter and that this could be traced by analysis of stable carbon and nitrogen isotopes. 2. We used archived zooplankton samples which had been consistently preserved and which spanned the invasion period of an Irish lake, Lough Erne. Increasing reliance upon allochthonous resources would be reflected in an increase in zooplankton delta C-13 away from phytoplankton which is relatively C-13-depleted in humic-stained L. Erne. 3. Analysis of a series of monthly samples (1992-96, 1999-2003) revealed significant C-13-enrichment of mixed zooplankton, Eudiaptomus gracilis and Mysis relicta post-zebra mussel invasion; delta C-13 values approached -27 parts per thousand typical of terrestrial organic matter during spring and autumn. Changes in zooplankton elemental composition also suggested a switch to a lower quality diet. However, analysis of zooplankton delta C-13 from an annual, single-point (June) time series spanning 28 years (1977-2004) suggested that when phytoplankton was sufficiently abundant, zooplankton used this resource and their delta C-13 remained relatively constant around -32 parts per thousand. Post-invasion enrichment of mysid delta N-15 may reflect a shift towards carnivory, but planktonic prey abundance was reduced and a subsequent loss of body condition could result in the same isotopic changes. 4. Our results indicate that in L. Erne, when phytoplankton was reduced by zebra mussel filtering, zooplankton assimilated more from allochthonous matter, and potentially sustained a higher population than would otherwise be possible. Thus, zebra mussel impact on foodweb structure and function is likely to be different in lakes subject to varying subsidy levels.

Notes: Week 4: Land to Lake; Times Cited: 0

Cited Reference Count: 38

Cited References:

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BRIDGEMAN TB, 1995, J GREAT LAKES RES, V21, P567

CABANA G, 1996, P NATL ACAD SCI USA, V93, P10844

CARACO NF, 2000, ENVIRON SCI TECHNOL, V34, P1204

CONROY JD, 2005, FRESHWATER BIOL, V50, P1146

DENIRO MJ, 1977, SCIENCE, V197, P261

FEUCHTMAYR H, 2003, RAPID COMMUN MASS SP, V17, P2605

FRY B, 1984, CONTRIB MAR SCI, V27, P13

GARDNER WS, 1995, J GREAT LAKES RES, V21, P529

GREY J, 2000, OECOLOGIA, V123, P232

GREY J, 2001, LIMNOL OCEANOGR, V46, P505

HESSEN DO, 1990, LIMNOL OCEANOGR, V35, P84

HIRSCH RM, 1982, WATER RESOUR RES, V18, P107

HIRSCH RM, 1984, WATER RESOUR RES, V20, P727

IDRISI N, 2001, CAN J FISH AQUAT SCI, V58, P1430

JACK JD, 2000, FRESHWATER BIOL, V44, P569

JONES RI, 1999, OIKOS, V86, P97

LOWE RL, 1995, J GREAT LAKES RES, V21, P558

MAGUIRE CM, 2003, AQUATIC INVADERS, V14, P2

MAGUIRE CM, 2005, FRESHWATER FORUM, V24, P38

MAGUIRE CM, 2005, MANAGEMENT IMPACTS

MATTHEWS B, 2003, LIMNOL OCEANOGR, V48, P1977

MCCUTCHAN JH, 2003, OIKOS, V102, P378

MITCHELL MJ, 1996, CANADIAN J FISHERIES, V53, P1145

MULLIN MM, 1984, LIMNOL OCEANOGR, V29, P1267

OGAWA NO, 2001, LIMNOL OCEANOGR, V46, P1228

PACE ML, 1998, FRESHWATER BIOL, V39, P103

PACE ML, 2003, NATURE, V427, P240

PEL R, 2004, FRESHWATER BIOL, V49, P546

PERGA ME, 2003, J FISH BIOL, V63, P1197

RICCIARDI A, 2003, FRESHWATER BIOL, V48, P972

ROSELL R, 1999, BIOL ENV P ROYAL I B, V98, P191

SALONEN K, 1980, HYDROBIOLOGIA, V72, P281

SCRIMGEOUR CM, 1995, ISOT ENVIRON HEALT S, V31, P107

SWEETING CJ, 2004, RAPID COMMUN MASS SP, V18, P2587

VANDERZANDEN MJ, 1999, NATURE, V401, P464

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WAINRIGHT SC, 1993, MAR BIOL, V115, P481

English

Article

FRESHWATER BIOL

051UC

URL: <Go to ISI>://000238185600010

Author Address: Queens Univ Belfast, Aquat Syst Grp, Agr & Environm Sci Div, Belfast BT7 1NN, Antrim, North Ireland. Max Planck Inst Limnol, Dept Physiol Ecol, D-2320 Plon, Germany.

Grey, J, Univ London Queen Mary & Westfield Coll, Sch Biol & Chem Sci, Mile End Rd, London E1 4NS, England.

j.grey@qmul.ac.uk

Reference Type: Journal Article

Record Number: 56

Author: Bade, D. L.; Pace, M. L.; Cole, J. J.; Carpenter, S. R.

Year: 2006

Title: Can algal photosynthetic inorganic carbon isotope fractionation be predicted in lakes using existing models?

Journal: Aquatic Sciences

Volume: 68

Issue: 2

Pages: 142-153

Date: Jun

Short Title: Can algal photosynthetic inorganic carbon isotope fractionation be predicted in lakes using existing models?

Alternate Journal: Aquat. Sci.

Accession Number: ISI:000238454000003

Keywords: photosynthetic fractionation

carbon stable isotopes

algae

particulate organic carbon

lakes

sedimentary organic-matter

stable carbon

growth-rate

marine-phytoplankton

plankton delta-c-13

co2 concentration

food-web

zooplankton

ratios

metabolism

Abstract: Differential fractionation of inorganic carbon stable isotopes during photosynthesis is an important cause of variability in algal carbon isotope signatures. Several physiological models have been proposed to explain algal photosynthetic fractionation factors (epsilon(p)). These models generally consider CO2 concentration, growth rate, or cell morphometry and have been supported by empirical evidence from laboratory cultures. Here, we explore the applicability of these models to a broad range of lakes with mixed phytoplankton communities. Understanding this fractionation is necessary for using carbon stable isotopes for studies ranging from food webs to paleolimnology. In our largest comparative study, values of delta(13) C-POC ranged from -35.1 parts per thousand to -21.3 parts per thousand. Using several methods to obtain an algal isotopic signature, we found high variability in fractionation among lakes. There was no relationship between epsilon(p) and one of the most important predictors in existing models, pCO(2). A whole-lake inorganic (13) C addition was used to create distinct algal isotope signatures to aid in examining epsilon(p). Measurements and a statistical model from the isotope addition revealed that algal fractionation was often low (0-15 parts per thousand).

Notes: Week 4: Land to Lake; Times Cited: 0

Cited Reference Count: 43

Cited References:

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BADE DL, 2004, THESIS U WISCONSIN M

BADE DL, 2006, J GEOPHYS RES-OCEANS, V111

BIDIGARE RR, 1991, ANAL CHEM, V63, P130

BRENNER M, 1999, J PALEOLIMNOL, V22, P205

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BURKHARDT S, 1999, MAR ECOL-PROG SER, V184, P31

CARPENTER SR, 1993, TROPHIC CASCADE LAKE

COLE JJ, 1994, SCIENCE, V265, P1568

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DELGIORGIO PA, 1996, LIMNOL OCEANOGR, V41, P359

FALKOWSKI PG, 1991, J PLANTKON RES, V13, S21

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English

Article

AQUAT SCI

055ME

URL: <Go to ISI>://000238454000003

Author Address: Univ Wisconsin, Ctr Limnol, Madison, WI USA.

Bade, DL, Inst Ecosyst Studies, POB AB 65 Sharon Turnpike, Millbrook, NY 12545 USA.

BadeD@ecostudies.org

Reference Type: Journal Article

Record Number: 60

Author: Pulido-Villena, E.; Reche, I.; Morales-Baquero, R.

Year: 2005

Title: Food web reliance on allochthonous carbon in two high mountain lakes with contrasting catchments: a stable isotope approach

Journal: Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences

Volume: 62

Issue: 11

Pages: 2640-2648

Date: Nov

Short Title: Food web reliance on allochthonous carbon in two high mountain lakes with contrasting catchments: a stable isotope approach

Alternate Journal: Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci.

Accession Number: ISI:000233798300021

Keywords: dissolved organic-matter

fresh-water ecosystems

growth-rate

inorganic carbon

oligotrophic lake

co2 concentration

bering-sea

loch-ness

phytoplankton

fractionation

Abstract: The carbon isotopic signature (delta(13)C) of dissolved inorganic carbon and food web components was examined in two high mountain lakes. Rio Seco Lake is partially surrounded by alpine meadows and has temporal inlets, whereas La Caldera Lake is located on rocky terrain and does not receive inputs from runoff. We assessed whether these contrasting catchments involve differences in the isotopic signature of the food web components and then in the reliance on terrestrial carbon. The delta(13)C of dissolved inorganic carbon was not significantly different between lakes and reflected an atmospheric gas exchange origin. Unexpectedly, bulk particulate organic matter showed enriched delta(13)C values in both lakes, suggesting a terrestrial vegetation influence. Bulk particulate organic matter was exploited mostly by the cladoceran Daphnia pulicaria, whereas the copepod Mixodiaptomus laciniatus was C-13 depleted relative to particulate organic matter, indicating a selective feeding on an isotopically lighter source, likely phytoplankton. The results obtained show that, despite contrasting catchments, the food web of both lakes might be partially supported by terrestrial carbon for which utilization is species specific.

Notes: Week 4: Land to Lake; Times Cited: 0

Cited Reference Count: 53

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English

Article

CAN J FISHERIES AQUAT SCI

991FS

URL: <Go to ISI>://000233798300021

Author Address: Univ Granada, Fac Ciencias, Dept Biol Anim & Ecol, E-18071 Granada, Spain. Univ Granada, Inst Agua, E-18071 Granada, Spain.

Pulido-Villena, E, CNRS, UMR 7093, Lab Oceanog Villefranche sur Mer, Caserne Nicolas,Quai Darse,BP 8, F-06238 Villefranche Sur Mer, France.

elvirap@ugr.es

Reference Type: Journal Article

Record Number: 55

Author: Lennon, J. T.; Faiia, A. M.; Feng, X. H.; Cottingham, K. L.

Year: 2006

Title: Relative importance of CO2 recycling and CH4 pathways in lake food webs along a dissolved organic carbon gradient

Journal: Limnology and Oceanography

Volume: 51

Issue: 4

Pages: 1602-1613

Date: Jul

Short Title: Relative importance of CO2 recycling and CH4 pathways in lake food webs along a dissolved organic carbon gradient

Alternate Journal: Limnol. Oceanogr.

Accession Number: ISI:000239262200005

Keywords: stable-isotope analysis

fresh-water

terrestrial support

seasonal-changes

zooplankton

methane

bacteria

fractionation

metabolism

c-13

Abstract: Terrestrial ecosystems export large quantities of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) to aquatic ecosystems. This DOC can serve as a resource for heterotrophic bacteria and influence whether lakes function as sources or sinks of atmospheric CO2. However, it remains unclear as to how terrestrial carbon moves through lake food webs. We addressed this topic by conducting a comparative lake survey in the northeastern U.S. along a gradient of terrestrial-derived DOC. We used naturally occurring carbon stable isotopes Of CO2, particulate organic matter (POM), and crustacean zooplankton, as well as gas measurements and culture-independent assessments of microbial community composition to make inferences about the flow of terrestrial carbon in lake food webs. Stable isotope ratios of POM and zooplankton decreased with DOC and were often depleted in C-13 relative to terrestrial carbon, suggesting the importance of an isotopically light carbon source. It has been proposed that the incorporation of biogenic methane (CH4) into plankton food webs would account for such trends in stable isotope ratios, but we found weak evidence for this hypothesis, on the basis of relationships of CH4, methanogenic archaebacteria, and methanotrophic bacteria in our lakes. Instead, our results are consistent with the view that phytoplankton increase their use of heterotrophically respired CO2 with increasing concentrations of terrestrialderived DOC. The effect of this CO2 recycling can be detected in the stable isotope composition of crustacean zooplankton, suggesting that the direct transfer of terrestrial DOC inputs to higher trophic levels may be relatively inefficient.

Notes: Week 4: Land to Lake; Times Cited: 0

Cited Reference Count: 56

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English

Article

LIMNOL OCEANOGR

066WW

URL: <Go to ISI>://000239262200005

Author Address: Dartmouth Coll, Dept Biol Sci, Hanover, NH 03755 USA. Dartmouth Coll, Dept Earth Sci, Hanover, NH 03755 USA.

Lennon, JT, Michigan State Univ, Kellogg Biol Stn, Hickory Corners, MI 49060 USA.

lennonja@msu.edu

Reference Type: Journal Article

Record Number: 54

Author: Dobson, A.; Lodge, D.; Alder, J.; Cumming, G. S.; Keymer, J.; McGlade, J.; Mooney, H.; Rusak, J. A.; Sala, O.; Wolters, V.; Wall, D.; Winfree, R.; Xenopoulos, M. A.

Year: 2006

Title: Habitat loss, trophic collapse, and the decline of ecosystem services

Journal: Ecology

Volume: 87

Issue: 8

Pages: 1915-1924

Date: Aug

Short Title: Habitat loss, trophic collapse, and the decline of ecosystem services

Alternate Journal: Ecology

Accession Number: ISI:000239833400006

Keywords: biodiversity

conservation

ecosystem function

ecosystem services

food web

Little Rock Lake

species-area

species loss

trophic collapse

food-chain length

species-area relationship

experimental

acidification

functional diversity

biodiversity

extinction

ecology

lake

communities

islands

Abstract: The provisioning of sustaining goods and services that we obtain from natural ecosystems is a strong economic justification for the conservation of biological diversity. Understanding the relationship between these goods and services and changes in the size, arrangement, and quality of natural habitats is a fundamental challenge of natural resource management. In this paper, we describe a new approach to assessing the implications of habitat loss for loss of ecosystem services by examining how the provision of different ecosystem services is dominated by species from different trophic levels. We then develop a mathematical model that illustrates how declines in habitat quality and quantity lead to sequential losses of trophic diversity. The model suggests that declines in the provisioning of services will initially be slow but will then accelerate as species from higher trophic levels are lost at faster rates. Comparison of these patterns with empirical examples of ecosystem collapse (and assembly) suggest similar patterns occur in natural systems impacted by anthropogenic change. In general, ecosystem goods and services provided by species in the upper trophic levels will be lost before those provided by species lower in the food chain. The decrease in terrestrial food chain length predicted by the model parallels that observed in the oceans following overexploitation. The large area requirements of higher trophic levels make them as susceptible to extinction as they are in marine systems where they are systematically exploited. Whereas the traditional species-area curve suggests that 50% of species are driven extinct by an order-of-magnitude decline in habitat abundance, this magnitude of loss may represent the loss of an entire trophic level and all the ecosystem services performed by the species on this trophic level.

Notes: Week 4: Land to Lake; Times Cited: 0

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English

Article

ECOLOGY

074SZ

URL: <Go to ISI>://000239833400006

Author Address: Princeton Univ, Dept Ecol & Evolut Biol, Princeton, NJ 08544 USA. Univ Notre Dame, Dept Biol Sci, Notre Dame, IN 46556 USA. Univ British Columbia, Fisheries Ctr, Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z4, Canada. Univ Cape Town, Percy Fitzpatrick Inst African Ornithol, Cape Town, South Africa. Stanford Univ, Dept Biol Sci, Herrin Labs, Stanford, CA 94305 USA. Brown Univ, Dept Ecol & Evolut Biol, Providence, RI 02912 USA. Univ Giessen, Dept Anim Ecol, D-35392 Giessen, Germany. Colorado State Univ, Nat Resource Ecol Lab, Ft Collins, CO 80523 USA.

Dobson, A, Princeton Univ, Dept Ecol & Evolut Biol, Princeton, NJ 08544 USA.

andy@eno.princeton.edu

Reference Type: Journal Article

Record Number: 59

Author: Marburg, A. E.; Turner, M. G.; Kratz, T. K.

Year: 2006

Title: Natural and anthropogenic variation in coarse wood among and within lakes

Journal: Journal of Ecology

Volume: 94

Issue: 3

Pages: 558-568

Date: May

Short Title: Natural and anthropogenic variation in coarse wood among and within lakes

Alternate Journal: J. Ecol.

Accession Number: ISI:000236717700005

Keywords: coarse woody debris

coarse woody habitat

cross boundary transfer

land use

land-water interaction

littoral habitat

near-shore ecology

residential development

riparian forest

subsidies

north temperate lakes

land-cover change

residential development

ontogenetic niche

hardwood forests

old-growth

debris

wisconsin

usa

ecosystems

Abstract: Residential development is often concentrated near aquatic ecosystems and understanding riparian-littoral zone interactions is therefore critical for assessing its ecological effects. Introduction of wood from riparian forests into the littoral zone, where it becomes habitat for aquatic organisms, is an important, but poorly understood, process. We related the density of littoral coarse wood both among and within 45 lakes in Vilas County, Wisconsin, USA, to forest structure, abiotic drivers and land use. Among all lakes and among a subset of low-development lakes, the best predictor of the density of littoral coarse wood was the density of riparian coarse wood. At the within-lake (site) level, two alternative models explain variability in coarse wood abundance: as a function of exposure to wind and amount of riparian coarse wood or as a function of exposure to wind and land-use intensity. Both among and within lakes, areas more modified by humans had a lower density of littoral coarse wood. Conversely, areas with little (current) human impact were tremendously variable; some sites and lakes had abundant wood and others had virtually none. Contrary to previous studies, there was no relationship between living trees and coarse wood density, suggesting that riparian and littoral coarse wood densities may be strongly influenced by past disturbance, both human and natural. This study highlights the importance of cross boundary subsidies in understanding the impact of development on ecosystems. The concentration of residential development at the boundary between terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems appears to reduce the flow of coarse wood from forests to lakes. Loss of this resource may have negative consequences for lake biota and the aquatic food web.

Notes: Week 4: Land to Lake; Times Cited: 0

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English

Article

J ECOL

031PY

URL: <Go to ISI>://000236717700005

Author Address: Univ Wisconsin, Dept Zool, Madison, WI 53706 USA. Univ Wisconsin, Ctr Limnol, Madison, WI 53706 USA.

Marburg, AE, Univ Wisconsin, Dept Zool, Madison, WI 53706 USA.

marburg@wisc.edu

Reference Type: Journal Article

Record Number: 209

Author: Vadeboncoeur, Y.; McCann, K. S.; VanderZanden, M. J.; Rasmussen, J. B.

Year: 2005

Title: Effects of multi-chain omnivory on the strength of trophic control in lakes

Journal: Ecosystems

Volume: 8

Issue: 6

Pages: 682-693

Date: Sep

Short Title: Effects of multi-chain omnivory on the strength of trophic control in lakes

ISSN: 1432-9840

Accession Number: ISI:000232405300007

Keywords: top down control

omnivory

littoral-pelagic coupling

consumer-resource models

trophic cascades

food webs

stable-isotope analyses

top-down control

food webs

fresh-water

temperate lakes

benthic pathways

nutrient state

fish

cascades

ecosystems

Abstract: Omnivory has been implicated in both diffusing and intensifying the effects of consumer control in food chains. Some have postulated that the strong, community level, top-down control apparent in lakes is not expressed in terrestrial systems because terrestrial food webs are reticulate, with high degrees of omnivory and diverse plant communities. In contrast, lake food webs are depicted as simple linear chains based on phytoplankton-derived energy. Here, we explore the dynamic implications of recent evidence showing that attached algal (periphyton) carbon contributes substantially to lake primary and secondary productivity, including fish production. Periphyton production represents a cryptic energy source in oligotrophic and mesotrophic lakes that is overlooked by previous theoretical treatment of trophic control in lakes. Literature data demonstrate that many fish are multi-chain omnivores, exploiting food chains based on both littoral and pelagic primary producers. Using consumer-resource models, we examine how multiple food chains affect fourth-level trophic control across nutrient gradients in lakes. The models predict that the stabilizing effects of linked food chains are strongest in lakes where both phytoplankton and periphyton contribute substantially to production of higher trophic levels. This stabilization enables a strong and persistent top down control on the pelagic food chain in mesotrophic lakes. The extension of classical trophic cascade theory to incorporate more complex food web structures driven by multi-chain predators provides a conceptual framework for analysis of reticulate food webs in ecosystems.

Notes: Week 5: Benthic-Pelagic; 971SP

Times Cited:0

Cited References Count:79

Freshwater, Consumer-resource models demonstrate that a theoretical generalist predator that feeds at the top of 4 level food chain that has a benthic-littoral chain and pelagic chain can 'stabilize' top down control. In other words, you get a broader range of medium trophic control indexes at middle levels of nutrient enrichment than if you had the pelagic chain alone.

URL: <Go to ISI>://000232405300007

Author Address: Vadeboncoeur, Y

McGill Univ, Dept Biol, 1205 Doctor Penfield Ave, Montreal, PQ H3A 1B1, Canada

McGill Univ, Dept Biol, Montreal, PQ H3A 1B1, Canada
Univ Wisconsin, Ctr Limnol, Madison, WI 53076 USA
Wright State Univ, Dept Biol Sci, Dayton, OH 45435 USA
Univ Lethbridge, Dept Biol Sci, Lethbridge, AB T1K 3M4, Canada
Univ Guelph, Dept Zool, Guelph, ON N1G 2W1, Canada

Language: English

Reference Type: Journal Article

Record Number: 65

Author: Kragh, T.; Sondergaard, M.

Year: 2004

Title: Production and bioavailability of autochthonous dissolved organic carbon: effects of mesozooplankton

Journal: Aquatic Microbial Ecology

Volume: 36

Issue: 1

Pages: 61-72

Date: Jun 24

Short Title: Production and bioavailability of autochthonous dissolved organic carbon: effects of mesozooplankton

Alternate Journal: Aquat. Microb. Ecol.

Accession Number: ISI:000222570600007

Keywords: dissolved organic carbon

dissolved organic matter

autochthonous DOC

mesozooplankton

biodegradability

mineralisation

N-rich recalcitrant

DOM

P-rich recalcitrant DOM

bacterial-growth

marine bacterioplankton

plankton communities

uv-radiation

lake water

matter

phytoplankton

dynamics

zooplankton

phosphorus

Abstract: A phytoplankton bloom and decay sequence was created in 2 laboratory containers and mesozooplankton was added to one container before the peak of algal biomass. Each day for 22 d, the net production of autochthonous dissolved organic carbon (DOC) was measured and on 5 occasions the degradation kinetics and the total pool of biodegradable DOC (BDOC) were assayed in experiments lasting 230 d. Net accumulation of new DOC was 235 and 280 muM in the containers with and without zooplankton, respectively. The best description of microbial DOC degradation was a 2-pool model and 1st order exponential decay. Without mesozooplankton present, the degradation experiments showed accumulation of a large pool of labile BDOC characterised by decay coefficients >0.2 d(-1). The least labile pools in the 2 containers had similar coefficients (average 0.02 d(-1)). The amount of newly produced recalcitrant DOC (RDOC) accounted for about 12% of new DOC. The differences observed with respect to degradation kinetics and net DOC production are explained by food web interactions and nutrient limitation. The presence of mesozooplankton resulted in high bacterial production keeping labile BDOC at low concentrations. In the container without mesozooplankton, the bacterial uptake capacity was reduced, probably by a combination of protist grazing and nutrient limitation. Consequently, about 75 muM BDOC with a half-life of less than 3 d accumulated during the experiment. Mineralisation of the accumulated dissolved organic matter (DOM) during microbial degradation in a nutrient replete environment was measured as the decrease in DOC and net mineralisation/immobilisation of inorganic N and P. The mineralisation of DOC was accompanied by low mineralisation of N and P and even immobilisation of phosphate during degradation of DOM produced in the container with mesozooplankton present. Bacterial production of DON and DOP is believed to result in a recalcitrant DOM pool enriched in N and P, and the activity of mesozooplankton seems to enhance this scenario.

Notes: Week 4: Land to Lake; Times Cited: 1

Cited Reference Count: 54

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WILLIAMS PJL, 1995, MAR CHEM, V51, P17

English

Article

AQUAT MICROB ECOL

836QM

URL: <Go to ISI>://000222570600007

Author Address: Univ Copenhagen, Freshwater Biol Lab, DK-3400 Hillerod, Denmark.

Kragh, T, Univ Copenhagen, Freshwater Biol Lab, Helsingorsgade 51, DK-3400 Hillerod, Denmark.

tkragh@bi.ku.dk

Reference Type: Journal Article

Record Number: 66

Author: Kalinowska, K.

Year: 2004

Title: Bacteria, nanoflagellates and ciliates as components of the microbial loop in three lakes of different trophic status

Journal: Polish Journal of Ecology

Volume: 52

Issue: 1

Pages: 19-34

Short Title: Bacteria, nanoflagellates and ciliates as components of the microbial loop in three lakes of different trophic status

Alternate Journal: Pol. J. Ecol.

Accession Number: ISI:000220175700002

Keywords: DOC

bacteria

nanoflagellates

ciliates

microbial loop

fluorescently labeled bacteria

fresh-water ecosystems

planktonic

food-chains

eutrophic lake

oligomesotrophic lake

zooplankton

community

protozoan bacterivory

vertical-distribution

relative

importance

seasonal dynamics

Abstract: The major components of the microbial loop (dissolved organic carbon, bacteria, nanoflagellates and ciliates) were examined in three Polish lakes (Masurian Lakeland, North-Eastern Poland): highly eutrophic (Lake Rynskie), mesotrophic (Lake Kuc) and humic, acid (Lake Smolak Duzy). Microbial loop was distinctly differentiated among studied lakes. In the eutrophic lake, the microbial loop was characterized by a wide variety of biotic components, great taxonomic, trophic and size differentiation of ciliates (dominated by bacterivorous and predatory taxa). Probably, in this lake autochthonous dissolved organic carbon (DOC) prevailed. In the mesotrophic lake, the microbial loop comprised fewer components and the taxonomic and trophic variability of ciliates (dominated mainly by bacterivorous and algivorous taxa) was smaller. This lake contained almost the same amount of DOC, but part of it was probably less available and allochthonous origin. Much of the DOC in the humic lake being poorly available (humic substances prevailed) and hence there were lower densities of bacteria and still lower of nanoflagellates and ciliates (dominated by large-sized mixotrophic and small-sized bacterivorous species). The only significant correlation between bacteria and ciliates suggests that the food chain in this lake is short and that the high concentrations of DOC of allochthonous origin are not readily assimilated. Additionally, low pH values restricted growth of the studied groups of organisms and decomposition of DOC by bacteria. The number of significant correlations differed among lakes and in different temporal scales. In the eutrophic lake the relationships were stronger in both seasonal and diel cycle. Practically no relationships were found in the humic lakes in both scales. Generally, diel correlations were stronger than those in the seasonal scale.

Notes: Week 4: Land to Lake; Times Cited: 1

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English

Article

POL J ECOL

802PP

URL: <Go to ISI>://000220175700002

Author Address: Polish Acad Sci, Ctr Ecol Res, Hydrobiol Stn, PL-11730 Mikolajki, Poland.

Kalinowska, K, Polish Acad Sci, Ctr Ecol Res, Hydrobiol Stn, Lesna 13, PL-11730 Mikolajki, Poland.

jolanta@onet.pl

Reference Type: Journal Article

Record Number: 33

Author: France, R. L.

Year: 1998

Title: Density-weighted delta C-13 analysis of detritivory and algivory in littoral macroinvertebrate communities of boreal headwater lakes

Journal: Annales Zoologici Fennici

Volume: 35

Issue: 3

Pages: 187-193

Short Title: Density-weighted delta C-13 analysis of detritivory and algivory in littoral macroinvertebrate communities of boreal headwater lakes

Alternate Journal: Ann. Zool. Fenn.

Accession Number: ISI:000077825100007

Keywords: stable-isotope analysis

food webs

energy-sources

carbon

c-13

fishes

amazon

Abstract: Investigations of the incorporation of terrestrial detritus into aquatic macroinvertebrates through delta(13)C analysis are becoming frequent for streams and wetlands, but comparatively little information exists for forest-fringed oligotrophic lakes. Although the most accurate assessment of community patterns in carbon dependency will be made through an organism density-weighted analysis of delta(13)C, this has never previoulsy been undertaken for any freshwater system. Littoral macroinvertebrates (predominantly amphipods, ephemeropterans and dipterans, as well as odonates and trichopterans) from boreal lakes in northwestern Ontario, Canada displayed ranges of 6 parts per thousand to 9 parts per thousand in delta(13)C, all centred about -26 parts per thousand. The closer agreement between the density-weighted delta(13)C distribution for these macroinvertebrates to tree rather than epilithon values, suggests that these organisms may be relying more substantially upon allochthonous detritivory than upon autochthonous algivory for energy sustenance. This finding therefore challenges the precept in some timber management guidelines that dismisses riparian trees as an important energy source for lake foodwebs.

Notes: Week 4: Land to Lake; Times Cited: 2

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English

Article

ANN ZOOL FENN

153GP

URL: <Go to ISI>://000077825100007

Author Address: Harvard Univ, Grad Sch Design, Cambridge, MA 02138 USA.

France, RL, Harvard Univ, Grad Sch Design, 48 Quincy St, Cambridge, MA 02138 USA.

Reference Type: Journal Article

Record Number: 58

Author: Goforth, R. R.; Carrnan, S. M.

Year: 2005

Title: Nearshore community characteristics related to shoreline properties in the Great Lakes

Journal: Journal of Great Lakes Research

Volume: 31

Pages: 113-128

Short Title: Nearshore community characteristics related to shoreline properties in the Great Lakes

Alternate Journal: J. Gt. Lakes Res.

Accession Number: ISI:000237404100008

Keywords: Great Lakes

nearshore ecology

biological communities

shoreline land

use

mussel dreissena-polymorpha

macroinvertebrate communities

species-diversity

fish assemblages

michigan

habitat

heterogeneity

invasion

dynamics

science

Abstract: Successful protection and restoration of Great Lakes nearshore ecosystems will likely rely on management of terrestrial resources along Great Lakes shorelines. However, relationships between biological communities and changing shoreline environmental properties are poorly understood. We sought to begin understanding the potential roles of shoreline geomorphological and land cover properties in structuring nearshore biological communities in the Laurentian Great Lakes. Despite high variability in densities (benthic macroinvertebrates and zooplankton) and catch per unit effort (CPUE, shallow water and nearshore fish) within and among lake areas, several biological community patterns emerged to suggest that nearshore aquatic communities respond to shoreline features via the influences of these features on nearshore substrate composition and stability. Benthic macroinvertebrate densities were not different between shoreline types, although they were generally lower at nearshore sites with less stable substrates. Shallow water fish CPUE and zooplankton densities were generally lower for nearshore areas adjacent to developed mid-bluff shorelines and sites characterized by less stable substrates. Larger fish CPUE appeared to be unresponsive to local shoreline and substrate properties of nearshore zones. The emergence of these patterns despite significant ecological differences among lake areas (e.g., productivity, community composition, etc.) suggests that shoreline development may have comparable influences on nearshore ecosystems throughout the Great Lakes, providing a terrestrial-based indicator of relative nearshore biological and ecological integrity.

Notes: Week 4: Land to Lake; Times Cited: 2

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KARR JR, 1981, FISHERIES, V6, P21

KELSO JRM, 1996, CAN J FISH AQUAT S1, V53, P1

KUHNS LA, 1999, J GREAT LAKES RES, V25, P910

LANE JA, 1996, 2338 FISH AQ SCI

LANE JA, 1996, CANADIAN MANUSCRIPT

LESLIE JK, 1993, CAN J ZOOL, V71, P1153

MACKEY SD, 2005, J GREAT LAKES RES S1, V31, P75

MADENJIAN CP, 2002, CAN J FISH AQUAT SCI, V59, P736

MINNS CK, 1994, CAN J FISH AQUAT SCI, V51, P1804

RICCIARDI A, 1997, CAN J FISH AQUAT SCI, V54, P2596

STEEDMAN RJ, 1987, CAN J FISH AQUAT S2, V44, P95

STEWART TW, 1998, J GREAT LAKES RES, V24, P868

THAYER SA, 1997, CAN J FISH AQUAT SCI, V54, P1903

THOMA RF, 1999, ASSESSING SUSTAINABI, P417

WISENDEN PA, 1995, CAN J ZOOL, V73, P1438

English

Article

J GREAT LAKES RES

Suppl. 1

040TU

URL: <Go to ISI>://000237404100008

Author Address: Michigan State Univ, Dept Fisheries & Wildlife, Michigan Nat Features Inventory, E Lansing, MI 48824 USA. New Mexico Dept Game & Fish, Conservat Serv Div, Santa Fe, NM 87504 USA.

Goforth, RR, Michigan State Univ, Dept Fisheries & Wildlife, Michigan Nat Features Inventory, 13 Nat Resources Bldg, E Lansing, MI 48824 USA.

goforthr@msu.edu

Reference Type: Journal Article

Record Number: 62

Author: Hadwen, W. L.; Bunn, S. E.

Year: 2004

Title: Tourists increase the contribution of autochthonous carbon to littoral zone food webs in oligotrophic dune lakes

Journal: Marine and Freshwater Research

Volume: 55

Issue: 7

Pages: 701-708

Short Title: Tourists increase the contribution of autochthonous carbon to littoral zone food webs in oligotrophic dune lakes

Alternate Journal: Mar. Freshw. Res.

Accession Number: ISI:000224963400006

Keywords: allochthonous

monitoring

natural area management

oligotrophic lakes

wilderness areas

stable-isotope analysis

allochthonous organic-carbon

fraser island

loch ness

zooplankton

periphyton

nutrients

matter

phytoplankton

dependence

Abstract: Tourists can adversely influence the ecology of oligotrophic lakes by increasing algal production via direct nutrient inputs and/or re-suspension of sediments. To assess the influence of tourists on food web dynamics, we used the natural abundance of stable isotopes of carbon and nitrogen to calculate the relative importance of autochthonous and allochthonous carbon sources to littoral zone food webs across five variously visited perched dune lakes on Fraser Island, Australia. The relative importance of autochthonous (phytoplankton and periphyton) carbon to littoral zone consumers was highly variable across taxa and lakes. Despite the potential influence of algal biomass, ambient nutrient concentrations and tannin concentrations on the contribution of autochthonous carbon to littoral zone food webs, none of these variables correlated to the per cent contribution of autochthonous carbon to consumer diets. Instead, autochthonous sources of carbon contributed more to the diets of aquatic consumers in heavily visited lakes than in less visited lakes, suggesting that tourist activities might drive these systems towards an increased reliance on autochthonous carbon. The assessment of the contribution of autochthonous carbon to littoral zone food webs may represent a more robust indicator of the impact of tourists in oligotrophic lakes than standard measures of nutrient concentrations and/or algal biomass.

Notes: Week 4: Land to Lake; Times Cited: 2

Cited Reference Count: 47

Cited References:

*QDE, 1999, DESCR NAT WORLD HER

*UNESCO, 2001, WORLD HER LIST

ARTHINGTON AH, 1984, FOCUS STRADBROKE, P279

ARTHINGTON AH, 1986, AUST J MAR FRESH RES, V37, P743

ARTHINGTON AH, 1990, FINAL REPORT DIVISIO

BALDWIN DS, 1999, FRESHWATER BIOL, V41, P675

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BAYLY IAE, 1975, AUST J MAR FRESHWATE, V26, P1

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BOWLING LC, 1988, AUST J MAR FRESH RES, V39, P805

BUCKLEY R, 1990, J TOURISM STUDIES, V1, P24

BUNN SE, 1993, OECOLOGIA, V96, P85

BUNN SE, 1995, LIMNOL OCEANOGR, V40, P622

BUNN SE, 2003, FRESHWATER BIOL, V48, P619

FRANCE RL, 1995, BIOL CONSERV, V71, P35

FRANCE RL, 1995, LIMNOL OCEANOGR, V40, P1310

FRANCE RL, 1999, FRESHWATER BIOL, V41, P101

GREY J, 2001, LIMNOL OCEANOGR, V46, P505

HADWEN WL, IN PRESS AQUATIC ECO

HADWEN WL, 2003, J TOURISM STUDIES, V14, P35

HADWEN WL, 2003, LAKES RESERVOIRS RES, V8, P15

HAVENS KE, 1993, CAN J FISH AQUAT SCI, V50, P2688

HAVENS KE, 1996, J PLANKTON RES, V18, P551

HECKY RE, 1995, J N AM BENTHOL SOC, V14, P631

JAMES MR, 2000, FRESHWATER BIOL, V44, P311

JAMES MR, 2000, HYDROBIOLOGIA, V441, P93

JAMES PM, 1984, FOCUS STRADBROKE, P146

JANSSON M, 2000, ECOLOGY, V81, P3250

JONES RI, 1998, P ROY SOC LOND B BIO, V265, P105

JONES RI, 1999, OIKOS, V86, P97

JONSSON A, 2001, LIMNOL OCEANOGR, V46, P1691

KARLSSON J, 2003, LIMNOL OCEANOGR, V48, P269

LEGGETT MF, 1999, CAN J FISH AQUAT SCI, V56, P2211

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MANCINELLI G, 2002, OECOLOGIA, V133, P402

MCCORMICK PV, 1998, J PHYCOL, V34, P726

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SCHEFFER M, 1997, ECOLOGY, V78, P272

VINEBROOKE RD, 1998, LIMNOL OCEANOGR, V43, P1065

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WILLIAMSON CE, 1999, LIMNOL OCEANOGR 2, V44, P795

English

Article

MAR FRESHWATER RES

869DK

URL: <Go to ISI>://000224963400006

Author Address: Griffith Univ, Fac Environm Sci, Ctr Riverine Landscapes, Nathan, Qld 4111, Australia.

Hadwen, WL, Griffith Univ, Fac Environm Sci, Ctr Riverine Landscapes, Nathan, Qld 4111, Australia.

w.hadwen@griffith.edu.au

Reference Type: Journal Article

Record Number: 69

Author: Hessen, D. O.; Faafeng, B. A.; Brettum, P.

Year: 2003

Title: Autotroph: herbivore biomass ratios; carbon deficits judged from plankton data

Journal: Hydrobiologia

Volume: 491

Issue: 1-3

Pages: 167-175

Date: Jan

Short Title: Autotroph: herbivore biomass ratios; carbon deficits judged from plankton data

Alternate Journal: Hydrobiologia

Accession Number: ISI:000183771600015

Keywords: algae

biomass ratio

carbon

grazing

zooplankton

zooplankton biomass

trophic status

energy-flow

lakes

ecosystems

phytoplankton

waters

productivity

metabolism

nutrition

Abstract: A survey on phytoplankton: zooplankton biomass ratios was performed in 342 Norwegian lakes, covering a wide range in lake size and productivity (total phosphorus: 3 - 246 mug l(-1)), but with most localities being oligo- to mesotrophic. Mean phytoplankton biomass was 88 mug C l(-1), yet with the majority below 50 mug C l(-1) and a median of 25 mug C l(-1). Total zooplankton biomass displayed a mean and median of 37 and 26 mug C l(-1), respectively. Cladocerans were by far the dominant group, making up a median of almost 60% of total zooplankton biomass. Total zooplankton biomass as well as that of major aggregated metazoan taxa (cladocerans, calanoid copepods, cyclopoid copepods and rotifers) all showed a positive, but weak correlation with total phytoplankton biomass. These weak correlations suggest that algal biomass per se is a poor predictor of zooplankton biomass. An average phyto-: zooplankton biomass ratio (C:C) of 2.8 (SD +/- 4.7) was found. 30% of the lakes had a phyto-: zooplankton biomass ratio below unity. While there was no correlation between the phyto-: zooplankton biomass ratio with increasing productivity in terms of P concentration, there was a higher biomass ratio in lakes with high fish predation pressure. The low ratio of phyto-: zooplankton biomass suggest major requirements from non-algal sources of C in the zooplankton diet. The need for dietary subsidizing is also supported by the fact that more than 75% of the lakes had algal biomass less than the estimated threshold for net positive growth of zooplankton, although it should be kept in mind that a high share of picoplankton would imply an underestimation of autotroph biomass in these lakes. Since the C-deficiency apparently is most pronounced in oligotrophic systems, it contradicts the view that the detritus pathways plays a predominant role in highly productive systems only, but while the source of detritus probably is mostly of autochthonous origin in eutrophic lakes, allochthonous detritus will be more important in oligotrophic systems.

Notes: Week 4: Land to Lake; Times Cited: 2

Cited Reference Count: 49

Cited References:

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ANDERSEN T, 1997, ECOLOGICAL STUDIES, V129

BAYS JS, 1983, CAN J FISH AQUAT SCI, V40, P1813

BEGON M, 1990, ECOLOGY

BELL T, 2001, LIMNOL OCEANOGR, V46, P1243

BOHRER RN, 1988, FUNC ECOL, V2, P463

BOTTRELL HH, 1976, NORW J ZOOL, V24, P419

BROOKS JL, 1969, EUTROPHICATION CAUSE, P236

CARPENTER SR, 1985, BIOSCIENCE, V35, P634

CEBRIAN J, 1999, AM NAT, V154, P449

DELGIORGIO PA, 1993, CAN J FISH AQUAT SCI, V50, P282

DUMONT HJ, 1975, OECOLOGIA, V19, P75

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GEIDER RJ, 1987, NEW PHYTOL, V106, P1

GULATI RD, 1990, HYDROBIOLOGIA, V200

HAIRSTON NG, 1960, AM NAT, V94, P421

HANSON JM, 1984, CAN J FISH AQUAT SCI, V41, P439

HESSEN DO, 1990, LIMNOL OCEANOGR, V35, P84

HESSEN DO, 1992, ARCH HYDROBIOL BEIH, V37, P139

HESSEN DO, 1995, CAN J FISH AQUAT SCI, V52, P733

HESSEN DO, 1998, AQUATIC HUMIC SUBSTA

HESSEN DO, 2000, ARCH HYDROBIOLOGIE S, V55, P349

HESSEN DO, 2002, IN PRESS ECOLOGY

HIGASHI M, 1989, J THEOR BIOL, V140, P243

HILLBRICHTILKOW.A, 1977, POL ECOL STUD, V3, P3

JEPPESEN E, 1999, HYDROBIOLOGIA, V408, P217

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JONES RI, 1998, P ROY SOC LOND B BIO, V265, P105

LAMPERT W, 1977, ARCH HYDROBIOLOGIE S, V48, P287

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LAMPERT W, 1987, MEM I ITAL IDROBIOL, V45, P143

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MCCAULEY E, 1981, CAN J FISH AQUAT SCI, V38, P458

MCQUEEN DJ, 1986, CAN J FISH AQUAT SCI, V43, P1571

MENDENDEUER S, 2000, LIMNOL OCEANOGR, V45, P569

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WETZEL RG, 1995, FRESHWATER BIOL, V33, P83

English

Article

HYDROBIOLOGIA

694JN

URL: <Go to ISI>://000183771600015

Author Address: Univ Oslo, Dept Biol, N-0316 Oslo, Norway. Norwegian Inst Water Res, N-0411 Oslo, Norway.

Hessen, DO, Univ Oslo, Dept Biol, POB 1027 Blindern, N-0316 Oslo, Norway.

Reference Type: Journal Article

Record Number: 34

Author: Kiyashko, S. I.; Richard, P.; Chandler, T.; Kozlova, T. A.; Williams, D. F.

Year: 1998

Title: Stable carbon isotope ratios differentiate autotrophs supporting animal diversity in Lake Baikal

Journal: Comptes Rendus De L Academie Des Sciences Serie Iii-Sciences De La Vie-Life Sciences

Volume: 321

Issue: 6

Pages: 509-516

Date: Jun

Short Title: Stable carbon isotope ratios differentiate autotrophs supporting animal diversity in Lake Baikal

Alternate Journal: Comptes Rendus Acad. Sci. Ser. III-Sci. Vie-Life Sci.

Accession Number: ISI:000075152300010

Keywords: stable isotopes

food webs

Lake Baikal

pelagic food webs

delta-c-13

co2

photosynthesis

fractionation

enrichment

ecosystems

delta-n-15

dynamics

Abstract: Stable carbon isotopes (delta(13)C) were determined for autotrophic producers and animals from Lake Baikal (eastern Siberia), the deepest, the oldest and largest body of fresh water in the world. The extensive survey shows that the mean carbon isotope compositions of planktonic and benthic autotrophs differ in Lake Baikal by 21.5 parts per thousand, the largest difference ever observed for lakes, thus giving an easy means to distinguish between pelagic and inshore carbon flows. Furthermore, our data give evidence that inshore macrofauna, which contributes greatly to the diversity within Baikalian animals, is supported by less abundant but highly diversified benthic flora rather than by phytoplankton or terrigenous organic matter that dominate in the global carbon cycle of the lake. ((C) Academie des sciences / Elsevier, Paris.).

Notes: Week 4: Land to Lake; Times Cited: 3

Cited Reference Count: 40

Cited References:

BEBUTOVA IM, 1941, IZVESTIYA AKAD NAU B, V1, P82

BENEDICT CR, 1980, PLANT PHYSIOL, V65, P512

DELGIORGIO PA, 1996, LIMNOL OCEANOGR, V41, P359

DENIRO MJ, 1978, GEOCHIM COSMOCHIM AC, V42, P495

FORSBERG BR, 1993, ECOLOGY, V74, P643

FRANCE RL, 1995, LIMNOL OCEANOGR, V40, P1310

FRANCE RL, 1995, MAR ECOL-PROG SER, V124, P307

FRY B, 1984, CONTRIB MAR SCI, V27, P13

GALASY GI, 1987, WAY KNOWLEDGE BAIKAL, P275

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IZHBOLDINA LA, 1990, MEIO MACROPHYTOBENTH

JUNGER M, 1994, CAN J FISH AQUAT SCI, V51, P52

KEOUGH JR, 1996, LIMNOL OCEANOGR, V41, P136

KLINE TC, 1993, CAN J FISH AQUAT SCI, V50, P2350

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KUCKLICK JR, 1996, ENVIRON TOXICOL CHEM, V15, P1388

LAZERTE BD, 1982, LIMNOL OCEANOGR, V27, P413

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MCCABE B, 1985, THESIS U WAIOKAO NZ

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RAU GH, 1989, NATURE, V341, P516

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SMITH FA, 1980, NEW PHYTOL, V86, P245

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VALIELA I, 1995, MARINE ECOLOGICAL PR

VOTINTSEV KK, 1961, T BAIKAL LIMNOL ST A, V20, P1

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VOTINTSEV KK, 1987, WAY KNOWLEDGE BAIKAL, P124

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YOSHIOKA T, 1994, ECOLOGY, V75, P835

English

Article

C R ACAD SCI SER III-VIE

103HR

URL: <Go to ISI>://000075152300010

Author Address: CNRS Ifremer, Ctr Rech Ecol Marine & Aquaculture, F-17137 Houmeau, France. RAS, FEB, Inst Marine Biol, Vladivostok 690041, Russia. Univ S Carolina, Dept Environm Hlth, Columbia, SC 29208 USA. Russian Acad Sci, SB, Limnol Inst, Irkutsk 664033, Russia. Univ S Carolina, Dept Geol, Columbia, SC 29208 USA.

Richard, P, CNRS Ifremer, Ctr Rech Ecol Marine & Aquaculture, F-17137 Houmeau, France.

Reference Type: Journal Article

Record Number: 52

Author: Moss, B.

Year: 1992

Title: Uses, Abuses and Management of Lakes and Rivers

Journal: Hydrobiologia

Volume: 243

Pages: 31-45

Date: Oct 2

Short Title: Uses, Abuses and Management of Lakes and Rivers

Alternate Journal: Hydrobiologia

Accession Number: ISI:A1992JZ96300004

Keywords: fresh-water

conservation

sudd

everglades

broads

southern sudan

fish communities

Abstract: Freshwater basins are vulnerable to human-induced change for a number of reasons. They lie at the bottoms of catchments and therefore are subject to the run-off of a large variety of dissolved and particulate substances; shallow basins provide fertile agricultural soils if drained; and public perception, particularly of wetland basins, is of inhospitable places, so that lobbies for drainage are more likely to be effective than those seeking to preserve the habitat. On the other hand, water is so important to human life that there is also strong concern about the fate of freshwater habitats. Freshwater systems are also often open systems capable of faster recovery from disturbance than their terrestrial counterparts. Three lake, river and wetland ecosystems, the Sudd in the Sudan, the Everglades and adjacent swamplands of southern Florida, USA, and the Norfolk Broadland in the UK are examined from the viewpoints of how they are or were used by their indigenous human populations, and the problems they may face or already face. This sites are used to suggest a general model of human impact and to establish approaches to the wise future use and conservation of these and other similar systems.

Notes: Week 4: Land to Lake; Times Cited: 3

Cited Reference Count: 46

Cited References:

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BATES HE, 1937, DOWN RIVER

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BOWERS J, 1983, CONSERVATION PERSPEC

CAUFIELD C, 1985, RAINFOREST

COULTER GW, 1986, ENVIRON BIOL FISH, V17, P161

CRAIGHEAD FC, 1968, FLORIDA NATURALIST, V41, P3

DARBY HC, 1983, CHANGING FENLAND

DOUGLAS MS, 1947, EVERGLADES RIVER GRA

DRABLOS D, 1978, ECOLOGICAL IMPACT AC

DUEVER MJ, 1979, BIG CYPRESS NATIONAL

ELLIOTT JM, 1990, FRESHWATER BIOL, V23, P1

ELLIS WS, 1990, NATL GEOGR, V177, P73

EVANSPRITCHARD EE, 1940, NUER RELIGION

GEORGE JC, 1972, EVERGLADES WILDGUIDE

GOLDSMITH E, 1983, SOCIAL ENV EFFECTS L

GRIFFIN JW, 1974, ENV S FLORIDA PRESEN, P342

HICKLEY P, 1986, FRESHWATER BIOL, V16, P695

HICKLEY P, 1987, HYDROBIOLOGIA, V144, P243

HICKLEY P, 1987, J FISH BIOL, V30, P147

HOBART M, 1980, SEARCH SUSTENANCE PE

HOWARDWILLIAMS C, 1983, J LIMNOL SOC S AFR, V9, P54

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HUTCHINSON GE, 1967, TREATISE LIMNOLOGY, V2

JONES JG, 1986, NERC NEWSJOURNAL, V3, P7

KEYS D, 1990, NEW SCI 0317, P41

LAMBERT JM, 1960, MAKING BROADS

LEOPOLD LB, 1974, WATER PRIMER

LOWE P, 1986, COUNTRYSIDE CONFLICT

MERILAINEN J, 1990, PHILOS T ROY SOC B, V327, P423

MOSS B, 1983, BIOL REV, V8, P521

MOSS B, 1989, MORE EXACT ECOLOGY, P401

MOSS B, 1990, DEV HYDROBIOL, V61, P367

NRIAGU JO, 1984, TOXIC CONTAMINANTS G

PIPER BS, 1986, HYDROLOG SCI J, V31, P25

PURSEGLOVE J, 1988, TAMING FLOOD

RAMADE F, 1979, ECOTOXICOLOGY

READER J, 1988, MAN EARTH

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SHOARD M, 1980, THEFT COUNTRYSIDE

STARK F, 1976, P S OKAVANGO DELTA I, P263

TEBEAU CW, 1968, MAN EVERGLADES 2000

VOGELIN BD, 1974, S FLORIDAS VANISHED

WELTON JS, 1987, J APPL ECOL, V24, P865

English

Article

HYDROBIOLOGIA

JZ963

URL: <Go to ISI>://A1992JZ96300004

Author Address: MOSS, B, UNIV LIVERPOOL,DEPT ENVIRONM & EVOLUT BIOL,LIVERPOOL L69 3BX,ENGLAND.

Reference Type: Journal Article

Record Number: 32

Author: Benedito-Cecilio, E.; Araujo-Lima, Carm; Forsberg, B. R.; Bittencourt, M. M.; Martinelli, L. C.

Year: 2000

Title: Carbon sources of Amazonian fisheries

Journal: Fisheries Management and Ecology

Volume: 7

Issue: 4

Pages: 305-314

Date: Jun

Short Title: Carbon sources of Amazonian fisheries

Alternate Journal: Fisheries Manag. Ecol.

Accession Number: ISI:000087983700003

Keywords: Amazon

carbon

delta C-13

fisheries

floodplain

stable isotopes

isotope composition

stable isotopes

river

delta-c-13

patterns

habitat

plants

fish

Abstract: Variation in the seasonal and spatial isotopic composition of plant C-4 (aquatic macrophytes) and C-3 (forest, C-3 aquatic macrophytes and algae), and that of fish [Prochilodus nigricans Agassiz, Mylossoma duriventre (Cuvier), Colossoma macropomum (Cuvier), Semaprochilodus insignis (Schomburgk) and S. taeniurus Steindachner] in the Amazon floodplain were analysed to test whether the fisheries deliver plant carbon to the population of Manaus in the same proportion as it is available in the floodplain. The contribution of C-4 plants was significantly lower in C-13 during the season of high water levels and increased toward the west of the basin. Mylossoma duriventre and C. macropomum changed delta(13)C levels, while the delta(13)C of P. nigricans and C. macropomum shifted spatially. The contribution of C-4 to the fisheries yield was small. C-3 plants (excluding phytoplankton) also contributed less than expected. This was explained by the importance of detritivores to the yield of the fisheries and the dependence of these species on algal carbon.

Notes: Week 4: Land to Lake; Times Cited: 4

Cited Reference Count: 25

Cited References:

*I BRAS MEIO AMB, 1997, EST PESC 1996

ANGRADI TR, 1994, J N AMER BENTHOL SOC, V13, P479

ARAUJOLIMA CAR, 1997, SO FRUITFUL FISH ECO

ARAUJOLIMA CARM, 1986, SCIENCE, V234, P1256

BAYLEY PB, 1989, CAN SPEC PUBL FISH A, V106, P385

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BOON PI, 1994, AQUAT BOT, V48, P99

BRETT JR, 1979, FISH PHYSIOL, V8, P279

DASILVA JAM, 1999, BIOL TROPICAL FISHES, P137

DELGIORGIO PA, 1996, LIMNOL OCEANOGR, V41, P359

DEMERONA B, 1988, MEMORIAS SOC CIENCIA, V48, P433

DENIRO MJ, 1978, SCIENCE, V201, P906

FORSBERG BR, 1993, ECOLOGY, V74, P643

FRANCE R, 1996, ENVIRON MANAGE, V20, P249

FRANCE R, 1996, T AM FISH SOC, V125, P512

FRY B, 1984, CONTRIB MAR SCI, V27, P15

HAMILTON SK, 1992, GEOCHIM COSMOCHIM AC, V56, P4237

HUGHES EH, 1983, J EXP MAR BIOL ECOL, V67, P227

JUNK WJ, 1985, MITT GEOL PALAONT I, V58, P267

LAJTHA K, 1994, STABLE ISOTOPES ECOL, P1

MARTINELLI LA, 1991, NATURE, V353, P57

PAIXAO IMP, 1980, THESIS FUNDACAO U AM

QUAY PD, 1992, LIMNOL OCEANOGR, V37, P857

VICTORIA RL, 1992, BIOTROPICA, V24, P240

YOSSA MI, 1998, J FISH BIOL, V52, P1141

English

Article

FISHERIES MANAG ECOL

330WG

URL: <Go to ISI>://000087983700003

Author Address: UEM, Dept Biol, NUPELIA, BR-87020900 Maringa, Parana, Brazil. Inst Nacl Pesquisas Amazonia, Manaus, Amazonas, Brazil. Univ Sao Paulo, CENA, Piracicaba, Brazil.

Benedito-Cecilio, E, UEM, Dept Biol, NUPELIA, Av Colombo 5790, BR-87020900 Maringa, Parana, Brazil.

Reference Type: Book Section

Record Number: 94

Author: Kling, G. W.

Year: 1994

Title: Ecosystem-Scale Experiments - the Use of Stable Isotopes in Fresh-Waters

Book Title: Environmental Chemistry of Lakes and Reservoirs

City: Washington

Publisher: AMER CHEMICAL SOC

Volume: 237

Pages: 91-120

Series Title: Advances in Chemistry Series

Short Title: Ecosystem-Scale Experiments - the Use of Stable Isotopes in Fresh-Waters

Accession Number: ISI:A1994BZ52H00004

Keywords: dissolved organic-matter

arctic lake

phytoplankton biomass

community

structure

nitrogen isotopes

stream ecosystem

carbon flow

food webs

fertilization

zooplankton

Abstract: Experimental studies using additions of stable isotopes of nitrogen and carbon to an arctic lake indicated that new primary production rather than terrestrial detritus supports most animals in the planktonic food web and to a lesser degree in the benthic food web. The lake was divided by a curtain, and one half was fertilized with N and P through a 6-week experiment. (NH4Cl)-N-15 was added to both sides to label algae; terrestrial detritus remained unlabeled. Although nutrients cycled more quickly in the fertilized treatment, the trophic pathways of nitrogen flow were unaltered by fertilization. The retention time of nitrogen in the ecosystem was about 3 years in both control and fertilized treatments. C-13-leucine additions to mesocosms indicated that phytoplanton make direct use of amino acids and that some macrozooplankton derive nutrition from the microbial food web.

Notes: Week 4: Land to Lake; Times Cited: 4

Cited Reference Count: 106

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FOGEL ML, IN PRESS MAR ECOL PR

FRY B, 1978, GEOCHIM COSMOCHIM AC, V42, P1299

FRY B, 1984, CONTRIB MAR SCI, V27, P13

FRY B, 1992, ECOLOGY, V72, P2293

GIBLIN E, 1992, ABSTR AM SOC LIMN OC

GOERICKE R, IN PRESS STABLE ISOT

HALL DJ, 1970, LIMNOL OCEANOGR, V15, P839

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HESSLEIN RH, 1980, CAN J FISH AQUAT SCI, V37, P454

HOBBIE JE, 1988, ARCH HYDROBIOL BEIH, V31, P281

HOLMGREN SK, 1984, INT REV GES HYDROBIO, V69, P781

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HYATT KD, 1985, CAN J FISH AQUAT SCI, V42, P320

KAIRESALO T, 1992, HYDROBIOLOGIA, V229, P199

KITTING CL, 1984, OECOLOGIA, V62, P145

KLING GW, 1991, LIMNOL OCEANOGR, V36, P106

KLING GW, 1991, SCIENCE, V251, P298

KLING GW, 1992, ECOLOGY, V73, P561

KLING GW, 1992, HYDROBIOLOGIA, V240, P114

KLINGENSMITH KM, 1983, APPL ENVIRON MICROB, V46, P1084

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English

Review

BZ52H

URL: <Go to ISI>://A1994BZ52H00004

Author Address: KLING, GW, UNIV MICHIGAN,DEPT BIOL,ANN ARBOR,MI 48109.

Reference Type: Journal Article

Record Number: 68

Author: Doi, H.; Kikuchi, E.; Hino, S.; Itoh, T.; Takagi, S.; Shikano, S.

Year: 2003

Title: Isotopic (delta C-13) evidence for the autochthonous origin of sediment organic matter in the small and acidic Lake Katanuma, Japan

Journal: Marine and Freshwater Research

Volume: 54

Issue: 3

Pages: 253-257

Short Title: Isotopic (delta C-13) evidence for the autochthonous origin of sediment organic matter in the small and acidic Lake Katanuma, Japan

Alternate Journal: Mar. Freshw. Res.

Accession Number: ISI:000183642300007

Keywords: benthic diatom

C: N ratio

particulate organic matter

terrestrial

plant

stable carbon isotopes

source indicators

food-web

ratios

estuary

water

decomposition

preservation

diagenesis

nitrogen

Abstract: Sources of sediment organic matter from the strongly acidic Lake Katanuma (0.14 km(2); average pH 2.2), in Japan, were determined from an analysis of carbon stable isotope ratios (delta(13)C). Organic carbon was derived mainly from the benthic diatom, Pinnularia braunii, and particulate organic matter (POM) primarily from the phytoplankton, Chlamydomonas acidophila, and not from emergent or terrestrial C-3 plants such as Phragmites australis, Sasa kurilensis or Fagus crenata. Although the sediment organic matter of most small lakes, especially strongly acidic lakes, is commonly thought to be of allochthonous origin, the sources of sediment organic matter in the small and acidic Lake Katanuma were clearly autochthonous.

Notes: Week 4: Land to Lake; Times Cited: 5

Cited Reference Count: 30

Cited References:

BORDOVSKIY OK, 1965, MAR GEOL, V3, P3

COACH CA, 1989, ESTUARINE COASTAL SH, V28, P433

DOI H, 2001, RADIOISOTOPES, V50, P601

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FRANCE RL, 1995, LIMNOL OCEANOGR, V40, P1310

FRANCE RL, 1995, MAR ECOL-PROG SER, V124, P307

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GEARING JN, 1984, GEOCHIM COSMOCHIM AC, V48, P1089

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RASHID MA, 1979, ESTUARINE COASTAL MA, V8, P23

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ZOHARY T, 1994, LIMNOL OCEANOGR, V39, P1030

English

Article

MAR FRESHWATER RES

692CG

URL: <Go to ISI>://000183642300007

Author Address: Tohoku Univ, Inst Biol, Grad Sch Sci, Aoba Ku, Sendai, Miyagi 9808578, Japan. Tohoku Univ, Ctr NE Asian Studies, Aoba Ku, Sendai, Miyagi 9808578, Japan. Yamagata Univ, Dept Mat & Biol Chem, Fac Sci, Yamagata 9908560, Japan.

Doi, H, Tohoku Univ, Grad Sch Life Sci, Aoba Ku, Sendai, Miyagi 9808578, Japan.

Reference Type: Journal Article

Record Number: 64

Author: Gu, B. H.; Schelske, C. L.; Hodell, D. A.

Year: 2004

Title: Extreme C-13 enrichments in a shallow hypereutrophic lake: Implications for carbon cycling

Journal: Limnology and Oceanography

Volume: 49

Issue: 4

Pages: 1152-1159

Date: Jul

Short Title: Extreme C-13 enrichments in a shallow hypereutrophic lake: Implications for carbon cycling

Alternate Journal: Limnol. Oceanogr.

Accession Number: ISI:000224979700027

Keywords: sub-arctic lake

isotope fractionation

stable isotopes

eutrophic

lake

food-web

phytoplankton

water

methane

co2

photosynthesis

Abstract: An analysis of stable carbon isotope (delta(13)C) ratios in Lake Apopka, Florida, reveals extreme C-13 enrichments of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) pools in the water column and sediment pore water of this shallow polymictic and hypereutrophic lake. The sediment pore water had high average delta(13)C of DIC (26.4parts per thousand), DIC (8.37 mmol L-1), and methane (CH4) concentrations (1.23 mmol L-1). The extreme C-13 enrichment in the sediment pore-water DIC pool is attributed to methanogenesis, which produces C-13-rich carbon dioxide (CO2) and C-13-poor CH4 during the bacterial fermentation of organic matter. The delta(13)C in the water-column DIC pool ranged from 5parts per thousand to 13parts per thousand with an average of 9.0parts per thousand. The flux-weighted delta(13)C from the DIC due to external loading and sediment respiration was estimated as -12parts per thousand, whereas the delta(13)C from particulate organic carbon (POC) due to water-column production was -13parts per thousand. The C-13 enrichment in the water column is attributed directly to the diffusion and advection of isotopically heavy DIC from the sediment and to the isotopic fractionation by phytoplankton photosynthesis and is attributed indirectly to the removal of isotopically light CH4 by ebullition and organic matter by sedimentation and outflow. Atmospheric invasion and sedimentation were the most important source and sink, respectively, in the carbon mass balance. CH4 oxidation, atmospheric invasion, anaerobic respiration, and sedimentation are the important flux terms affecting the isotopic mass balance. A combination of shallow water depth, frequent wind mixing, anoxic sediments with high rates of methanogenesis, high phytoplankton productivity, and lack of external loading dominated by terrestrial carbon led to the C-13 enrichment of the water-column DIC pool in Lake Apopka.

Notes: Week 4: Land to Lake; Times Cited: 5

Cited Reference Count: 36

Cited References:

BASTVIKEN D, 2003, ECOLOGY, V84, P969

CARRICK HJ, 1993, LIMNOL OCEANOGR, V38, P1179

CHANTON JP, 1988, GLOBAL BIOGEOCHEM CY, V2, P289

CHANTON JP, 1989, LIMNOL OCEANOGR, V34, P807

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FOGEL ML, 1992, MAR ECOL-PROG SER, V82, P291

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GU B, 1999, FRESHWATER BIOL, V42, P417

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GU BH, 1996, J PLANKTON RES, V18, P2081

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KLING GW, 1992, HYDROBIOLOGIA, V240, P23

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PETERSON BJ, 1987, ANNU REV ECOL SYST, V18, P293

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WACHNIEW P, 1997, GEOCHIM COSMOCHIM AC, V61, P2453

ZOHARY T, 1994, LIMNOL OCEANOGR, V39, P1030

English

Article

LIMNOL OCEANOGR

869JR

URL: <Go to ISI>://000224979700027

Author Address: Univ Florida, Dept Fisheries & Aquat Sci, Gainesville, FL 32653 USA. Univ Florida, Dept Geol Sci, Gainesville, FL 32611 USA. Univ Florida, Land Use & Environm Change Inst, Gainesville, FL 32611 USA.

Gu, BH, Everglades Div, S Florida Water Management Dist,3301 Gun Club Rd, W Palm Beach, FL 33406 USA.

bgu@sfwmd.gov

Reference Type: Journal Article

Record Number: 88

Author: Gu, B. H.; Alexander, V.; Schell, D. M.

Year: 1997

Title: Stable isotopes as indicators of carbon flows and trophic structure of the benthic food web in a subarctic lake

Journal: Archiv Fur Hydrobiologie

Volume: 138

Issue: 3

Pages: 329-344

Date: Jan

Short Title: Stable isotopes as indicators of carbon flows and trophic structure of the benthic food web in a subarctic lake

Alternate Journal: Arch. Hydrobiol.

Accession Number: ISI:A1997WJ94300003

Keywords: fresh-water

ecosystems

nitrogen

prey

invertebrates

populations

enrichment

migration

estuarine

marine

Abstract: Stable carbon and nitrogen isotope compositions (delta(13)C and delta(15)N) of sediment fine organic matter (FPOM), primary producers and benthic animals (mostly invertebrates) from Smith Lake, Alaska, were analyzed to track carbon pathways and trophic interactions in the benthic community. delta(13)C of benthic algae ranged from -26.1 to -12.7 parts per thousand and were more positive than that of particulate organic matter (POM = similar to-33 parts per thousand) collected from the water column. delta(13)C of aquatic macrophytes ranged from -29.5 to -26.0 parts per thousand which were similar to those of terrestrial plants (-28 and -26.6 parts per thousand). delta(13)C of FPOM (-29.2 parts per thousand) reflected a combined contribution of autochthonous and allochthonous sources of organic matter. delta(15)N ranged from -4.8 to 5.0 parts per thousand for FPOM and primary producers, and from -1.2 to 8.5 parts per thousand for consumers. The benthic consumers were isotopically divided into two major groups, with group I animals (-31.5 parts per thousand) depending on POM and group II (-28.1 parts per thousand) on FPOM. The delta(13)C of two aquatic insects (Trichorythodes and Chironomus) differed from each other and from groups I and II consumers, but was similar to those of alder and birch detritus, respectively. Our isotope data indicate that the benthic algae did not contribute to the benthic food web, probably due to low abundance in the littoral zone. Some predators (group I) displayed small enrichments in delta(15)N (less than or equal to 2 parts per thousand) relative to primary consumers, indicating a high degree of omnivory. The positive correlations between body size and delta(15)N of gastropod Lymneae, concostracan Lynceus were attributed to diet changes with growth. No statistical differences in delta(13)C and delta(15)N of the benthic animals collected between 1988 and 1990 were found.

Notes: Week 4: Land to Lake; Times Cited: 5

Cited Reference Count: 40

Cited References:

ALEXANDER V, 1971, INT REV GESAMTEN HYD, V56, P825

BLINN DW, 1990, FRESHWATER BIOL, V24, P401

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BUNN SE, 1989, CAN J FISH AQUAT SCI, V46, P1769

BUTLER MI, 1991, HYDROBIOLOGIA, V220, P37

DAVIES RW, 1978, CAN J ZOOL, V56, P587

DENIRO MJ, 1978, GEOCHIM COSMOCHIM AC, V42, P495

FRANCE R, 1995, CAN J FISH AQUAT SCI, V52, P651

FRANCE RL, 1995, LIMNOL OCEANOGR, V40, P1310

FRANCE RL, 1995, MAR ECOL-PROG SER, V124, P307

FRY B, 1984, CONTRIB MAR SCI, V27, P13

GU B, 1993, OECOLOGIA, V96, P43

GU B, 1993, THESIS U ALASKA FAIR

GU BH, 1993, ARCH HYDROBIOL, V126, P273

GU BH, 1994, CAN J FISH AQUAT SCI, V51, P1338

HAINES EB, 1979, ECOLOGY, V60, P48

HAVENS KE, 1996, OIKOS, V75, P20

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HESSLEIN RH, 1991, CAN J FISH AQUAT SCI, V48, P2258

HILSENHOFF WL, 1991, ECOLOGY CLASSIFICATI, P583

HOBSON KA, 1994, CAN J FISH AQUAT SCI, V52, P1195

KELLEY JE, 1992, PLANT CELL ENVIRON, V15, P1021

KLING GW, 1992, ECOLOGY, V73, P561

LAJTHA K, 1994, STABLE ISOTOPES ECOL, P1

LAZERTE BD, 1982, LIMNOL OCEANOGR, V27, P413

MANN KH, 1988, LIMNOL OCEANOGR, V33, P910

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MEILI M, 1993, VERH INT VEREIN LIMN, V25, P501

MICHENER RH, 1994, STABLE ISOTOPES ECOL, P138

MINAGAWA M, 1984, GEOCHIM COSMOCHIM AC, V48, P1135

NEWELL R, 1965, P ZOOL SOC LOND, V144, P25

PETERSON BJ, 1987, ANNU REV ECOL SYST, V18, P293

PRITCHARD G, 1964, CAN J ZOOL, V42, P785

RAU GH, 1978, SCIENCE, V201, P901

RAU GH, 1980, CAN J FISH AQUAT SCI, V37, P742

RAU GH, 1991, MAR ECOL-PROG SER, V77, P1

THOMAS JD, 1985, P ROY SOC LOND B BIO, V226, P177

VADAS RL, 1990, ENVIRON BIOL FISH, V27, P285

WARREN PH, 1989, OIKOS, V55, P299

English

Article

ARCH HYDROBIOL

WJ943

URL: <Go to ISI>://A1997WJ94300003

Author Address: UNIV ALASKA,SCH FISHERIES & OCEAN SCI,INST MARINE SCI,FAIRBANKS,AK 99775.

Gu, BH, UNIV FLORIDA,DEPT FISHERIES & AQUAT SCI,7922 71ST ST,GAINESVILLE,FL 32653.

Reference Type: Journal Article

Record Number: 61

Author: Carpenter, S. R.; Cole, J. J.; Pace, M. L.; Van de Bogert, M.; Bade, D. L.; Bastviken, D.; Gille, C. M.; Hodgson, J. R.; Kitchell, J. F.; Kritzberg, E. S.

Year: 2005

Title: Ecosystem subsidies: Terrestrial support of aquatic food webs from C-13 addition to contrasting lakes

Journal: Ecology

Volume: 86

Issue: 10

Pages: 2737-2750

Date: Oct

Short Title: Ecosystem subsidies: Terrestrial support of aquatic food webs from C-13 addition to contrasting lakes

Alternate Journal: Ecology

Accession Number: ISI:000232361800019

Keywords: allochthonous

allochthony

consumer

dissolved inorganic carbon

food

web

lake

models

organic carbon

stable isotope

subsidy

whole-lake

experiment

dissolved organic-carbon

stable-isotope analysis

whole-lake

oligotrophic lake

zooplankton

phosphorus

exchange

stream

water

fractionation

Abstract: Whole-lake additions of dissolved inorganic C-13 were used to measure allochthony (the terrestrial contribution of organic carbon to aquatic consumers) in two unproductive lakes (Paul and Peter Lakes in 2001), a nutrient-enriched lake (Peter Lake in 2002), and a dystrophic lake (Tuesday Lake in 2002). Three kinds of dynamic models were used to estimate allochthony: a process-rich, dual-isotope flow model based on mass balances of two carbon isotopes in 12 carbon pools; simple univariate time-series models driven by observed time courses of delta(13)CO(2); and multivariate autoregression models that combined information from time series of delta(13)C in several interacting carbon pools. All three models gave similar estimates of allochthony. In the three experiments without nutrient enrichment, flows of terrestrial carbon to dissolved and particulate organic carbon, zooplankton, Chaoborus, and fishes were substantial. For example, terrestrial sources accounted for more than half the carbon flow to juvenile and adult largemouth bass, pumpkinseed sunfish, golden shiners, brook sticklebacks, and fathead minnows in the unenriched experiments. Allochthony was highest in the dystrophic lake and lowest in the nutrient-enriched lake. Nutrient enrichment of Peter Lake decreased allochthony of zooplankton from 0.34-0.48 to 0-0.12, and of fishes from 0.51-0.80 to 0.25-0.55. These experiments show that lake ecosystem carbon cycles, including carbon flows to consumers, are heavily subsidized by organic carbon from the surrounding landscape.

Notes: Week 4: Land to Lake; Times Cited: 5

Cited Reference Count: 52

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BADE DL, 2004, THESIS U WISCONSIN M

BOWER PM, 1987, LIMNOL OCEANOGR, V32, P299

BUNN SE, 2003, FRESHWATER BIOL, V48, P619

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CARPENTER SR, 1993, TROPHIC CASCADE LAKE

CARPENTER SR, 1998, ECOL APPL, V8, P559

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CUTHBERT ID, 1992, LIMNOL OCEANOGR, V37, P1319

DINI ML, 1987, HYDROBIOLOGIA, V150, P185

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HANSON PC, 2003, LIMNOL OCEANOGR, V48, P1112

HESSEN DO, 1998, AQUATIC HUMIC SUBSTA

HESSLEIN RH, 1980, CAN J FISH AQUAT SCI, V37, P454

HODGSON JR, 1987, AM MIDL NAT, V118, P323

HOUSER JN, 2001, THESIS U WISCONSIN M

IVES AR, 2003, ECOL MONOGR, V73, P301

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PACE ML, 2004, NATURE, V427, P240

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POWER ME, 2002, ECOL RES, V17, P451

RAU GH, 2001, DEEP-SEA RES PT I, V48, P79

SCHIFF SL, 1990, WATER RESOUR RES, V26, P2949

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SMITH DC, 1992, MAR MICROB FOOD WEBS, V6, P107

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VANDERZANDEN MJ, 2002, ECOLOGY, V83, P2152

WALLACE JB, 1997, SCIENCE, V277, P102

WANNINKHOF R, 1985, SCIENCE, V227, P1224

WEBSTER JR, 1997, J N AM BENTHOL SOC, V16, P141

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ZHANG J, 1995, GEOCHIM COSMOCHIM AC, V59, P107

English

Article

ECOLOGY

971DP

URL: <Go to ISI>://000232361800019

Author Address: Univ Wisconsin, Ctr Limnol, Madison, WI 53706 USA. Inst Ecosyst Studies, Millbrook, NY 12545 USA. Linkoping Univ, Dept Water & Environm Studies, SE-58183 Linkoping, Sweden. St Norbert Coll, Dept Biol, De Pere, WI 54115 USA. Lund Univ, Dept Ecol Limnol, S-22362 Lund, Sweden.

Carpenter, SR, Univ Wisconsin, Ctr Limnol, Madison, WI 53706 USA.

srcarpen@wisc.edu

Reference Type: Journal Article

Record Number: 49

Author: Crowder, A. A.; Smol, J. P.; Dalrymple, R.; Gilbert, R.; Mathers, A.; Price, J.

Year: 1996

Title: Rates of natural and anthropogenic change in shoreline habitats in the Kingston Basin, Lake Ontario

Journal: Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences

Volume: 53

Pages: 121-135

Short Title: Rates of natural and anthropogenic change in shoreline habitats in the Kingston Basin, Lake Ontario

Alternate Journal: Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci.

Accession Number: ISI:A1996VK06200014

Keywords: tidal potomac river

great-lakes

lacustrine environment

aquatic

macrophytes

history

metals

fish

contaminants

microfossils

ecosystem

Abstract: Shoreline habitats in the Kingston Basin have experienced continual change on a wide range of time scales, as a result of physical, chemical, and biotic stresses of both natural and anthropogenic origin. Not all change can or should be controlled. From a management perspective, stresses can be usefully subdivided into those that originate from the lake as a whole (e.g., water-level and-chemistry changes, introduction of exotic species) and those originating from the adjacent land area (e.g., point-source contamination and sedimentation). Stresses from the lake cannot be controlled locally, whereas those arising from terrestrial activities are more easily managed. Slow rates of change are less likely to have dramatic effects than rapid change, but a small change can have catastrophic effects if it exceeds the threshold tolerance of an ecosystem. Dramatic alterations to the entire ecosystem can also occur if a single, important species (e.g., a macrophyte) is adversely affected, because of complex feedback responses between the various components of the system. Thus, management strategies should focus on those areas that are particularly susceptible to land-based stress and on stresses that are most likely to exceed the tolerance of key components of an ecosystem.

Notes: Week 4: Land to Lake; Times Cited: 6

Cited Reference Count: 112

Cited References:

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CHARLES DF, 1991, ACIDIC DEPOSITION CA

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COWARDIN LM, 1979, 7931 USFWSOBS

CREASY DEJ, 1981, THESIS QUEENS U KING

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DALRYMPLE RW, 1994, FIELD GUIDE GLACIAL, V453, P50

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FRAPE SK, 1979, THESIS QUEENS U KING

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GEILING WD, 1996, CAN J FISH AQUAT S1, V53

GEIS JW, 1985, COASTAL WETLANDS, P15

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GILBERT R, 1992, CAN J EARTH SCI, V29, P63

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PAINTER DS, 1988, 8847 NAT WAT RES I

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POCKLINGTON R, 1995, DELTA, V5, P5

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POWLES PM, 1983, CAN FIELD NAT, V97, P292

PRICE JS, 1994, J HDYROL, V155, P407

PRINCE HH, 1992, J GREAT LAKES RES, V18, P673

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English

Article

CAN J FISHERIES AQUAT SCI

Suppl. 1

VK062

URL: <Go to ISI>://A1996VK06200014

Author Address: QUEENS UNIV,DEPT GEOL SCI,KINGSTON,ON K7L 3N6,CANADA. QUEENS UNIV,DEPT GEOG,KINGSTON,ON K7L 3N6,CANADA. ONTARIO MINIST NAT RESOURCES,NAPANEE,ON K7R 3S3,CANADA. UNIV WATERLOO,DEPT GEOG,WATERLOO,ON N2L 3G1,CANADA.

Crowder, AA, QUEENS UNIV,DEPT BIOL,KINGSTON,ON K7L 3N6,CANADA.

Reference Type: Journal Article

Record Number: 91

Author: Raspopov, I. M.; Andronikova, I. N.; Dotsenko, O. N.; Kurashov, E. A.; Letanskaya, G. I.; Panov, V. E.; Rychkova, M. A.; Telesh, I. V.; Tchernykh, O. A.; Vorontsov, F. F.

Year: 1996

Title: Littoral zone of Lake Ladoga: Ecological state evaluation

Journal: Hydrobiologia

Volume: 322

Issue: 1-3

Pages: 39-47

Date: Apr 12

Short Title: Littoral zone of Lake Ladoga: Ecological state evaluation

Alternate Journal: Hydrobiologia

Accession Number: ISI:A1996UT84700007

Keywords: Lake Ladoga

littoral zone

monitoring

pollution

macrophytes

periphyton

phytoplankton

zooplankton

macrobenthos

meiobenthos

bays

Abstract: The littoral zone of a lake is an important ecotone between terrestrial and aquatic systems. From the point of view of the lake ecosystem, much of the mineral, organic and toxic substances entering the lake from the drainage basin are transformed in the littoral zone by physical processes and biochemical pathways. The littoral zone of Lake Ladoga can be divided into three main regions: the shallow southern region, the fairly steep western and eastern shorelines, and the northern archipelago. In these regions, the communities of aquatic macrophytes, periphyton, phyto- and zooplankton and meio- and macrobenthos have been extensively studied. This paper presents numerical data on these communities, with special reference to comparisons between areas subjected to different degrees of anthropogenic loading. Most of the communities are characterized by high species diversity and spatial heterogeneity especially among the macrophyte associations in which intensive production and decomposition takes place. Water dynamics and water exchange rate are the main abiotic factors in the formation of littoral communities. The characteristics of plant associations and bottom substrate, rather than pollution, appear as the most important factors structuring meio- and macrobenthic invertebrate communities in the littoral.

Notes: Week 4: Land to Lake; Times Cited: 7

Cited Reference Count: 17

Cited References:

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CHERNYAEVA FA, 1966, GIDROLOGICHESKII REZ, P58

DENGINA RS, 1968, BIOL RESOURCES LAKE, P117

KATANSKAYA VM, 1983, RUKOVODSTVO PO METOD, P129

KURASHOV EA, 1996, HYDROBIOLOGIA, V322, P49

LABZOVSKIY NA, 1977, VODNYE RESURSY, V1, P151

LETANSKAYA GI, 1993, ECOLOGICHESKOE SO ST, P38

LETANSKAYA GJ, 1992, BIOLOGIA, V47, P287

MOLCHANOV IV, 1945, LADOZHSKOE OZERO

PANOV VE, 1986, GIDROBIOLOGICHESKIY, V22, P87

PIECZYNSKA E, 1990, MAN BIOSPHERE SERIES, V4, P103

RASPOPOV IM, 1968, RASTIT RESUR, P16

RASPOPOV IM, 1985, VYSSHAYA VODNAYA RAS

RASPOPOV IM, 1988, ARCH HYDROBIOL, V112, P115

ROSSOLIMO LL, 1977, IZMENENIE LIMNICHESK

TELESH IV, 1996, HYDROBIOLOGIA, V322, P181

WINBERG GG, 1960, PERVICHNAYA PRODUKTS

English

Article

HYDROBIOLOGIA

UT847

URL: <Go to ISI>://A1996UT84700007

Author Address: RUSSIAN ACAD SCI,INST ZOOL,ST PETERSBURG 199034,RUSSIA.

Raspopov, IM, RUSSIAN ACAD SCI,INST LIMNOL,ST PETERSBURG 196199,RUSSIA.

Reference Type: Journal Article

Record Number: 73

Author: Fisher, S. J.; Brown, M. L.; Willis, D. W.

Year: 2001

Title: Temporal food web variability in an upper Missouri River backwater: energy origination points and transfer mechanisms

Journal: Ecology of Freshwater Fish

Volume: 10

Issue: 3

Pages: 154-167

Date: Sep

Short Title: Temporal food web variability in an upper Missouri River backwater: energy origination points and transfer mechanisms

Alternate Journal: Ecol. Freshw. Fish

Accession Number: ISI:000172120400005

Keywords: stable isotopes

energy

food webs

backwater

Missouri River

energy

transfer

stable isotopes

temperate estuary

fresh-water

ecosystems

dynamics

detritus

benthos

carbon

niche

lake

Abstract: Energy transfer mechanisms often cannot be identified with either an isotope or a food habits analysis; however, a combined assessment provided collaborative support for depicting backwater food webs. Lateral dimensions in riverine function substantially influence backwater ecology; however, backwater communities are highly dynamic and infrequently investigated due to logistical difficulties. We created seasonal food webs for an upper Missouri River backwater using a combined food habits and stable isotope analysis. Temporal transition of energy origins was apparent. In the spring, carbon primarily originated from sediments, detritus and periphyton. During mid-summer, carbon was derived from a variety of sources, but included large proportions of terrestrial plants and particulate organic matter. By early fall, the backwater was uncoupled from the river, and autochthonous phytoplankton appeared to be the dominant carbon source. During all sample periods, Chironomidae was an important trophic link conveying energy from the primary producers to the higher consumers. Additionally, zooplankton were an important energy transfer taxa to the abundant age-0 fish community in the fall, and Corixidae were important in the spring.

Notes: Week 4: Land to Lake; Times Cited: 7

Cited Reference Count: 33

Cited References:

*SAS I INC, 1990, SAS STAT US GUID, V1

*SAS I INC, 1990, SAS STAT US GUID, V2

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DUNSON WA, 1991, AM NAT, V138, P1067

FISHER SJ, 1999, THESIS S DAKOTA STAT

FISHER SJ, 2000, WETLANDS, V20, P470

FLOYD KB, 1984, PROG FISH CULT, V46, P216

GEARING JN, 1984, GEOCHIM COSMOCHIM AC, V48, P1089

GLASSER JW, 1983, AM NAT, V122, P542

GOROKHOVA E, 1999, CAN J FISH AQUAT SCI, V56, P2203

HAMILTON SK, 1992, OECOLOGIA, V89, P324

JUNK WJ, 1984, MONOGR BIOL, V56, P215

JUNK WJ, 1989, CANADIAN SPECIAL PUB, V106, P110

KAUFMAN L, 1992, BIOSCIENCE, V42, P846

LAJTHA K, 1994, STABLE ISOTOPES ECOL

LASENBY DC, 1986, CAN J FISH AQUAT SCI, V43, P1277

MANN KH, 1988, LIMNOL OCEANOGR, V33, P910

PAINE RT, 1992, NATURE, V355, P73

PETERSON BJ, 1987, ANNU REV ECOL SYST, V18, P293

PIMM SL, 1991, BALANCE NATURE

POLIS GA, 1991, AM NAT, V138, P123

POLIS GA, 1996, FOOD WEBS INTEGRATIO, P275

POWER ME, 1996, FOOD WEBS INTEGRATIO, P286

SCHLACHER TA, 1996, OECOLOGIA, V106, P382

SIERSZEN ME, 1996, J GREAT LAKES RES, V22, P436

STRONG DR, 1986, COMMUNITY ECOLOGY, P257

WARD JV, 1989, DOE S SER, V61, P385

WERNER EE, 1984, ANNU REV ECOL SYST, V15, P393

WINEMILLER KO, 1996, FOOD WEBS INTEGRATIO, P1

WINEMILLER KO, 1996, FOOD WEBS INTEGRATIO, P298

YODZIS P, 1993, SPECIES DIVERSITY EC

YOSHIOKA T, 1994, ECOLOGY, V75, P835

English

Article

ECOL FRESHW FISH

491QR

URL: <Go to ISI>://000172120400005

Author Address: S Dakota State Univ, Dept Wildlife & Fisheries Sci, Brookings, SD 57007 USA.

Fisher, SJ, Minnesota Dept Nat Resources, 175 Cty Rd 26, Windom, MN 56101 USA.

Reference Type: Journal Article

Record Number: 85

Author: Hesthagen, T.; Jonsson, B.; Ugedal, O.; Forseth, T.

Year: 1997

Title: Habitat use and life history of brown trout (Salmo trutta) and Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus) in some low acidity lakes in central Norway

Journal: Hydrobiologia

Volume: 348

Pages: 113-126

Date: Aug 1

Short Title: Habitat use and life history of brown trout (Salmo trutta) and Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus) in some low acidity lakes in central Norway

Alternate Journal: Hydrobiologia

Accession Number: ISI:A1997XV67900009

Keywords: Arctic charr

brown trout

low acidity lakes

habitat use

life history

zooplankton communities

norwegian lake

acidification

segregation

dwarf

food

age

Abstract: Habitat utilization and the life history of brown trout Salmo trutta and Arctic charr Salvelinus alpinus were investigated in five sympatric populations and five allopatric brown trout populations in Hoylandet catchment, a atmosphaeric low deposition area in Mid Norway. There was a significant inverse correlation in abundance of epibenthic Arctic charr and brown trout in these lakes, indicating that the latter species is dominant. The largest numbers of sympatric brown trout and Arctic charr were caught in epibenthic habitat. In two lakes, brown trout to some extent also occurred pelagically, while pelagic individuals of Arctic charr were found in all five lakes. The main food items for both epibenthic and pelagic brown trout were terrestrial surface insects and chironomid pupae. Zooplankton was the primary food item for Arctic charr in both habitats. Although the age distribution was very different in the populations, neither species seem to suffer from recruitment failure. There was no significant difference in survival rates between sympatric populations of brown trout and Arctic charr. We found a significant inverse correlation between epibenthic catches of brown trout and the mean weight of 4+ fish, the most abundant age group. However, if using weight data for three-year-old fish, no such relationship was found for Arctic charr. Brown trout and Arctic charr reached asymptotic lengths of 197-364 mm and 259-321 mm, respectively. Both species typically reached sexual maturity at age 2-3, and no maturation-induced mortality was evident. We conclude that fish populations in Hoylandet lakes are regulated throughout their lifes by inter-and intraspecific competition.

Notes: Week 4: Land to Lake; Times Cited: 7

Cited Reference Count: 53

Cited References:

*SFT, 1994, 58394 NORW STAT POLL

ALMER B, 1974, AMBIO, V3, P30

ANDERSEN R, 1984, REP I FRESHWATER RES, V61, P5

BRETT MT, 1989, WATER AIR SOIL POLL, V44, P387

BUA B, 1972, VANN, V7, P87

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EDWARDS DJ, 1977, 1077 SNSFPROJECT

FILIPSSON O, 1976, INFORM I FRESHWAT RE, V2

FRENETTE JJ, 1984, CAN J FISH AQUAT SCI, V41, P865

GEELEN JFM, 1986, EXPERIENTIA, V42, P486

HAINES TA, 1981, T AM FISH SOC, V110, P669

HARALDSTAD O, 1983, T AM FISH SOC, V112, P27

HARVEY HH, 1982, ACID RAIN FISHERIES, P227

HEGGBERGET TG, 1984, BIOL ARCTIC CHARR, P217

HEGGE O, 1989, FRESHWATER BIOL, V22, P143

HESTHAGEN T, 1993, NORDIC J FRESHW RES, V68, P34

HESTHAGEN T, 1994, NINA FORSKNINGSRAPPO, V50, P1

HESTHAGEN T, 1995, BIOL CONSERV, V74, P115

HESTHAGEN T, 1995, CAN J FISH AQUAT SCI, V52, P2159

HESTHAGEN T, 1995, NORDIC J FRESHWATER, V71, P275

HESTHAGEN T, 1997, IN PRESS VERH INT VE

HINDAR K, 1982, CAN J FISH AQUAT SCI, V39, P1030

JENSEN JW, 1995, J FISH BIOL, V46, P862

JOBLING M, 1986, J FISH BIOL, V28, P379

JONSSON B, 1976, NORW J ZOOL, V24, P295

JONSSON B, 1985, ENVIRON BIOL FISH, V14, P281

JONSSON B, 1988, CAN J FISH AQUAT SCI, V45, P1537

JONSSON B, 1989, FRESHWATER BIOL, V21, P71

KALLEBERG H, 1958, REP I FRESHWATER RES, V39, P55

KLEINBAUM DG, 1978, APPLIED REGRESSION A

KLEMETSEN A, 1975, VERH INT VER LIMNOL, V19, P2521

KRISTOFFERSEN K, 1991, NORDIC J FRESHWATER, V66, P98

LANGELAND A, 1982, HOLARCTIC ECOL, V5, P273

LANGELAND A, 1991, J ANIM ECOL, V60, P895

NILSSON NA, 1963, T AM FISH SOC, V92, P276

NILSSON NA, 1965, I FRESHWATER RES DRO, V46, P58

NILSSON NA, 1973, REP I FRESHWATER RES, V53, P51

NOAKES DLG, 1980, CHARRS SALMONID FISH, P683

NOST T, 1982, VIDENSK SLESK MUS RA

NOST T, 1997, HYDROBIOLOGIA, V348, P95

RICKER WE, 1975, B FISH RES BOARD CAN, V191, P1

ROSSELAND BO, 1979, 4579 TN SNSFPROJECT

ROSSELAND BO, 1980, ECOLOGICAL IMPACT AC, P336

ROSSELAND BO, 1986, AQUACULTURE, V58, P99

SANDLUND OT, 1987, ENVIRON BIOL FISH, V20, P263

SCHEI TA, 1989, P SALM MIGR DISTR S, P156

SCHOENER TW, 1968, ECOLOGY, V49, P704

SEVALDRUD IH, 1980, 7780 SNSFPROJECT IR

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SOKAL RR, 1969, BIOMETRY PRINCIPLES

SVARDSON G, 1976, REP I FRESHWATER RES, V55, P144

THORPE JE, 1974, J FISH BIOL, V6, P153

TRIPPEL EA, 1987, CAN J FISH AQUAT SCI, V44, P1018

English

Article

HYDROBIOLOGIA

XV679

URL: <Go to ISI>://A1997XV67900009

Author Address: NORWEGIAN INST NAT RES,N-0105 OSLO,NORWAY. FINNMARK COLL,N-9500 ALTA,NORWAY.

Hesthagen, T, NORWEGIAN INST NAT RES,TUNGASLETTA 2,N-7005 TRONDHEIM,NORWAY.

Reference Type: Journal Article

Record Number: 71

Author: Jones, R. I.; Grey, J.; Quarmby, C.; Sleep, D.

Year: 2001

Title: Sources and fluxes of inorganic carbon in a deep, oligotrophic lake (Loch Ness, Scotland)

Journal: Global Biogeochemical Cycles

Volume: 15

Issue: 4

Pages: 863-870

Date: Dec

Short Title: Sources and fluxes of inorganic carbon in a deep, oligotrophic lake (Loch Ness, Scotland)

Alternate Journal: Glob. Biogeochem. Cycle

Accession Number: ISI:000172755300007

Keywords: organic-carbon

food-web

phytoplankton

dioxide

water

fractionation

respiration

atmosphere

plankton

isotopes

Abstract: The main river inflows to Loch Ness and several depths in the water column within the loch were sampled over an annual cycle. The carbon isotope composition of total dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) from the samples was determined as well as that of phytoplankton from the loch. Values of delta C-13 for DIC in the rivers indicated that this DIC was derived from soil respiration in the catchment and achieved only partial equilibrium with the atmosphere during river transport. Riverine loading accounted for most of the DIC in Loch Ness, and the great depth of the loch relative to its surface area allows only limited exchange with the atmosphere. Despite the low productivity in Loch Ness, DIC concentrations in the low alkalinity water are appreciably influenced by plankton metabolism. and seasonal fluctuations in delta C-13 of DIC and phytoplankton revealed the particular impact of photosynthetic carbon fixation on DIC. However, the photosynthetic depletion of DIC during summer does not offset the riverine loading sufficiently to prevent the loch waters being supersaturated with CO2 throughout the year. Annual efflux of CO2 from Loch Ness is estimated to be 253 x 10(6) mol yr(-1), of which around one quarter may be due to net heterotrophic mineralization within the loch of organic carbon of terrestrial origin. The remainder is attributable to inorganic carbon input to the lake via river inflow and derived from prior mineralization of soil organic matter within the drainage area. This annual efflux of CO2 can represent around 6% of net ecosystem production in the catchment.

Notes: Week 4: Land to Lake; Times Cited: 8

Cited Reference Count: 33

Cited References:

AMIOTTESUCHET P, 1999, CHEM GEOL, V159, P129

AUCOUR AM, 1999, CHEM GEOL, V159, P87

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COLE JJ, 1994, SCIENCE, V265, P1568

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DELGIORGIO PA, 1997, NATURE, V385, P148

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FALKOWSKI PG, 1997, AQUATIC PHOTOSYNTHES

FRY B, 1996, MAR ECOL-PROG SER, V134, P283

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JONES RI, 1998, P ROY SOC LOND B BIO, V265, P105

KLING GW, 1991, SCIENCE, V251, P298

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LAYBOURNPARRY J, 1998, FRESHWATER BIOL, V39, P1

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MABERLY SC, 1996, FRESHWATER BIOL, V35, P579

MACKERETH FJH, 1989, SCI PUBL FRESHW BIOL, V36

MAITLAND PS, 1981, ECOLOGY SCOTLANDS LA, P1

MIYAJIMA T, 1995, LIMNOL OCEANOGR, V40, P994

MOOK WG, 1974, EARTH PLANET SC LETT, V22, P169

RAVEN JA, 1994, NEW PHYTOL, V127, P271

REYNOLDS CS, 1984, ECOLOGY FRESHWATER P

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English

Article

GLOBAL BIOGEOCHEM CYCLE

502QY

URL: <Go to ISI>://000172755300007

Author Address: Univ Lancaster, Inst Environm & Nat Sci, Dept Biol Sci, Lancaster LA1 4YQ, England. CEH Merlewood, Grange Over Sands LA11 6JU, Cumbria, England.

Jones, RI, Univ Lancaster, Inst Environm & Nat Sci, Dept Biol Sci, Lancaster LA1 4YQ, England.

Reference Type: Journal Article

Record Number: 30

Author: Saito, L.; Johnson, B. M.; Bartholow, J.; Hanna, R. B.

Year: 2001

Title: Assessing ecosystem effects of reservoir operations using food web-energy transfer and water quality models

Journal: Ecosystems

Volume: 4

Issue: 2

Pages: 105-125

Date: Mar

Short Title: Assessing ecosystem effects of reservoir operations using food web-energy transfer and water quality models

Alternate Journal: Ecosystems

Accession Number: ISI:000168370100002

Keywords: stable isotope analysis

CE-QUAL-W2

Shasta Lake

temperature control

device

interdisciplinary modeling

food web modeling

energy transfer

stable-isotope analysis

nitrogen isotopes

trophic structure

carbon

isotopes

threadfin shad

delta-c-13

lake

diet

delta-n-15

river

Abstract: We investigated the effects on the reservoir food web of a new temperature control device (TCD) on the dam at Shasta Lake, California. We followed a linked modeling approach that used a specialized reservoir water quality model to forecast operation-induced changes in phytoplankton production. A food web-energy transfer model was also applied to propagate predicted changes in phytoplankton up through the food web to the predators and sport fishes of interest. The food web-energy transfer model employed a 10% trophic transfer efficiency through a food web that was mapped using carbon and nitrogen stable isotope analysis. Stable isotope analysis provided an efficient and comprehensive means of estimating the structure of the reservoir's food web with minimal sampling and background data. We used an optimization procedure to estimate the diet proportions of all food web components simultaneously from their isotopic signatures. Some consumers were estimated to be much more sensitive than others to perturbations to phytoplankton supply. The linked modeling approach demonstrated that interdisciplinary efforts enhance the value of information obtained from studies of managed ecosystems. The approach exploited the strengths of engineering and ecological modeling methods to address concerns that neither of the models could have addressed alone: (a) the water quality model could not have addressed quantitatively the possible impacts to fish, and (b) the food web model could not have examined how phyto plankton availability might change due to reservoir operations.

Notes: Week 4: Land to Lake; Times Cited: 8

Cited Reference Count: 142

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English

Review

ECOSYSTEMS

426VY

URL: <Go to ISI>://000168370100002

Author Address: Colorado State Univ, Dept Civil Engn, Ft Collins, CO 80523 USA. Colorado State Univ, Dept Fishery & Wildlife Biol, Ft Collins, CO 80523 USA. US Geol Survey, Midcontinent Ecol Sci Ctr, Ft Collins, CO 80525 USA. Johnson Controls World Serv Inc, Ft Collins, CO 80525 USA.

Saito, L, Colorado State Univ, Dept Civil Engn, Ft Collins, CO 80523 USA.

Reference Type: Journal Article

Record Number: 81

Author: Grey, J.; Jones, R. I.

Year: 1999

Title: Carbon stable isotopes reveal complex trophic interactions in lake plankton

Journal: Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry

Volume: 13

Issue: 13

Pages: 1311-1314

Short Title: Carbon stable isotopes reveal complex trophic interactions in lake plankton

Alternate Journal: Rapid Commun. Mass Spectrom.

Accession Number: ISI:000081312500018

Keywords: pelagic food-web

zooplankton

Abstract: The lower trophic linkages in lake plankton food webs are generally described as relatively simple, even accounting for the additional complexity of potential 'microbial looping'. Crustacean zooplankton are frequently amalgamated into one trophic functional group as grazers of autotrophic production. The carbon stable isotope ratios for separated zooplankton species, particulate organic matter (POM) and phytoplankton from a number of lakes in Finland and the UK were analysed. These revealed greater complexity in trophic interactions than would otherwise be observed if the zooplankton had been represented by a mixed sample. Grazing zooplankton were usually depleted in C-13 relative to the bulk POM on which they might feed, with delta(13)C deviating by up to 17 parts per thousand. There were no consistent differences between delta(13)C values for copepods and cladocerans. Predatory cladocerans were generally enriched by greater than 1 parts per thousand compared to their putative prey. We suggest that care in separating the zooplankton species for stable isotope analysis may expose otherwise undetected sources of carbon and facilitate unravelling trophic links further up the food web. Copyright (C) 1999 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Notes: Week 4: Land to Lake; Times Cited: 9

Cited Reference Count: 12

Cited References:

DELGIORGIO PA, 1996, LIMNOL OCEANOGR, V41, P359

DENIRO MJ, 1978, GEOCHIM COSMOCHIM AC, V42, P495

FRANCE RL, 1995, LIMNOL OCEANOGR, V40, P1310

GANNES LZ, 1997, ECOLOGY, V78, P1271

GREY J, UNPUB OECOLOGIA

GREY J, 1999, IN PRESS VERH INT VE

GU BH, 1994, CAN J FISH AQUAT SCI, V51, P1338

JONES RI, 1998, P ROY SOC LOND B BIO, V265, P105

JONES RI, 1999, IN PRESS OIKOS

KLING GW, 1992, ECOLOGY, V73, P561

LYNCH M, 1979, LIMNOL OCEANOGR, V24, P253

ZOHARY T, 1994, LIMNOL OCEANOGR, V39, P1030

English

Article

RAPID COMMUN MASS SPECTROM

214DN

URL: <Go to ISI>://000081312500018

Author Address: Univ Lancaster, IENS, Dept Biol Sci, Lancaster LA1 4YQ, England.

Grey, J, Univ Lancaster, IENS, Dept Biol Sci, Lancaster LA1 4YQ, England.

Reference Type: Journal Article

Record Number: 93

Author: Dahlhansen, G. A. P.; Rubach, S. H.; Klemetsen, A.

Year: 1994

Title: Selective Predation by Pelagic Arctic Char on Crustacean Plankton in Takvatn, Northern Norway, before and after Mass Removal of Arctic Char

Journal: Transactions of the American Fisheries Society

Volume: 123

Issue: 3

Pages: 385-394

Date: May

Short Title: Selective Predation by Pelagic Arctic Char on Crustacean Plankton in Takvatn, Northern Norway, before and after Mass Removal of Arctic Char

Alternate Journal: Trans. Am. Fish. Soc.

Accession Number: ISI:A1994NT40400012

Keywords: alosa-pseudoharengus

planktivorous fish

zooplankton

lake

food

alewife

digestion

Abstract: Arctic char Salvelinus alpinus once occurred at high densities in the pelagic zone of Takvatn. An intensive fish stock reduction program begun in 1984 reduced the catches of pelagic Arctic char by approximately 60% from 1981 to 1986. The crustacean plankton was dominated by Bosmina longispina, Cyclops scutifer, and Eudiaptomus graciloides. With the exception of a density increase of B. longispina, only minor changes were found in the density and species composition of the zooplankton after the stock reduction. Terrestrial insects and crustacean plankton dominated the diet of pelagic Arctic char in both 1981 and 1986. Cyclops scutifer was positively selected in June and July of both seasons. Following the density increase of B. longispina, this species was strongly selected in August-September. Other zooplankton species were either avoided or randomly selected.

Notes: Week 4: Land to Lake; Times Cited: 9

Cited Reference Count: 33

Cited References:

AMUNDSEN PA, 1989, PHYSL ECOLOGY JAPAN, V1, P265

AMUNDSEN PA, 1993, N AM J FISH MANAGE, V13, P483

BROOKS JL, 1965, SCIENCE, V150, P28

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GANNON JE, 1976, T AM FISH SOC, V105, P89

HINDAR K, 1982, CAN J FISH AQUAT SCI, V39, P1030

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KLEMETSEN A, 1989, PHYSL ECOLOGY JAPAN, V1, P187

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WELLS L, 1970, LIMNOL OCEANOGR, V15, P556

ZARET TM, 1972, ECOLOGY, V53, P248

English

Article

TRANS AMER FISH SOC

NT404

URL: <Go to ISI>://A1994NT40400012

Author Address: FINNMARKFORSK AQUACULTURE CTR,N-9600 HAMMERFEST,NORWAY.

DAHLHANSEN, GAP, UNIV TROMSO,NORWEGIAN COLL FISHERY SCI,DRAMSVEIEN 201,N-9037 TROMSO,NORWAY.

Reference Type: Journal Article

Record Number: 50

Author: Hoffman, R. L.; Liss, W. J.; Larson, G. L.; Deimling, E. K.; Lomnicky, G. A.

Year: 1996

Title: Distribution of nearshore macroinvertebrates in lakes of the Northern Cascade Mountains, Washington, USA

Journal: Archiv Fur Hydrobiologie

Volume: 136

Issue: 3

Pages: 363-389

Date: May

Short Title: Distribution of nearshore macroinvertebrates in lakes of the Northern Cascade Mountains, Washington, USA

Alternate Journal: Arch. Hydrobiol.

Accession Number: ISI:A1996UP93600005

Keywords: benthic community structure

size-selective predation

aquatic insects

fish predation

habitat

abundance

colonization

complexity

diversity

ambystoma

Abstract: Various attributes of high mountain lake ecosystems were found to affect distributions of nearshore macroinvertebrates in 41 oligotrophic lakes of North Cascades National Park Service Complex, Washington, USA. Eighty-eight taxa representing 16 taxonomic groups were collected from study lakes, and each of 63 taxa (72%) were collected from eight or fewer lakes. Eighty-six percent of all taxa were collected from forest zone lakes, 61% from subalpine zone lakes, and 16% from alpine zone lakes. Number of taxa per lake was positively correlated to water temperature and inversely related to elevation. Low-elevation forest lakes had the highest number of taxa and maximum temperatures per lake, while lakes with the lowest number of taxa and maximum temperatures occurred in the alpine zone. The distributions of gastropods and the beetle Potamonectes griseostriatus were found to vary according to their water chemistry requirements. Gastropods were restricted to three low-elevation forest lakes with the highest pH, alkalinity, and calcium ion concentration levels, and P. griseostriatus was not present in forest lakes due, in part, to this species requirement for acidic conditions not typically found in lakes of this zone. Microhabitat substrate composition varied by vegetation zone. Low-elevation forest lakes had the highest percent of microhabitats with organic substrates, and these types of substrates decreased in higher elevation forest lakes, and in subalpine and alpine zone lakes. Conversely, the predominance of inorganic substrates in microhabitats increased in higher elevation forest lakes and in the subalpine and alpine zones. The presence of macroinvertebrates in lakes closely paralleled these changes in microhabitat substrate composition and could be associated with the substrate preferences of organisms. Vertebrate predators (i.e., two salamander species and trout) influenced the distributions of three taxa. The relationship between physiographic characteristics of the terrestrial environment of lakes and characteristics of nearshore lake habitat was elucidated using discriminant analysis. Aquatic-based predictor variables representing lake habitat were used to predict the membership of lakes in classification categories which were based on characteristics of a lake's terrestrial environment. In this analysis, no lakes were misclassified, and calculation of the number of lakes expected to be correctly placed into classification categories by chance alone was low enough to conclude that the classification equations developed using aquatic-based variables were useful in assigning fakes to the terrestrially-based classification categories.

Notes: Week 4: Land to Lake; Times Cited: 9

Cited Reference Count: 62

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MACAN TT, 1977, BIOL REV, V52, P45

MACKAY RJ, 1992, CAN J FISH AQUAT SCI, V49, P617

MANI MS, 1968, ECOLOGY BIOGEOGRAPHY

MCKEE B, 1972, CASCADIA

MERRITT RW, 1984, ECOLOGY AQUATIC INSE, P134

MERRITT RW, 1984, INTRO AQUATIC INSECT

MINSHALL GW, 1984, ECOLOGY AQUATIC INSE, P258

NUSSBAUM RA, 1983, AMPHIBIANS REPTILES

OLIVER DR, 1979, J FISH RES BOARD CAN, V36, P318

OLLIER C, 1984, WEATHERING

PENNAK RW, 1978, FRESHWATER INVERTEBR

PETRANKA JW, 1989, ECOLOGY, V70, P1752

PRESS F, 1982, EARTH

RASMUSSEN JB, 1988, CAN J FISH AQUAT SCI, V45, P1436

SCHELL VA, 1989, WATER AIR SOIL POLL, V46, P359

SMITH BD, 1981, MONOGRAPHIE BIOLOGIC, V44, P155

SOUTHWOOD TRE, 1977, J ANIM ECOL, V46, P337

SPRULES WG, 1972, ECOLOGY, V53, P375

STENSON JAE, 1981, REPORT I FRESHWAT RE, V58, P166

SWEENEY BW, 1984, ECOLOGY AQUATIC INSE, P56

TABACHNICK BG, 1989, USING MULTIVARIATE S

TAYLOR BE, 1988, CAN J ZOOL, V66, P2191

TAYLOR J, 1983, AM MIDL NAT, V109, P40

THORP JH, 1986, OIKOS, V47, P75

WARD JV, 1982, ANNU REV ENTOMOL, V27, P97

WARD JV, 1992, AQUATIC INSECT ECOLO, V1

WENTWORTH CK, 1922, J GEOL, V30, P377

WEVERS MJ, 1986, ARCH HYDROBIOL, V108, P213

WIGGINS GB, 1977, LARVAE N AM CADDISFL

English

Article

ARCH HYDROBIOL

UP936

URL: <Go to ISI>://A1996UP93600005

Author Address: OREGON STATE UNIV,DEPT FOREST RESOURCES,NATL BIOL SERV,CORVALLIS,OR 97331.

Hoffman, RL, OREGON STATE UNIV,DEPT FISHERIES & WILDLIFE,104 NASH HALL,CORVALLIS,OR 97331.

Reference Type: Journal Article

Record Number: 37

Author: France, R. L.

Year: 1996

Title: Scope for use of stable carbon isotopes in discerning the incorporation of forest detritus into aquatic foodwebs

Journal: Hydrobiologia

Volume: 325

Issue: 3

Pages: 219-222

Date: Jun 14

Short Title: Scope for use of stable carbon isotopes in discerning the incorporation of forest detritus into aquatic foodwebs

Alternate Journal: Hydrobiologia

Accession Number: ISI:A1996UZ71200006

Keywords: C-13/C-12 ratios

forest detritus

riparian deforestation

energy-sources

ecosystems

pathways

estuary

webs

flow

Abstract: Stable isotope analysis of carbon has been proposed as a means for discerning the incorporation of terrestrial forest detritus into aquatic foodwebs, and as such, has the potential to be used as a biomonitor of the aquatic effects of riparian deforestation. A synthesis of C-13/C-12 data from the literature indicates, however, that the scope for successful use of carbon isotope analysis in separating allochthonous and autochthonous food provenance is much more limited than was once thought. This occurs due the overlap in carbon isotope ratios between terrestrial forest detritus and those of both lotic attached algae and lentic filamentous attached algae. Only within rocky-shored, oligotrophic lakes without macrophytes, and forest-fringed estuaries and lagoons, where the carbon isotope ratios for attached algae and forest detritus are significantly different, is there any likelihood of discerning the incorporation of allochthonous carbon into aquatic foodwebs using C-13/C-12 values alone.

Notes: Week 4: Land to Lake; Times Cited: 10

Cited Reference Count: 31

Cited References:

ARAUJOLIMA CARM, 1986, SCIENCE, V234, P1256

BIRD MI, 1992, GLOBAL BIOGEOCHEM CY, V6, P293

BUNN SE, 1989, CAN J FISH AQUAT SCI, V46, P1769

BUNN SE, 1993, OECOLOGIA, V96, P85

COOPERMAN J, 1993, B CLEARCUT TRAGEDY I

CURRIN CA, 1995, MAR ECOL-PROG SER, V121, P99

FORSBERG BR, 1993, ECOLOGY, V74, P643

FRANCE R, 1995, CAN J FISH AQUAT SCI, V52, P651

FRANCE R, 1995, IN PRESS VEGETATIO

FRANCE RL, 1995, CONSERV BIOL, V9, P1578

FRANCE RL, 1995, ECOGRAPHY, V18, P318

FRANCE RL, 1995, LIMNOL OCEANOGR, V40, P1310

FRANCE RL, 1995, MAR ECOL-PROG SER, V124, P307

FRY B, 1984, CONTRIB MAR SCI, V27, P15

HACKNEY CT, 1980, ESTUAR COAST MAR SCI, V10, P703

HAMILTON SK, 1992, OECOLOGIA, V89, P324

KEELEY JE, 1992, PLANT CELL ENVIRON, V15, P1021

LUGO AE, 1975, P INT S BIOL MGMT MA, V2, P825

MCCORY C, 1993, B CLEARCUT TRAGEDY I

MCLAREN C, 1990, EQUINOX, V53, P42

NEILL C, 1992, WETLANDS, V12, P217

ODUM WE, 1972, B MAR SCI, V22, P671

PETERSON BJ, 1987, ANNU REV ECOL SYST, V18, P293

RODELLI MR, 1984, OECOLOGIA, V61, P326

ROUNICK JS, 1982, OIKOS, V39, P191

ROUNICK JS, 1986, BIOSCIENCE, V36, P171

STONER AW, 1988, FISH B-NOAA, V86, P543

TEAL JM, 1962, ECOLOGY, V43, P614

VANOTE RL, 1980, CAN J FISH AQUAT SCI, V37, P130

WADA E, 1993, J BIOSCIENCE, V18, P483

WINTERBOURN MJ, 1985, VERH INT VEREIN LIMN, V22, P2148

English

Article

HYDROBIOLOGIA

UZ712

URL: <Go to ISI>://A1996UZ71200006

Author Address: France, RL, MCGILL UNIV,DEPT BIOL,1205 AVE DR PENFIELD,MONTREAL,PQ H3A 1B1,CANADA.

Reference Type: Journal Article

Record Number: 87

Author: Hein, M.

Year: 1997

Title: Inorganic carbon limitation of photosynthesis in lake phytoplankton

Journal: Freshwater Biology

Volume: 37

Issue: 3

Pages: 545-552

Date: Jun

Short Title: Inorganic carbon limitation of photosynthesis in lake phytoplankton

Alternate Journal: Freshw. Biol.

Accession Number: ISI:A1997XF54000005

Keywords: marine-phytoplankton

chlamydomonas-reinhardtii

aquatic systems

algal

growth

ulva-lactuca

dioxide

water

kinetics

plants

co2

Abstract: 1. Inorganic carbon availability influences species composition of phytoplankton in acidic and highly alkaline lakes, whereas the overall influence on community photosynthesis and growth is subject to debate. 2. The influence of total dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) and free CO2 on community photosynthesis was studied in six Danish lakes during the summer of 1995. The lakes were selected to ensure a wide range of chlorophyll a concentrations (1-120 mu g l(-1)), pH (5.6-9.6) and DIC concentration (0.02-2.5 mM). Photosynthesis experiments were performed using the C-14 technique in CO2-manipulated water samples, either by changing the pH or by adding/removing CO2. 3. Lake waters were naturally CO2 supersaturated during most of the experimental period and inorganic carbon limitation of photosynthetic rates did not occur under ambient conditions. However, photosynthesis by phytoplankton in lakes with low and intermediate DIC concentrations was seriously restricted when CO2 concentrations declined. Similarly photosynthesis was limited by low CO2 concentrations during phytoplankton blooms in the hardwater alkaline lakes.

Notes: Week 4: Land to Lake; Times Cited: 10

Cited Reference Count: 47

Cited References:

AZOV Y, 1982, BIOTECHNOL BIOENGNG, V24, P579

BADGER MR, 1978, CARNEGIE I YB, V77, P251

BADGER MR, 1980, PLANT PHYSIOL, V66, P407

BARNESE LE, 1994, HYDROBIOLOGIA, V277, P159

BEARDALL J, 1989, AQUAT BOT, V34, P105

BOSTON HL, 1989, AQUAT BOT, V34, P27

BOWES G, 1993, ANNU REV PLANT PHYS, V44, P309

BURNS BD, 1987, J EXP MAR BIOL ECOL, V107, P75

BURRIS JE, 1981, J FRESHWATER ECOL, V1, P81

COLE JJ, 1994, SCIENCE, V265, P1568

GAVIS J, 1975, LIMNOL OCEANOGR, V20, P211

GOLDMAN JC, 1972, WATER RES, V6, P637

GOLDMAN JC, 1973, SCIENCE, V182, P306

GOLDMAN JC, 1974, J WATER POLLUT CONTR, V46, P554

GOLDMAN JC, 1981, APPL ENVIRON MICROB, V41, P60

GOLDMAN JC, 1981, BIOTECHNOL BIOENG, V23, P995

GRAN G, 1952, ANALYST, V77, P661

JAWORSKI GHM, 1981, BR PHYCOL J, V16, P395

LEHMAN JT, 1978, J PHYCOL, V14, P33

MABERLY SC, 1983, J ECOL, V71, P705

MABERLY SC, 1992, PLANT CELL ENVIRON, V15, P255

MARKL H, 1977, BIOTECHNOL BIOENG, V19, P1851

MORONEY JV, 1985, PLANT PHYSIOL, V77, P253

MOSS B, 1973, J ECOL, V61, P157

NYGAARD G, 1965, KONGELIGE DANSKE VID, V14, P1

NYGAARD G, 1989, INT REV GES HYDROBIO, V74, P293

PORTIELJE R, 1995, LIMNOL OCEANOGR, V40, P690

RAVEN JA, 1970, BIOL REV, V45, P167

RAVEN JA, 1991, CAN J BOT, V69, P908

RAVEN JA, 1991, LIMNOL OCEANOGR, V36, P1701

REBSDORF A, 1972, CARBON DOIXIDE SYSTE

RIEBESELL U, 1993, NATURE, V361, P249

SANDGREN CD, 1988, GROWTH REPROD STRATE, P9

SANDJENSEN K, 1995, VAND JORD, V2, P72

SCHINDLER DW, 1972, SCIENCE, V177, P1192

SCHINDLER DW, 1973, J FISH RES BOARD CAN, V30, P1501

SHAPIRO J, 1973, SCIENCE, V179, P382

SHELP BJ, 1980, PLANT PHYSIOL, V65, P774

SMITH FA, 1980, NEW PHYTOL, V86, P245

SONDERGAARD M, 1979, FERSKOANDSBIOLOGISKE

STEEMANNIELSEN E, 1960, ENCY PLANT PHYSL, V5, P70

STEEMANNNIELSEN E, 1952, J CONS CONS PERM INT, V18, P117

STUMM W, 1981, AQUATIC CHEM

TALLING JF, 1976, J ECOL, V64, P79

TALLING JF, 1985, INORGANIC CARBON UPT, P403

VERMAAT JE, 1987, MAR BIOL, V95, P55

WILLIAMS TG, 1987, OECOLOGIA, V73, P307

English

Article

FRESHWATER BIOL

XF540

URL: <Go to ISI>://A1997XF54000005

Author Address: Hein, M, UNIV COPENHAGEN,FRESHWATER BIOL LAB,HELSINGORSGADE 51,DK-3400 HILLEROD,DENMARK.

Reference Type: Journal Article

Record Number: 48

Author: Hodgson, J. R.; He, X.; Schindler, D. E.; Kitchell, J. F.

Year: 1997

Title: Diet overlap in a piscivore community

Journal: Ecology of Freshwater Fish

Volume: 6

Issue: 3

Pages: 144-149

Date: Sep

Short Title: Diet overlap in a piscivore community

Alternate Journal: Ecol. Freshw. Fish

Accession Number: ISI:A1997XX54800003

Keywords: dietary overlap

piscivore

semotilus-atromaculatus mitchill

salvelinus-fontinalis mitchill

sucker catostomus-commersoni

2 sunfishes centrarchidae

perch

perca-flavescens

resource utilization

fish assemblages

largemouth

bass

creek chub

competition

Abstract: We examined prey selection of largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides), smallmouth bass (M. dolomieu), and yellow perch (Perca flavescens) by comparing diet overlap in a small, unexploited lake in Michigan, USA from 1988 to 1990. Niche hypervolume principles were applied to diet data as a means of assessing diet space for each species and the community as a whole. Largemouth bass occupied the largest proportion of community diet space (70.2%), followed by smallmouth bass (44.2%), and yellow perch (21.7%). The majority of community diet space (58.8%) was occupied by a single species, and 41.2% was shared by greater than or equal to 2 species. Diet overlap was assessed by measuring the amount of diet space of one species occupied by the other species. Our analyses demonstrated that diet partitioning in a three species piscivore community is reflected in different use of the prey resource by co-occurring species. Niche overlap of largemouth bass with smallmouth bass and yellow perch is strongly asymmetric, largely due to the ability of largemouth bass to effectively consume prey of terrestrial origin.

Notes: Week 4: Land to Lake; Times Cited: 10

Cited Reference Count: 47

Cited References:

BAKER JA, 1981, COPEIA, P178

BECKER GC, 1983, FISHES WISCONSIN

CLADY MD, 1982, T AM FISH SOC, V111, P665

FORNEY JL, 1977, J FISH RES BOARD CAN, V34, P1912

GASCON D, 1977, J FISH RES BOARD CAN, V34, P1105

HANSON JM, 1986, CAN J FISH AQUAT SCI, V43, P1363

HE X, 1994, PROC INT ASSOC THEOR, V25, P2092

HEIDINGER RC, 1975, BLACK BASS BIOL MANA, P11

HILBORN R, 1982, ACTA BIOTHEOR, V31, P145

HODGSON JR, 1987, AM MIDL NAT, V1187, P323

HODGSON JR, 1988, VERHANDLUNGEN INT VE, V23, P1670

HODGSON JR, 1989, T AM FISH SOC, V118, P11

HODGSON JR, 1991, CAN J FISH AQUAT SCI, V48, P1704

HODGSON JR, 1993, TROPHIC CASCADE LAKE, P43

HOFF MH, 1990, DEP NATURAL RESOURCE, V171

JOHNSON FH, 1977, J FISH RES BOARD CAN, V34, P1633

KEAST A, 1970, MARINE FOOD CHAINS, P377

LEIBOLD MA, 1995, ECOLOGY, V76, P1371

LITVAK MK, 1991, J ANIM ECOL, P931

LUDWIG JA, 1988, STAT ECOLOGY

MAGNAN P, 1982, CAN J ZOOL, V60, P1612

MAGNAN P, 1984, CAN J ZOOL, V62, P1548

MALONEY JE, 1962, T AM FISH SOC, V91, P42

MITTELBACH GG, 1984, ECOLOGY, V65, P499

MITTELBACH GG, 1995, ECOLOGY, V76, P2347

NILSSON NA, 1981, CAN J FISH AQUAT SCI, V38, P1228

PARRISH DL, 1990, CAN J FISH AQUAT SCI, V47, P1779

PEN LJ, 1993, ENVIRON BIOL FISH, V36, P167

PERSSON L, 1986, ECOLOGY, V67, P355

PERSSON L, 1990, ECOLOGY, V71, P44

RICKER WE, 1975, B FISH RES BOARD CAN, V191

ROSS ST, 1986, COPEIA, V2, P352

SALE PF, 1979, PREDATORPREY SYSTEMS

SCHINDLER DE, IN RPESS OCCOLOGIA

SCOTT WB, 1973, B FISH RES BOARD CAN, V84

SEABURG KG, 1957, PROGR FISH CULT, V19, P137

SERNS SL, 1984, DEP NAT RES TECHN B, V148

SNOW HE, 1969, 46 DEP NAT RES RES

SOKAL RR, 1981, BIOMETRY

TONN WM, 1985, ECOLOGY, V66, P415

TONN WM, 1986, OECOLOGIA, V69, P126

TREMBLAY S, 1991, CAN J FISH AQUAT SCI, V48, P857

WERNER EE, 1977, ECOLOGY, V58, P869

WERNER EE, 1977, J FISH RES BOARD CAN, V34, P360

WERNER EE, 1981, ECOLOGY, V62, P116

WERNER EE, 1986, COMMUNITY ECOLOGY, P344

ZIMMERMAN GM, 1985, ECOLOGY, V66, P606

English

Article

ECOL FRESHW FISH

XX548

URL: <Go to ISI>://A1997XX54800003

Author Address: UNIV WISCONSIN,CTR LIMNOL,MADISON,WI 53706.

Hodgson, JR, ST NORBERT COLL,DIV NAT SCI,DE PERE,WI 54115.

Reference Type: Journal Article

Record Number: 83

Author: Guyette, R. P.; Cole, W. G.

Year: 1999

Title: Age characteristics of coarse woody debris (Pinus strobus) in a lake littoral zone

Journal: Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences

Volume: 56

Issue: 3

Pages: 496-505

Date: Mar

Short Title: Age characteristics of coarse woody debris (Pinus strobus) in a lake littoral zone

Alternate Journal: Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci.

Accession Number: ISI:000081027800015

Keywords: old-growth

predation

forests

Abstract: Littoral coarse woody debris (CWD) is a persistent class of aquatic habitat that accumulates over many centuries and provides habitat for diverse floral and faunal communities. We used dendrochronological methods to analyze residence times and age-related characteristics of eastern white pine (Pinus strobus) CWD in the littoral zone of Swan Lake in Algonquin Provincial Park, Ontario. The mean calendar date of all the annual rings in CWD samples was 1551. Annual rings dated from calendar year 1893 to 982. The mean time from carbon assimilation in a live tree to carbon loss from littoral woody debris was 443 years. Outside ring dates of the woody debris were significantly correlated with the bole's maximum and minimum diameter ratio, mass, specific gravity, length, and submergence. Negative exponential functions described the temporal structure of the CWD mass and abundance. Accelerated inputs of woody debris resulted from late nineteenth century logging and a disturbance circa 1500. No mature eastern white pine have fallen into the lake over the last 100 years.

Notes: Week 4: Land to Lake; Times Cited: 11

Cited Reference Count: 34

Cited References:

*DFO, 1986, POL MAN FISH HAB

*OMNR, 1988, TIMB MAN GUID PROT F

*OMNR, 1991, COD PRACT TIMB MAN O

*OMNR, 1994, PRES REST NAT SHOR

*OMNR, 1998, IMPR FISH HAB

*OMNR, 1998, PROT FISH HAB

ANDRUS CW, 1988, CAN J FISH AQUAT SCI, V45, P2080

BAILLIE MGL, 1982, TREE RING DATING ARC

BILBY RE, 1991, CAN J FISH AQUAT SCI, V48, P2499

BIRO PA, 1995, BEHAVIOUR 1-2, V132, P57

BOWEN KL, 1995, 15 INT S LAK RES WAT

CHRISTENSEN DL, 1996, ECOL APPL, V6, P1143

EVERETT RA, 1993, OECOLOGIA, V93, P475

FAURE G, 1977, PRINCIPLES ISOTOPE G

FRANCE RL, 1997, CONSERV BIOL, V11, P513

FRITTS HC, 1976, TREE RINGS CLIMATE

GRISSINOMAYER HD, 1996, INT TREE RING DATA B

GUYETTE RP, 1996, 96004 NOAA NGDC

GUYETTE RP, 1996, 96013 NOAA NGDC

HARMON ME, 1986, ADV ECOL RES, V15, P133

HAYES AE, 1996, 135 ONT FOR RES I

HOFFMANN P, 1990, ADV CHEM SERIES, V225

HOLMES RL, 1986, TREE RING CHRONOLOGI

MASER C, 1994, FOREST SEA ECOLOGY

MCCART RE, 1995, FINAL PROGRAM AQUATI

MEANS JE, 1985, CAN J FOREST RES, V15, P1092

MITSCH WJ, 1986, WETLANDS

PANSHIN AJ, 1970, TXB WOOD TECHNOLOGY, V1

PIECZYNSKA E, 1990, MAN BIOSPHERE SERIES, V4, P103

STOKES MA, 1968, INTRO TREE RING DATI

TABOR RA, 1991, T AM FISH SOC, V120, P728

TYRRELL LE, 1994, CAN J FOREST RES, V24, P1672

YETE RP, 1995, 131 ONT FOR RES I

ZETTERBERG P, 1995, INT WORKSHOP ASIAN P, P134

English

Article

CAN J FISHERIES AQUAT SCI

209BQ

URL: <Go to ISI>://000081027800015

Author Address: Univ Missouri, Sch Nat Resources, Columbia, MO 65211 USA. Ontario Minist Nat Resources, Ontario Forest Res Inst, Sault St Marie, ON P6A 2E5, Canada.

Guyette, RP, Univ Missouri, Sch Nat Resources, 203 ABNR Bldg, Columbia, MO 65211 USA.

Reference Type: Journal Article

Record Number: 31

Author: James, M. R.; Hawes, I.; Weatherhead, M.; Stanger, C.; Gibbs, M.

Year: 2000

Title: Carbon flow in the littoral food web of an oligotrophic lake

Journal: Hydrobiologia

Volume: 441

Issue: 1-3

Pages: 93-106

Date: Dec

Short Title: Carbon flow in the littoral food web of an oligotrophic lake

Alternate Journal: Hydrobiologia

Accession Number: ISI:000167859000009

Keywords: stable isotopes

carbon flow

littoral foodwebs

lakes

stable-isotope analysis

new-zealand streams

invertebrate herbivores

species composition

aquatic plants

macrophytes

fresh

animals

ecosystem

biomass

Abstract: Benthic food web dynamics and carbon flow were examined in the littoral zone of Lake Coleridge, a large deep oligotrophic lake, using radioactive and stable isotope techniques in conjunction with analyses of stomach contents of the fauna. We specifically address two hypotheses: (1) that macrophytes only contribute to the carbon flow to higher trophic levels when they have decayed; and (2) that epiphytic algae is the major source of carbon for macroinvertebrates, and thus fish, with only minor contributions from phytoplankton or terrestrial sources. Epiphytic diatoms were a major component of the stomach contents of the gastropod snail Potamopyrgus antipodarum, and of chironomids. Animal remains were also common in the diet of some chironomids, while amorphous organic matter predominated in the stomachs of oligochaetes. A variety of epiphytic algal taxa was found in trichopteran larvae. Feeding rate of P. antipodarum measured with radioactive tracers increased by 10x on decayed macrophytes (Elodea) compared with live material, while feeding rates on characean algae increased by a factor of 3 when decayed material was presented. However, assimilation rates were less than 20% on decayed material compared with 48-52% on live material. Potential carbon sources were easily distinguished based on their delta C-13 values, although isotopic ratios showed significant variation among sites. Epiphytic algae showed less variation among sites than macrophytes and were depleted by 4-5 parts per thousand compared with macrophytes. Detrital material, organic matter in the sediments and plankton were significantly depleted in delta C-13 relative to macrophytes and slightly depleted relative to epiphytic algae. Most macroinvertebrate taxa showed a similar pattern among sites to macrophytes and epiphytic algae. P. antipodarum and chironomids were slightly enriched compared with epiphytic algae. Ratios for the common bully (Gobiomorphus cotidianus) were generally consistent with a diet dominated by chironomids, while there was some evidence for terrestrial inputs for koaro (Galaxias brevipinnis) and juvenile brown trout. Epiphytic algae appear to underpin much of the production in the littoral zone of this oligotrophic lake, with trichopteran and chironomid larvae mediating carbon flows from algae to fish. Macrophytes do not make a major contribution directly to carbon flow to higher trophic levels even when decayed. The lack of a direct link between macrophytes and higher trophic levels is due to the faunal composition, including a lack of large herbivores.

Notes: Week 4: Land to Lake; Times Cited: 13

Cited Reference Count: 35

Cited References:

BOON PI, 1994, AQUAT BOT, V48, P99

DENIRO MJ, 1978, GEOCHIM COSMOCHIM AC, V42, P495

DEWINTON MD, 1991, NEW ZEAL J MAR FRESH, V25, P145

DEWINTON MD, 1994, WAT ATMOS, V2, P23

DOUCETT RR, 1996, CAN J FISH AQUAT SCI, V53, P1913

FORSBERG BR, 1993, ECOLOGY, V74, P643

FRANCE RL, 1996, CAN J FISH AQUAT SCI, V53, P1916

FRANCE RL, 1996, FRESHWATER BIOL, V36, P1

GAEVSKAYA NS, 1966, ROLE HIGHER AQUATIC

GRAYNOTH E, 1993, 6 MAF

HAMILTON SK, 1992, OECOLOGIA, V89, P324

HAWES I, 1996, FRESHWATER BIOL, V36, P297

HECKY RE, 1995, J N AM BENTHOL SOC, V14, P631

HOWARDWILLIAMS C, 1979, LAKE SIBAYA, P88

JAMES MR, 1998, NEW ZEAL J MAR FRESH, V32, P287

JAMES MR, 2000, FRESHWATER BIOL, V44, P311

KAIRESALO T, 1989, J ECOL, V77, P332

KEOUGH JR, 1996, LIMNOL OCEANOGR, V41, P136

KEOUGH JR, 1998, LIMNOL OCEANOGR, V43, P734

KORNIJOW R, 1995, FRESHWATER BIOL, V33, P205

KORNIJOW R, 1996, HYDROBIOLOGIA, V319, P185

MCCARTER NH, 1986, NEW ZEAL J MAR FRESH, V20, P551

OSMOND CB, 1981, OECOLOGIA, V50, P117

PETERSON BJ, 1987, ANNU REV ECOL SYST, V18, P293

RAU GH, 1980, CAN J FISH AQUAT SCI, V37, P742

ROUNICK JS, 1982, OIKOS, V39, P191

ROUNICK JS, 1983, FRESHWATER BIOL, V13, P57

ROUNICK JS, 1985, FRESHWATER BIOL, V15, P207

SCHALLENBERG M, 1999, NEW ZEAL J MAR FRESH, V33, P311

SCHWARZ AM, 1997, AQUAT BOT, V56, P169

SCHWARZ AM, 1999, AUST J BOT, V47, P325

SHELFORD VE, 1918, FRESHWATER BIOL, P21

SUREN AM, 1989, HYDROBIOLOGIA, V178, P165

TOETZ D, 1997, J FRESHWATER ECOL, V12, P545

WINTERBOURN MJ, 1975, NZ LAKES

English

Article

HYDROBIOLOGIA

417WT

URL: <Go to ISI>://000167859000009

Author Address: Natl Inst Water & Atmospher Res Ltd, Hamilton, New Zealand.

James, MR, Natl Inst Water & Atmospher Res Ltd, POB 11115, Hamilton, New Zealand.

Reference Type: Journal Article

Record Number: 70

Author: Karlsson, J.; Jonsson, A.; Meili, M.; Jansson, M.

Year: 2003

Title: Control of zooplankton dependence on allochthonous organic carbon in humic and clear-water lakes in northern Sweden

Journal: Limnology and Oceanography

Volume: 48

Issue: 1

Pages: 269-276

Date: Jan

Short Title: Control of zooplankton dependence on allochthonous organic carbon in humic and clear-water lakes in northern Sweden

Alternate Journal: Limnol. Oceanogr.

Accession Number: ISI:000182050000025

Keywords: stable-isotope analysis

growth-rate

tjeukemeer netherlands

food

webs

fractionation

phytoplankton

matter

marine

discrimination

availability

Abstract: We compared the stable carbon isotopic composition (delta(13)C) of crustacean zooplankton with that of potential carbon sources in 15 lakes in northern Sweden with different dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations (2-9 mg L-1) to test the hypothesis that zooplankton depended more on allochthonous carbon in humic lakes than in clear-water lakes. Based on delta(13)C signature, we found that the pool of organic matter in the lakes was dominated by carbon of allochthonous origin over the whole DOC gradient. Zooplankton were generally depleted in C-13 compared to organic matter in the catchment, particulate organic matter in the lake water, and shallow surface sediment. However, the isotopic composition of zooplankton could not be explained without a significant contribution from both allochthonous and autochthonous carbon sources in all lakes. The relative importance of these two carbon sources did not relate to the concentration of, or proportion between, allochthonous and autochthonous organic carbon in the water. Instead, the proportion between allochthonous and autochthonous carbon in the crustacean zooplankton was consistent with a rather conservative use of the energy mobilized by bacterioplankton and phytoplankton in the lakes.

Notes: Week 4: Land to Lake; Times Cited: 14

Cited Reference Count: 43

Cited References:

*SOIL SURV STAFF, 1990, SMSS TECHN MON, V6

ARVOLA L, 1996, CAN J FISH AQUAT SCI, V53, P1646

BAINES SB, 1991, LIMNOL OCEANOGR, V36, P1078

BERN L, 1994, FRESHWATER BIOL, V32, P105

BJORKRAMBERG S, 1985, HYDROBIOLOGIA, V126, P213

BURKHARDT S, 1999, MAR ECOL-PROG SER, V184, P31

COFFIN RB, 1994, STABLE ISOTOPES ECOL, P222

COLE JJ, 1994, SCIENCE, V265, P1568

DEHAAN H, 1974, FRESHWATER BIOL, V4, P301

DEHAAN H, 1977, LIMNOL OCEANOGR, V22, P38

DELGIORGIO PA, 1996, LIMNOL OCEANOGR, V41, P359

DELGIORGIO PA, 1998, ANNU REV ECOL SYST, V29, P503

FRANCE RL, 1995, LIMNOL OCEANOGR, V40, P1310

FRANCE RL, 1995, MAR ECOL-PROG SER, V124, P307

GOERICKE R, 1994, STABLE ISOTOPES ECOL, P187

GREY J, 2001, LIMNOL OCEANOGR, V46, P505

HECKY RE, 1995, J N AM BENTHOL SOC, V14, P631

HESSEN DO, 1990, LIMNOL OCEANOGR, V35, P84

HESSEN DO, 1998, AQUATIC HUMIC SUBSTA

JANSSON M, 2000, ECOLOGY, V81, P3250

JONES RI, 1992, HYDROBIOLOGIA, V229, P73

JONES RI, 1999, OIKOS, V86, P97

JONSSON A, IN PRESS ECOSYSTEMS

KARLSSON J, 2001, MICROBIAL ECOL, V42, P372

KARLSSON J, 2002, ECOLOGY, V83, P2902

KORNER C, 1988, OECOLOGIA, V74, P623

KORNER C, 1991, OECOLOGIA, V88, P30

LAMPERT W, 1978, LIMNOL OCEANOGR, V23, P831

LAWS EA, 1995, GEOCHIM COSMOCHIM AC, V59, P1131

LAWS EA, 1997, LIMNOL OCEANOGR, V42, P1552

MEILI M, 1993, VERH INT VEREIN LIMN, V25, P501

MEILI M, 1996, ARCH HYDROBIOL SPEC, V48, P53

MEILI M, 2000, VERH INT VER LIMNOL, V27, P1940

MICHENER RH, 1994, STABLE ISOTOPES ECOL, P138

MOOK WG, 1974, EARTH PLANET SC LETT, V22, P169

POPP BN, 1998, GEOCHIM COSMOCHIM AC, V62, P69

RAU G, 1978, SCIENCE, V20, P901

SALONEN K, 1986, OECOLOGIA, V68, P246

STERNER RW, 1986, PLANKTON ECOLOGY, P107

TRANVIK LJ, 1988, MICRO ECOL, V16, P311

VANDERZANDEN MJ, 2001, LIMNOL OCEANOGR, V46, P2061

WEISS RF, 1974, MAR CHEM, V2, P203

WELCH HE, 1974, J FISH RES BOARD CAN, V31, P609

English

Article

LIMNOL OCEANOGR

664FA

URL: <Go to ISI>://000182050000025

Author Address: Abisko Sci Res Stn, CIRC, SE-98107 Abisko, Sweden. Umea Univ, Dept Ecol & Environm Sci, SE-90187 Umea, Sweden. Stockholm Univ, Inst Appl Environm Res, ITM, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden.

Karlsson, J, Abisko Sci Res Stn, CIRC, SE-98107 Abisko, Sweden.

Reference Type: Journal Article

Record Number: 78

Author: Grey, J.; Jones, R. I.; Sleep, D.

Year: 2000

Title: Stable isotope analysis of the origins of zooplankton carbon in lakes of differing trophic state

Journal: Oecologia

Volume: 123

Issue: 2

Pages: 232-240

Date: May

Short Title: Stable isotope analysis of the origins of zooplankton carbon in lakes of differing trophic state

Alternate Journal: Oecologia

Accession Number: ISI:000087457800011

Keywords: carbon stable isotopes

plankton

allochthonous organic matter

lake

trophy

pelagic food-web

organic-carbon

humic lake

loch-ness

delta-c-13

ecosystem

patterns

plankton

matter

water

Abstract: Carbon stable isotope analysis was carried out on zooplankton from 24 United Kingdom lakes to examine the hypothesis that zooplankton dependence on allochthonous sources of organic carbon declines with increasing lake trophy. Stable isotope analysis was also carried out on particulate and dissolved organic matter (POM and DOM) and, in 11 of the lakes, of phytoplankton isolates. In 21 of the 24 lakes, the zooplankton were depleted in C-13 relative to bulk POM, consistent with previous reports. delta(13)C for POM showed relatively little variation between lakes compared to high variation in values for DOM and phytoplankton. delta(13)C values for phytoplankton and POM converged with increasing lake trophy, consistent with the expected greater contribution of autochthonous production to the total organic matter pool in eutrophic lakes. The difference between delta(13)C for zooplankton and that for POM was also greatest in oligotrophic lakes and reduced in mesotrophic lakes, in accordance with the hypothesis that increasing lake trophic state leads to greater dependence of zooplankton on phytoplankton production. However, the difference increased again in hypertrophic lakes, where higher delta(13)C values for POM may have been due to greater inputs of C-13-enriched organic matter from the littoral zone. The very wide variation in phytoplankton delta(13)C between lakes of all trophic categories made it difficult to detect robust patterns in the variation in delta(13)C for zooplankton.

Notes: Week 4: Land to Lake; Times Cited: 15

Cited Reference Count: 37

Cited References:

BLIGH EG, 1959, CAN J BIOCH PHYSL, V37, P911

CUTHBERT ID, 1992, LIMNOL OCEANOGR, V37, P1319

DEGENS ET, 1968, DEEP-SEA RES, V15, P1

DELGIORGIO PA, 1994, LIMNOL OCEANOGR, V39, P772

DELGIORGIO PA, 1996, LIMNOL OCEANOGR, V41, P359

FRANCE RL, 1995, LIMNOL OCEANOGR, V40, P1310

FRANCE RL, 1997, AQUAT MICROB ECOL, V12, P85

FRANCIS A, 1997, CONVULSIVE THER, V13, P54

FRANCOIS R, 1993, GLOBAL BIOGEOCHEM CY, V7, P627

FRY B, 1984, CONTRIB MAR SCI, V27, P15

FRY B, 1991, MAR ECOL-PROG SER, V76, P149

GREY J, 1999, RAPID COMMUN MASS SP, V13, P1311

GU B, 1997, CAN J FISH AQUAT SCI, V51, P1338

GU BH, 1994, CAN J FISH AQUAT SCI, V51, P1338

HESSEN DO, 1990, LIMNOL OCEANOGR, V35, P84

JONES RI, 1984, VERH INT VEREIN LIMN, V22, P811

JONES RI, 1992, HYDROBIOLOGIA, V229, P73

JONES RI, 1997, PROC INT ASSOC THE 2, V26, P330

JONES RI, 1998, P ROY SOC LOND B BIO, V265, P105

JONES RI, 1999, OIKOS, V86, P97

KEOUGH JR, 1996, LIMNOL OCEANOGR, V41, P136

KLING GW, 1992, ECOLOGY, V73, P561

LAJTHA K, 1994, STABLE ISOTOPES ECOL, P1

LAMPERT W, 1997, LIMNOECOLOGY

LAYBOURNPARRY J, 1994, J PLANKTON RES, V16, P1655

MEILI M, 1992, HYDROBIOLOGIA, V229, P23

MEILI M, 1993, VERH INT VEREIN LIMN, V25, P501

MEILI M, 1996, ARCH HYDROBIOL SPEC, V48, P53

MOSS B, 1992, EUTROPHICATION RES A, P73

PETERSON BJ, 1987, ANNU REV ECOL SYST, V18, P293

RAU GH, 1978, SCIENCE, V201, P901

RAVEN JA, 1994, NEW PHYTOL, V127, P271

SALONEN K, 1979, LIMNOL OCEANOGR, V24, P177

SALONEN K, 1992, HYDROBIOLOGIA, V229, P271

SCHLACHER TA, 1996, OECOLOGIA, V106, P382

YOSHIOKA T, 1994, ECOLOGY, V75, P835

ZOHARY T, 1994, LIMNOL OCEANOGR, V39, P1030

English

Article

OECOLOGIA

321LW

URL: <Go to ISI>://000087457800011

Author Address: Univ Lancaster, Dept Sci Biol, Inst Environm & Nat Sci, Lancaster LA1 4YQ, England. Inst Terr Ecol, Merlewood Res Stn, Grange Sands LA11 6JU, Cumbria, England.

Grey, J, Univ Lancaster, Dept Sci Biol, Inst Environm & Nat Sci, Lancaster LA1 4YQ, England.

Reference Type: Journal Article

Record Number: 63

Author: Kritzberg, E. S.; Cole, J. J.; Pace, M. L.; Graneli, W.; Bade, D. L.

Year: 2004

Title: Autochthonous versus allochthonous carbon sources of bacteria: Results from whole-lake C-13 addition experiments

Journal: Limnology and Oceanography

Volume: 49

Issue: 2

Pages: 588-596

Date: Mar

Short Title: Autochthonous versus allochthonous carbon sources of bacteria: Results from whole-lake C-13 addition experiments

Alternate Journal: Limnol. Oceanogr.

Accession Number: ISI:000224979500026

Keywords: dissolved organic-carbon

food-web

estuarine bacteria

isotope

analysis

bacterioplankton

phytoplankton

fractionation

substances

ecosystems

support

Abstract: Organic substrates for pelagic bacteria are derived from dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in the water column. DOC is a heterogeneous mixture of molecules, some of which are imported from the watershed (allochthonous DOC) and others that are produced by autotrophs within the system (autochthonous DOC). We examined the importance of autochthonous versus allochthonous DOC in supporting the growth of pelagic bacteria by manipulating the C-13 content of autochthonous sources in a whole-lake experiment. (NaHCO3)-C-13 was added daily to two small forested lakes for a period of 42 d, thereby strongly labeling autochthonous primary production. To obtain bacterial carbon isotopes, bacteria were regrown in vitro in particle-free lake water and in situ in dialysis tubes; little difference was found between the two methods. The contribution of autochthonous versus allochthonous carbon to the bacterial biomass was estimated by applying a two-member mixing model using a C-13 of -28parts per thousand as the allochthonous end member. The autochthonous end member, which varied over time, was estimated indirectly by several approaches. The bacterial biomass consisted of 35-70% allochthonous carbon. This result confirms the often-stated hypothesis that autochthonous carbon alone does not support bacterial production. On the other hand, autochthonous DOC was preferentially utilized relative to terrestrial DOC. On the basis of C-13 measurements, only 13% of the DOC standing stock was of recent autochthonous origin, but it supported 30-65% of bacterial production.

Notes: Week 4: Land to Lake; Times Cited: 16

Cited Reference Count: 38

Cited References:

ANESIO AM, 2000, MICROBIAL ECOL, V40, P200

BLAIR N, 1985, APPL ENVIRON MICROB, V50, P996

BOSCHKER HTS, 1999, LIMNOL OCEANOGR, V44, P309

CARPENTER SR, 1993, TROPHIC CASCADE LAKE

CARPENTER SR, 1996, ECOLOGY, V77, P725

CHEN WH, 1996, J PLANKTON RES, V18, P1521

CHROST RJ, 1990, AQUAT MICROB ECOL, P47

COFFIN RB, 1989, LIMNOL OCEANOGR, V34, P1305

COFFIN RB, 1990, APPL ENVIRON MICROB, V56, P2012

COLE JJ, 1988, MAR ECOL-PROG SER, V43, P1

COLE JJ, 1994, SCIENCE, V265, P1568

COLE JJ, 2000, LIMNOL OCEANOGR, V45, P1718

COLE JJ, 2002, OCEANOGR, V47, P1664

DELGIORGIO PA, 1994, LIMNOL OCEANOGR, V39, P772

FRANCE RL, 1995, MAR ECOL-PROG SER, V124, P307

FRY B, 1984, CONTRIB MAR SCI, V27, P13

FRY B, 1992, ANAL CHEM, V64, P289

HERNDL GJ, 1993, HDB METHODS AQUATIC, P553

HOBBIE JE, 1977, APPLIED ENV MICROBIO, V33, P1225

HULLAR MAJ, 1996, APPL ENVIRON MICROB, V62, P2489

JANSSON M, 1999, ARCH HYDROBIOL, V144, P409

JONES RI, 1998, P ROY SOC LOND B BIO, V265, P105

LAJTHA K, 1994, STABLE ISOTOPES ECOL, P1

LAWS EA, 1995, GEOCHIM COSMOCHIM AC, V59, P1131

MEILI M, 1996, ARCH HYDROBIOL SPEC, V48, P53

MOOK WG, 1974, EARTH PLANET SC LETT, V22, P169

MORAN MA, 1994, MAR ECOL-PROG SER, V110, P241

PACE ML, 2004, NATURE, V427, P240

PELZ O, 1998, FEMS MICROBIOL ECOL, V25, P229

SCHINDLER DW, 1992, HYDROBIOLOGIA, V229, P1

SUNDH I, 1992, APPL ENVIRON MICROB, V58, P2938

THOMAS DN, 1995, MAR ECOL-PROG SER, V116, P309

TRANVIK L, 1998, AQUAT MICROB ECOL, V14, P301

TRANVIK LJ, 1988, MICRO ECOL, V16, P311

TRANVIK LJ, 1998, AQUATIC HUMIC SUBSTA, P259

VREDE K, 2002, APPL ENVIRON MICROB, V68, P2965

WAICHMAN AV, 1996, HYDROBIOLOGIA, V341, P27

WETZEL RG, 2001, LIMNOLOGY LAKE RIVER

English

Article

LIMNOL OCEANOGR

869JP

URL: <Go to ISI>://000224979500026

Author Address: Lund Univ, Dept Ecol Limnol, S-22362 Lund, Sweden. Inst Ecosyst Studies, Millbrook, NY 12545 USA. Univ Wisconsin, Ctr Limnol, Madison, WI 53706 USA.

Kritzberg, ES, Lund Univ, Dept Ecol Limnol, S-22362 Lund, Sweden.

Reference Type: Journal Article

Record Number: 79

Author: Bergstrom, A. K.; Jansson, M.

Year: 2000

Title: Bacterioplankton production in humic Lake Ortrasket in relation to input of bacterial cells and input of allochthonous organic carbon

Journal: Microbial Ecology

Volume: 39

Issue: 2

Pages: 101-115

Date: Feb

Short Title: Bacterioplankton production in humic Lake Ortrasket in relation to input of bacterial cells and input of allochthonous organic carbon

Alternate Journal: Microb. Ecol.

Accession Number: ISI:000087333300001

Keywords: northern sweden

fresh-water

oligotrophic lakes

aquatic systems

food-web

matter

phytoplankton

phosphorus

substances

growth

Abstract: In order to compare riverine bacteria input with lake water bacterial production and grazing loss with output loss, a bacterial cell budget was constructed for humic Lake Ortrasket in northern Sweden. The riverine input of bacterial cells in 1997 represented 29% of the number of bacterial cells produced within the layer of the lake affected by inlet water. A large share of the in situ lake bacterial production was consumed by grazers, mainly flagellates, which stresses the importance of bacteria as energy mobilizers for the pelagic food web in the lake. The bacterial production in Lake Ortrasket, which is almost entirely dependent on humic material as an energy source, was clearly stimulated by high flow episodes which brought high amounts of little degraded material into the lake. During base flow condition the bacterial production in the inlet rivers was high, which led to an input of more degraded material to the lake. This material did not stimulate the lake bacterial production. Internal factors that determined the utilization of the allochthonous DOC in the lake were the retention time and the exposure to light and high temperatures. Thus, the potential for in situ production of bacteria in Lake Ortrasket was to a large extent a function of how precipitation and runoff conditions affected terrestrial losses and river transport of humic material.

Notes: Week 4: Land to Lake; Times Cited: 16

Cited Reference Count: 58

Cited References:

AHLGREN G, 1988, HYDROBIOLOGIA, V170, P191

ARVOLA L, 1984, HOLARCTIC ECOL, V7, P390

BELL RT, 1983, APPL ENVIRON MICROB, V45, P1709

BERTILSSON S, 1998, LIMNOL OCEANOGR, V43, P885

CHANEY AL, 1962, CLIN CHEM, V8, P130

DELGIORGIO PA, 1994, LIMNOL OCEANOGR, V39, P772

DELGIORGIO PA, 1997, NATURE, V385, P148

DRAKARE S, 1999, UNPUB PRIMARY PRODUC

FORSGREN G, 1993, HYDROBIOLOGIA, V253, P233

FRY JC, 1988, METHODS AQUATIC BACT

HESSEN DO, 1985, FEMS MICROBIOL ECOL, V31, P215

HESSEN DO, 1992, HYDROBIOLOGIA, V229, P115

HESSEN DO, 1994, ENVIRON INT, V20, P67

ISAKSSON A, 1999, J PLANKTON RES, V21, P247

IVARSSON H, 1992, 15 UM U

IVARSSON H, 1994, ARCH HYDROBIOL, V132, P45

JANSSON M, 1996, LIMNOL OCEANOGR, V41, P1552

JANSSON M, 1998, AQUATIC HUMIC SUBSTA, P177

JANSSON M, 1999, ARCH HYDROBIOL, V144, P409

JONES RI, 1988, FRESHWATER BIOL, V19, P357

JONES RI, 1992, HYDROBIOLOGIA, V229, P73

JONES RI, 1998, AQUATIC HUMIC SUBSTA, P145

JONSSON A, 1997, ARCH HYDROBIOL, V141, P45

JONSSON A, 1997, THESIS UMEA U UMEA S

JONSSON A, 1999, UNPUB MINERALISATION

JONSSON E, 1966, VATTEN, P10

KANKAALA P, 1988, FRESHWATER BIOL, V19, P285

KANKAALA P, 1996, CAN J FISH AQUAT SCI, V53, P1663

LINDELL MJ, 1995, LIMNOL OCEANOGR, V40, P195

MARANGER R, 1995, MAR ECOL-PROG SER, V121, P217

MCKNIGHT D, 1985, ECOLOGY, V66, P1339

MCMANUS GB, 1991, LIMNOL OCEANOGR, V36, P613

MENZEL DW, 1965, LIMNOL OCEANOGR, V10, P280

MEYER JL, 1994, MICROBIAL ECOL, V28, P195

MOLOT LA, 1997, GLOBAL BIOGEOCHEM CY, V11, P357

MORAN MA, 1990, LIMNOL OCEANOGR, V35, P1744

MORAN MA, 1997, LIMNOL OCEANOGR, V42, P1307

MURPHY J, 1962, ANAL CHIM ACTA, V27, P31

NADEN PS, 1989, ENVIRON POLLUT, V60, P141

OLRIK K, 1998, METHODS QUANTITATI 1

RAMBERG L, 1979, INT REV GES HYDROBIO, V64, P749

SALONEN K, 1981, VERH INT VER LIMNOL, V21, P448

SALONEN K, 1994, ENVIRON INT, V20, P307

SANDERS RW, 1989, LIMNOL OCEANOGR, V34, P673

THIENEMANN A, 1925, BINNENGEWASSER, V1

TIPPING E, 1981, GEOCHIM COSMOCHIM AC, V45, P191

TRANVIK LJ, 1988, MICRO ECOL, V16, P311

TRANVIK LJ, 1989, J PLANKTON RES, V11, P985

TRANVIK LJ, 1989, LIMNOL OCEANOGR, V34, P688

TRANVIK LJ, 1989, THESIS U LUND

WEINBAUER MG, 1998, APPL ENVIRON MICROB, V64, P431

WELCH HE, 1985, CAN J FISH AQUAT SCI, V42, P506

WETZEL RG, 1983, LIMNOLOYG

WETZEL RG, 1991, LIMNOLOGICAL ANAL

WETZEL RG, 1995, LIMNOL OCEANOGR, V40, P1369

WHITE PA, 1991, MICROBIAL ECOL, V21, P99

WIKNER J, 1999, AQUAT MICROB ECOL, V17, P289

WOOD ED, 1967, J MAR BIOL ASSOC UK, V47, P23

English

Article

MICROBIAL ECOL

319GN

URL: <Go to ISI>://000087333300001

Author Address: Umea Univ, Dept Ecol & Environm Sci Phys Geog, SE-90187 Umea, Sweden.

Bergstrom, AK, Umea Univ, Dept Ecol & Environm Sci Phys Geog, SE-90187 Umea, Sweden.

Reference Type: Journal Article

Record Number: 38

Author: France, R.; Steedman, R.

Year: 1996

Title: Energy provenance for juvenile lake trout in small Canadian Shield lakes as shown by stable isotopes

Journal: Transactions of the American Fisheries Society

Volume: 125

Issue: 4

Pages: 512-518

Date: Jul

Short Title: Energy provenance for juvenile lake trout in small Canadian Shield lakes as shown by stable isotopes

Alternate Journal: Trans. Am. Fish. Soc.

Accession Number: ISI:A1996UX35600003

Keywords: food-chain structure

salvelinus-namaycush

eutrophic lake

ontario

lakes

trophic level

carbon

fish

nitrogen

acidification

populations

Abstract: As part of a study of trophic connectivity of boreal lakes and their riparian shorelines, juvenile lake trout Salvelinus namaycush were collected from four small oligotrophic lakes on the Canadian Shield in northwestern Ontario and analyzed for nitrogen and carbon stable isotopes. Nitrogen isotope ratios indicated that these populations of juvenile lake trout were relatively omnivorous, exhibiting individual delta(15)N values (deviations of the N-15/N-14 ratio from the isotopic standard) consistent with predation on opossum shrimp Mysis relicta (41% of samples), zooplankton (35% of samples), and littoral organisms (25% of samples). Carbon isotope ratios indicated that these juvenile lake trout obtained on average about half of their carbon from littoral sources outside the deepwater pelagic zone. These observations suggest that lake trout in small Canadian Shield lakes depend on some combination of terrestrial inputs and littoral foodwebs to satisfy their energy requirements.

Notes: Week 4: Land to Lake; Times Cited: 17

Cited Reference Count: 37

Cited References:

BUNN SE, 1993, OECOLOGIA, V96, P85

CABANA G, 1994, CAN J FISH AQUAT SCI, V51, P381

CABANA G, 1994, NATURE, V372, P255

ESTEP MLF, 1985, CAN J FISH AQUAT SCI, V42, P1712

FORSBERG BR, 1993, ECOLOGY, V74, P643

FRANCE R, 1996, ENVIRON MANAGE, V20, P249

FRANCE RL, IN PRESS FRESHWATER

FRANCE RL, 1985, ESTUARINE COASTAL SH, V41, P737

FRANCE RL, 1994, MAR ECOL-PROG SER, V115, P205

FRANCE RL, 1995, BIOL CONSERV, V71, P35

FRANCE RL, 1995, CONSERV BIOL, V9, P1578

FRANCE RL, 1995, J PLANKTON RES, V17, P1993

FRANCE RL, 1995, LIMNOL OCEANOGR, V40, P1310

FRANCE RL, 1995, MAR ECOL-PROG SER, V124, P307

FRY B, 1991, ECOLOGY, V72, P2293

HAMILTON SK, 1992, OECOLOGIA, V89, P324

HECKY RE, 1995, J N AM BENTHOL SOC, V14, P631

HESSLEIN RH, 1991, CAN J FISH AQUAT SCI, V48, P2258

KETTLE D, 1978, J FISH RES BOARD CAN, V35, P1495

KLING GW, 1992, ECOLOGY, V73, P561

KONKLE BR, 1986, T AM FISH SOC, V115, P515

MARTIN NV, 1952, T AM FISH SOC, V81, P111

MARTIN NV, 1966, T AM FISH SOC, V95, P415

MARTIN NV, 1970, J FISH RES BOARD CAN, V27, P125

MEILI M, 1993, VERH INT VEREIN LIMN, V25, P501

MILLS KH, 1987, CAN J FISH AQUAT SCI, V44, P114

NERO RW, 1983, CAN J FISH AQUAT SCI, V40, P1905

OWENS NJP, 1987, ADV MAR BIOL, V24, P389

PETERSON BJ, 1987, ANNU REV ECOL SYST, V18, P293

RASMUSSEN JB, 1990, CAN J FISH AQUAT SCI, V47, P2030

RAU GH, 1980, CAN J FISH AQUAT SCI, V37, P742

TODA H, 1990, HYDROBIOLOGIA, V194, P85

TRIPPEL EA, 1989, CAN J FISH AQUAT SCI, V46, P1531

TRIPPEL EA, 1993, CAN J FISH AQUAT SCI, V50, P1442

VANDERZANDEN MJ, IN PRESS ECOLOGICAL

YOSHIOKA T, 1988, VERH INT VEREIN LIMN, V23, P573

YOSHIOKA T, 1994, ECOLOGY, V75, P835

English

Article

TRANS AMER FISH SOC

UX356

URL: <Go to ISI>://A1996UX35600003

Author Address: ONTARIO MINIST NAT RESOURCES,CTR NO FOREST ECOSYST RES,THUNDER BAY,ON P7B 5E1,CANADA.

France, R, MCGILL UNIV,DEPT BIOL,1205 AVE DOCTEUR PENFIELD,MONTREAL,PQ H3A 1B1,CANADA.

Reference Type: Journal Article

Record Number: 86

Author: France, R. L.; Peters, R. H.

Year: 1997

Title: Ecosystem differences in the trophic enrichment of C-13 in aquatic food webs

Journal: Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences

Volume: 54

Issue: 6

Pages: 1255-1258

Date: Jun

Short Title: Ecosystem differences in the trophic enrichment of C-13 in aquatic food webs

Alternate Journal: Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci.

Accession Number: ISI:A1997XR88900005

Keywords: nitrogen isotopes

feeding diversity

carbon isotopes

marine

c-13/c-12

n-15/n-14

diet

fish

sea

fractionation

Abstract: Data from 35 published studies were collated to examine patterns in the trophic enrichment of C-13 of consumers. Because both delta(13)C and delta(14)N vary systematically across ecosystems, it was necessary to standardize for such differences before combining data from numerous sources. Relationships of these measures of ecosystem-standardized delta(13)C to ecosystem-standardized trophic position (Delta delta(15)N) for freshwater, estuarine, coastal, and open-ocean and for all aquatic ecosystems yielded regression equations of low predictive capability (average of 20% explained variance in delta(13)C). However, differences were observed in the slopes between delta(13)C and standardized trophic position when data were examined study-specifically: the average trophic fractionation of C-13 was found to increase from +0.2 parts per thousand for freshwater to +0.5 parts per thousand for estuarine to +0.8 parts per thousand for coastal, and to +1.1 parts per thousand for open-ocean food webs. This ecosystem-specific gradient in C-13 enrichment for consumers supports previous findings of a similar continuum existing for zooplankton - particulate organic matter differences in delta(13)C. Possible mechanisms to explain these ecosystem-specific patterns in C-13 enrichment may be related to the relative importance of detritus, heterotrophic respiration, partial reliance on alternative food sources, and lipid influences in the different ecosystems.

Notes: Week 4: Land to Lake; Times Cited: 27

Cited Reference Count: 28

Cited References:

DELGIORGIO PA, 1996, LIMNOL OCEANOGR, V41, P359

DENIRO MJ, 1977, SCIENCE, V197, P261

DENIRO MJ, 1978, GEOCHIM COSMOCHIM AC, V42, P495

DENIRO MJ, 1981, GEOCHIMICA COSMOCHIM, V45, P341

DICKSON ML, 1986, THESIS MEMORIAL U NE

FRANCE R, 1995, ESTUAR COAST SHELF S, V41, P737

FRANCE RL, 1994, MAR ECOL-PROG SER, V115, P205

FRANCE RL, 1995, ECOGRAPHY, V18, P318

FRANCE RL, 1995, J PLANKTON RES, V17, P1993

FRANCE RL, 1996, FRESHWATER BIOL, V36, P1

FRANCE RL, 1997, ECOL FRESHW FISH, V6, P78

FRY B, 1984, CONTRIB MAR SCI, V27, P13

FRY B, 1984, CONTRIB MAR SCI, V27, P49

FRY B, 1988, LIMNOL OCEANOGR, V33, P1182

HOBSON KA, 1992, MAR ECOL-PROG SER, V84, P9

KEOUGH JR, 1996, LIMNOL OCEANOGR, V41, P136

MACKO SA, 1994, STABLE ISOTOPES ECOL, P45

MCCONNAUGHEY T, 1979, MAR BIOL, V53, P257

MILLS EL, 1984, RAPPORTS PROCES VERB, V183, P111

MONTEIRO PMS, 1991, MAR ECOL-PROG SER, V78, P33

OWENS NJP, 1987, ADV MAR BIOL, V24, P389

RAU GH, 1983, ECOLOGY, V64, P1314

RAU GH, 1991, MAR ECOL-PROG SER, V77, P1

RAU GH, 1992, MAR ECOL-PROG SER, V84, P1

RODELLI MR, 1984, OECOLOGIA, V61, P326

SHEARER G, 1989, STABLE ISOTOPES ECOL, P342

SHOLTODOUGLAS AD, 1991, MAR ECOL-PROG SER, V78, P23

WADA E, 1987, DEEP-SEA RES, V34, P829

English

Article

CAN J FISHERIES AQUAT SCI

XR889

URL: <Go to ISI>://A1997XR88900005

Author Address: MCGILL UNIV,DEPT BIOL,MONTREAL,PQ H3A 1B1,CANADA.

France, RL, HARVARD UNIV,GRAD SCH DESIGN,48 QUINCY ST,CAMBRIDGE,MA 02138.

Reference Type: Journal Article

Record Number: 72

Author: Jonsson, A.; Meili, M.; Bergstrom, A. K.; Jansson, M.

Year: 2001

Title: Whole-lake mineralization of allochthonous and autochthonous organic carbon in a large humic lake (Ortrasket, N. Sweden)

Journal: Limnology and Oceanography

Volume: 46

Issue: 7

Pages: 1691-1700

Date: Nov

Short Title: Whole-lake mineralization of allochthonous and autochthonous organic carbon in a large humic lake (Ortrasket, N. Sweden)

Alternate Journal: Limnol. Oceanogr.

Accession Number: ISI:000172131900011

Keywords: northern sweden

bacterial production

inorganic carbon

aquatic

systems

respiration

dioxide

waters

fresh

river

sedimentation

Abstract: Organic carbon mineralization was studied. in a large humic lake (Lake Ortrasket) in northern Sweden during a well-defined summer stratification period following high water flow during snowmelt. Several independent methods including plankton counts, measurements of bacterioplankton and phytoplankton production, stable isotope monitoring, sediment trapping, and mass balance calculations were used. Total organic carbon mineralization showed a summer mean of 0.3 g C m(-2) d(-1) and was partitioned about equally between water and sediment. In the water column, organic matter was mineralized by bacteria (60%) and protozoan and metazoan zooplankton (30%), as well as by photooxidation (10%). Most of the mineralized organic carbon was of allochthonous origin. Primary production in the lake contributed at most 5% of the total organic carbon input and about 20% of the total organic carbon mineralization. Total carbon mineralization in. the epilimnion and metalimnion agreed well with an estimate of CO2 evasion from the stratified lake, while CO2 accumulation in the hypolimnion matched the O-2 consumption and resulted in a very negative delta C-13 of DIC before autumn overturn (-23 parts per thousand). Isotopic compositions of DIC and POC confirmed the dominant influence of terrestrial organic input on the cycling of both organic and inorganic carbon in the lake.

Notes: Week 4: Land to Lake; Times Cited: 27

Cited Reference Count: 37

Cited References:

ARVOLA L, 1996, CAN J FISH AQUAT SCI, V53, P1646

BELL RT, 1987, LIMNOL OCEANOGR, V32, P476

BERGSTROM AK, 2000, MICROBIAL ECOL, V39, P101

BERTILSSON S, 1999, AQUAT MICROB ECOL, V19, P47

COLE JJ, 1988, MAR ECOL-PROG SER, V43, P1

COLE JJ, 1994, SCIENCE, V265, P1568

COLE JJ, 1998, ECOSYSTEMS, V1, P310

CONWAY NM, 1994, STABLE ISOTOPES ECOL, P158

DELGIORGIO PA, 1997, NATURE, V385, P148

DELGIORGIO PA, 1998, ANNU REV ECOL SYST, V29, P503

GRANELI W, 1996, LIMNOL OCEANOGR, V41, P698

HESSEN DO, 1992, HYDROBIOLOGIA, V229, P115

HOPE D, 1996, J ENVIRON QUAL, V25, P1442

ISAKSSON A, 1999, J PLANKTON RES, V21, P247

IVARSSON H, 1995, WATER AIR SOIL POLL, V84, P233

JANSSON M, 1999, ARCH HYDROBIOL, V144, P409

JONES RI, 1999, OIKOS, V86, P97

JONSSON A, 1997, ARCH HYDROBIOL, V141, P45

JONSSON A, 1997, WATER AIR SOIL POLL, V99, P283

LEFF LG, 1991, LIMNOL OCEANOGR, V36, P315

MABERLY SC, 1996, FRESHWATER BIOL, V35, P579

MALMGREN L, 1995, AQUAT SCI, V57, P144

MEILI M, 1993, VERH INT VEREIN LIMN, V25, P501

MEILI M, 2000, VERH INT VER LIMNOL, V27, P1940

MOOK WG, 1974, EARTH PLANET SC LETT, V22, P169

MORAN MA, 1990, LIMNOL OCEANOGR, V35, P1744

REITNER B, 1997, LIMNOL OCEANOGR, V42, P950

RIERA JL, 1999, CAN J FISH AQUAT SCI, V56, P265

SANDER BC, 1993, MICROBIAL ECOL, V26, P79

SCULLY NM, 1994, ARCH HYDROBIOL BEIH, V43, P135

SIMEK K, 1996, J PLANKTON RES, V18, P597

SINSABAUGH RL, 1995, MICROBIAL ECOL, V30, P127

STABELL T, 1996, AQUAT MICROB ECOL, V10, P265

STRAILE D, 1997, LIMNOL OCEANOGR, V42, P1375

STUMM W, 1996, AQUATIC CHEM

VAHATALO AV, 2000, LIMNOL OCEANOGR, V45, P664

WIKNER J, 1999, AQUAT MICROB ECOL, V17, P289

English

Article

LIMNOL OCEANOGR

491VZ

URL: <Go to ISI>://000172131900011

Author Address: Umea Univ, Dept Ecol & Environm Sci, SE-90187 Umea, Sweden. Stockholm Univ, Inst Appl Environm Res ITM, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden.

Jonsson, A, Abisko Sci Res Stn, Climate Impacts Res Ctr, SE-98107 Abisko, Sweden.

Reference Type: Journal Article

Record Number: 44

Author: Cole, J. J.; Carpenter, S. R.; Kitchell, J. F.; Pace, M. L.

Year: 2002

Title: Pathways of organic carbon utilization in small lakes: Results from a whole-lake C-13 addition and coupled model

Journal: Limnology and Oceanography

Volume: 47

Issue: 6

Pages: 1664-1675

Date: Nov

Short Title: Pathways of organic carbon utilization in small lakes: Results from a whole-lake C-13 addition and coupled model

Alternate Journal: Limnol. Oceanogr.

Accession Number: ISI:000179650200010

Keywords: stable-isotope analysis

inorganic carbon

arctic lakes

loch-ness

food-web

matter

zooplankton

bacteria

dioxide

phytoplankton

Abstract: In many small aquatic ecosystems. watershed loading of organic C exceeds autochthonous primary production. Although this allochthonous organic C has long been thought of as refractory, multiple lines of evidence indicate that substantial portions are respired in the receiving aquatic ecosystem. To what extent does this terrestrial C support secondary production of invertebrates and fish? Do current models adequately trace the pathways of allochthonous and autochthonous C through the food web? We evaluated the roles of allochthonous and autochthonous organic C by manipulating C-13 content of dissolved inorganic C in a small, softwater, humic lake, thereby labeling autochthonous primary production for about 20 d. To ensure rapid and sufficient uptake of inorganic C-13, we enriched the take with modest amounts of N and P We constructed a carbon flow model based on the ambient and manipulated levels of C-13 in C compartments in the lake, along with information on key rate processes. Despite the short nature this experiment, several results emerged. (1) Fractionation of photosynthetically assimilated C-13-CO2 plankton (epsilon) is lower (similar to6parts per thousand) than physiologic models would estimate (similar to20parts per thousand). (2) Bacteria respire, but do not assimilate, a large amount of terrestrially derived dissolved organic C (DOC) and pass little of this C to higher trophic levels. (3) The oxidation of terrestrial DOC is the major source of dissolved inorganic C in the take. (4) Zooplankton production, a major food of young-of-year fishes, is predominantly derived from current autochthonous carbon sources under the conditions of this experiment.

Notes: Week 4: Land to Lake; Times Cited: 28

Cited Reference Count: 49

Cited References:

BAINES SB, 1991, LIMNOL OCEANOGR, V36, P1078

BAINES SB, 1994, CAN J FISH AQUAT SCI, V51, P25

BIDIGARE RR, 2001, GLOBAL BIOGEOCHEM CY, V11, P292

BOWER PM, 1987, LIMNOL OCEANOGR, V32, P299

CARACO NF, IN PRESS FOOD WEBS L

CARIGNAN R, 2000, LIMNOL OCEANOGR, V45, P189

CARPENTER SR, 1991, ECOLOGY, V72, P277

CARPENTER SR, 2001, ECOL MONOGR, V71, P163

COLE JJ, 1994, SCIENCE, V265, P1568

COLE JJ, 1998, ECOSYSTEMS, V1, P310

COLE JJ, 1998, LIMNOL OCEANOGR, V43, P647

COLE JJ, 2000, LIMNOL OCEANOGR, V45, P1718

DELGIORGIO PA, 1994, LIMNOL OCEANOGR, V39, P772

DELGIORGIO PA, 1998, ANNU REV ECOL SYST, V29, P503

DILLON PJ, 1997, BIOGEOCHEMISTRY, V36, P29

DUCKLOW HW, 1986, SCIENCE, V232, P865

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FRANCE RL, 1997, AQUAT MICROB ECOL, V12, P85

GRANELI W, 1996, LIMNOL OCEANOGR, V41, P698

GREY J, 2001, LIMNOL OCEANOGR, V46, P505

HESSLEIN RH, 1980, CAN J FISH AQUAT SCI, V37, P454

HESSLEIN RH, 1991, AIR WATER MASS TRANS, P413

JANSSON M, 2000, ECOLOGY, V81, P3250

JONES RI, 1998, P ROY SOC LOND B BIO, V265, P105

JONES RI, 1999, OIKOS, V86, P97

JORDAN M, 1980, LIMNOL OCEANOGR, V25, P721

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KLING GW, 1992, ECOLOGY, V73, P561

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MEILI M, 1996, AQUAT MICROB ECOL, P53

PACE ML, 1996, LIMNOL OCEANOGR, V41, P1448

PACE ML, 2000, CAN J FISH AQUAT SCI, V57, P485

RAU GH, 2001, DEEP-SEA RES PT I, V48, P79

RIERA JL, 1999, CAN J FISH AQUAT SCI, V56, P265

SCHIFF SL, 1990, WATER RESOUR RES, V26, P2949

SELLERS P, 1995, LIMNOL OCEANOGR, V40, P575

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STRIEGEL RG, 2001, LIMNOL OCEANOGR, V46, P911

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VADEBONCOEUR Y, 2001, ECOLOGY, V82, P1065

VAHATALO AV, 2000, LIMNOL OCEANOGR, V45, P664

VEZINA AF, 1994, CAN J FISH AQUAT SCI, V51, P2034

WANNINKHOF R, 1996, LIMNOL OCEANOGR, V41, P689

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WETZEL RG, 2001, LIMNOLOGY LAKE RIVER

YOSHIOKA T, 1997, J PLANKTON RES, V19, P1455

English

Article

LIMNOL OCEANOGR

622ME

URL: <Go to ISI>://000179650200010

Author Address: Inst Ecosyst Studies, Millbrook, NY 12545 USA. Ctr Limnol, Madison, WI 53706 USA.

Cole, JJ, Inst Ecosyst Studies, Box AB, Millbrook, NY 12545 USA.

Reference Type: Journal Article

Record Number: 96

Author: Lacasse, S.; Magnan, P.

Year: 1992

Title: Biotic and Abiotic Determinants of the Diet of Brook Trout, Salvelinus-Fontinalis, in Lakes of the Laurentian Shield

Journal: Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences

Volume: 49

Issue: 5

Pages: 1001-1009

Date: May

Short Title: Biotic and Abiotic Determinants of the Diet of Brook Trout, Salvelinus-Fontinalis, in Lakes of the Laurentian Shield

Alternate Journal: Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci.

Accession Number: ISI:A1992HT32800018

Keywords: crustacean zooplankton

perca-fluviatilis

community ecology

fish

predators

salmo-trutta

dry-weight

water

habitat

prey

limnology

Abstract: From a survey of 12 lakes containing brook trout, Salvelinus fontinalis, 12 lakes containing brook trout and creek chub, Semotilus atromaculatus, and 13 lakes containing brook trout and white sucker, Catostomus commersoni, we built seven multiple linear regression models to account for the mean percent weight of different prey categories in the diet of brook trout. Presence of chub and sucker, zooplankton community structure, sampling date, morphoedaphic index, and the importance of rock outcrops accounted for 88% of the variation in weight of zoobenthos eaten by trout, which was the preferred prey in allopatry. Thirty percent of the variation in weight of zooplankton eaten by trout was explained by the importance of macrophytes and other refuges for fish. Models for amphipods, dipteran pupae, swimming insects, terrestrial insects, and prey-fish explained between 36 and 63% of the variation. The presence of white sucker or an index of their impact (mean length or density of Cladocera) and the characteristics of littoral habitats appeared in six of seven models. Littoral habitats seemed particularly determinant for the inclusion of prey-fish in the diet, more prey-fish being eaten when refuges were abundant. Variables related to lake morphometry and physicochemistry appeared less regularly in the models.

Notes: Week 4: Land to Lake; Times Cited: 28

Cited Reference Count: 54

Cited References:

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BOTTRELL HH, 1976, NORW J ZOOL, V24, P419

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CHRISTIE GC, 1988, CAN J FISH AQUAT SCI, V45, P301

COOPER DW, 1968, HEREDITY, V23, P614

COUTANT CC, 1977, J FISH RES BOARD CAN, V34, P739

CULVER DA, 1985, CAN J FISH AQUAT SCI, V42, P1380

DILL LM, 1983, CAN J FISH AQUAT SCI, V40, P398

EAST P, 1991, CAN J FISH AQUAT SCI, V48, P1735

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GARMAN GC, 1982, CAN J FISH AQUAT SCI, V39, P862

GODBOUT L, 1988, CANADIAN J FISHERIES, V45, P1771

GOTCEITAS V, 1989, OECOLOGIA, V80, P158

GRANT JWA, 1987, J ANIM ECOL, V56, P1001

HANSON JM, 1984, CAN J FISH AQUAT SCI, V41, P439

HANSSON S, 1985, HYDROBIOLOGIA, V121, P3

HARVEY HH, 1986, WATER AIR SOIL POLL, V30, P529

HELFMAN GS, 1979, N CENTRAL DIVISION A, V6, P49

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HYSLOP EJ, 1980, J FISH BIOL, V17, P411

JOHNSON MG, 1974, BENTHOS LAKES, P46

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LAWRENCE SG, 1987, CAN J FISH AQUAT SCI, V44, P264

LEHMAN JT, 1986, LIMNOL OCEANOGR, V31, P1160

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MAGNAN P, 1988, CAN J FISH AQUAT SCI, V45, P999

MAGNAN P, 1989, PHYSL ECOL JPN SPEC, V1, P337

MARSHALL TR, 1987, CAN J FISH AQUAT S2, V44, P198

MARTIN NV, 1966, T AM FISH SOC, V95, P415

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PREPAS EE, 1983, CAN J FISH AQUAT SCI, V40, P27

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SCHLESINGER DA, 1983, CAN J FISH AQUAT SCI, V40, P1829

SCHOENER TW, 1986, AM ZOOL, V26, P81

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TREMBLAY S, 1991, CAN J FISH AQUAT SCI, V48, P857

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English

Article

CAN J FISHERIES AQUAT SCI

HT328

URL: <Go to ISI>://A1992HT32800018

Author Address: UNIV QUEBEC,DEPT CHIM BIOL,CP 500,TROIS RIVIERES G9A 5H7,QUEBEC,CANADA.

Reference Type: Journal Article

Record Number: 90

Author: Arvola, L.; Kankaala, P.; Tulonen, T.; Ojala, A.

Year: 1996

Title: Effects of phosphorus and allochthonous humic matter enrichment on the metabolic processes and community structure of plankton in a boreal lake (Lake Paajarvi)

Journal: Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences

Volume: 53

Issue: 7

Pages: 1646-1662

Date: Jul

Short Title: Effects of phosphorus and allochthonous humic matter enrichment on the metabolic processes and community structure of plankton in a boreal lake (Lake Paajarvi)

Alternate Journal: Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci.

Accession Number: ISI:A1996VU53500019

Keywords: dissolved organic-carbon

bacterial production

phytoplankton

production

mesocosm experiment

greenhouse impact

oligotrophic lake

growth efficiency

polyhumic lake

cell-volume

food-chains

Abstract: During the ice-free period, three experiments each of 16-17 days were performed in four enclosures to evaluate the effects of moderate pulses of allochthonous humic matter (5-29% of the ambient dissolved organic carbon concentration) and phosphorus (PO4-P was increased from 1-2 to 15-20 mu g. L(-1)) on the plankton. The addition of phosphorus, alone or with humic matter, clearly raised the primary production in summer (54-56%), and to a lesser extent in spring (17-23%) and in autumn (17-58%). A significant correlation existed between primary production and bacterial production indicating that bacterial production was controlled primarily by organic substrates released by algae rather than by phosphorus or humic matter. In the control enclosure, bacterial production constituted 23-32% of primary production while with extra phosphorus and humic matter the proportion rose to 59%, indicating that humic matter was used by bacteria as an additional energy and carbon source besides algal exudates. Simultaneous enrichment with phosphorus and humic matter resulted in substantially higher bacterial production than with humic matter alone. In autumn, the addition of humic matter alone increased bacterial production, indicating that humic matter contained more easily utilizable organic material at that point than it did earlier. Some algal taxa responded positively to phosphorus and (or) humic matter enrichment, but the effects on proto- and meta-zooplankton communities were less obvious.

Notes: Week 4: Land to Lake; Times Cited: 28

Cited Reference Count: 89

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CURRIE DJ, 1984, LIMNOL OCEANOGR, V29, P298

DELGIORGIO PA, 1993, CAN J FISH AQUAT SCI, V50, P282

DELGIORGIO PA, 1994, LIMNOL OCEANOGR, V39, P772

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JONES RI, 1994, MARINE MICROBIAL FOO, V8, P87

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English

Article

CAN J FISHERIES AQUAT SCI

VU535

URL: <Go to ISI>://A1996VU53500019

Author Address: Arvola, L, UNIV HELSINKI,LAMMI BIOL STN,FIN-16900 LAMMI,FINLAND.

Reference Type: Journal Article

Record Number: 84

Author: Jones, R. I.; Grey, J.; Sleep, D.; Quarmby, C.

Year: 1998

Title: An assessment, using stable isotopes, of the importance of allochthonous organic carbon sources to the pelagic food web in Loch Ness

Journal: Proceedings of the Royal Society of London Series B-Biological Sciences

Volume: 265

Issue: 1391

Pages: 105-111

Date: Jan 22

Short Title: An assessment, using stable isotopes, of the importance of allochthonous organic carbon sources to the pelagic food web in Loch Ness

Alternate Journal: Proc. R. Soc. Lond. Ser. B-Biol. Sci.

Accession Number: ISI:000071820400004

Keywords: Loch Ness

stable isotopes

food web

pelagic

plankton

oligotrophic lake

humic lake

zooplankton

respiration

limitation

substances

ecosystem

patterns

scotland

waters

Abstract: The natural abundance of stable isotopes (delta(13)C and delta(15)N) was determined for components of the pelagic food web in Loch Ness, a deep oligotrophic lake in northern Scotland, and compared with values from the inflow rivers and the catchment vegetation. Phytoplankton delta(13)C was low compared to values reported from other lakes, possibly reflecting a high use of C-13-depleted CO2 from respired organic matter before further isotopic fractionation during photosynthesis. Phytoplankton delta(13)C was appreciably lower than that of dissolved and particulate organic matter (DOM, and POM) in the loch. The DOM and POM were evidently overwhelmingly of allochthonous origin and ultimately derived from terrestrial plant detritus. The distinctive delta(13)C values for phytoplankton and detritus in the loch allowed the use of food sources by grazing crustacean zooplankton to be assessed, and the contributions of phytoplankton carbon and detrital carbon to zooplankton total body carbon appeared to be about equal. Comparison of delta(13)C and delta(15)N values for zooplankton and fish allowed assessment of trophic structure in the loch. The very high dependence of the pelagic food web in Loch Ness on allochthonous organic matter inputs from the catchment may be exceptional in a large lake, but has important implications for our understanding of lake ecosystem processes as well as for lake management.

Notes: Week 4: Land to Lake; Times Cited: 29

Cited Reference Count: 30

Cited References:

COLE JJ, 1994, SCIENCE, V265, P1568

DELGIORGIO PA, 1993, CAN J FISH AQUAT SCI, V50, P282

DELGIORGIO PA, 1994, LIMNOL OCEANOGR, V39, P772

DELGIORGIO PA, 1996, LIMNOL OCEANOGR, V41, P359

DELGIORGIO PA, 1997, NATURE, V385, P148

FORSBERG C, 1992, HYDROBIOLOGIA, V229, P51

FRANCE RL, 1997, AQUAT MICROB ECOL, V12, P85

FRY B, 1984, CONTRIB MAR SCI, V27, P15

GOERICKE R, 1994, STABLE ISOTOPES ECOL, P187

HESSEN DO, 1990, LIMNOL OCEANOGR, V35, P84

HESSEN DO, 1992, HYDROBIOLOGIA, V229, P115

JEWSON DH, 1981, LIMNOL OCEANOGR, V26, P1045

JOHNSON D, 1974, P R SOC EDINB B, V74, P285

JONES RI, 1985, HOLARCTIC ECOL, V8, P133

JONES RI, 1992, HYDROBIOLOGIA, V229, P73

JONES RI, 1996, FRESHWATER BIOL, V35, P533

JONES RI, 1996, IN PRESS VERH INT VE, V26

KEOUGH JR, 1996, LIMNOL OCEANOGR, V41, P136

LAYBOURNPARRY J, 1994, J PLANKTON RES, V16, P1655

MAITLAND PS, 1981, ECOLOGY SCOTLANDS LA, P135

MARTIN DS, 1993, SCOTTISH NATURALIST, V105, P149

MEILI M, 1996, ARCH HYDROBIOL SPEC, V48, P53

MICHENER RH, 1994, STABLE ISOTOPES ECOL, P138

PETERSON BJ, 1987, ANNU REV ECOL SYST, V18, P293

QUAY PD, 1986, LIMNOL OCEANOGR, V31, P596

SALONEN K, 1986, OECOLOGIA, V68, P246

SCHINDLER DW, 1992, HYDROBIOLOGIA, V229, P1

TRANVIK LJ, 1992, HYDROBIOLOGIA, V229, P107

YOSHIOKA T, 1994, ECOLOGY, V75, P835

ZOHARY T, 1994, LIMNOL OCEANOGR, V39, P1030

English

Article

PROC ROY SOC LONDON SER B

YV412

URL: <Go to ISI>://000071820400004

Author Address: Univ Lancaster, Dept Sci Biol, Inst Environm & Nat Sci, Lancaster LA1 4YQ, England. Inst Terr Ecol, Merlewood Res Stn, Grange Sands LA11 6JU, Cumbria, England.

Jones, RI, Univ Lancaster, Dept Sci Biol, Inst Environm & Nat Sci, Lancaster LA1 4YQ, England.

Reference Type: Journal Article

Record Number: 82

Author: Jones, R. I.; Grey, J.; Sleep, D.; Arvola, L.

Year: 1999

Title: Stable isotope analysis of zooplankton carbon nutrition in humic lakes

Journal: Oikos

Volume: 86

Issue: 1

Pages: 97-104

Date: Jul

Short Title: Stable isotope analysis of zooplankton carbon nutrition in humic lakes

Alternate Journal: Oikos

Accession Number: ISI:000081267100009

Keywords: dissolved organic-carbon

daphnia-longispina

food-web

phytoplankton

production

oligotrophic lakes

anoxic hypolimnion

polyhumic lake

loch-ness

bacteria

respiration

Abstract: Carbon stable isotopic composition was determined for zooplankton, POM, DOM and, in two cases, phytoplankton from 12 small forest lakes in southern Finland during summer 1997. The lakes were selected to provide a wide range of water colour (12-365 mg Pt l(-1)) but minimum variability in other limnological characteristics. POM and DOM showed similar stable isotope ratios (delta(13)C around - 28 parts per thousand, comparable with values commonly reported for terrestrial C-3 vegetation) and these showed no relationship to water colour. Zooplankton were consistently depleted in C-13 relative to the bulk POM on which they might feed. This relative C-13 depletion increased significantly with water colour. Therefore the zooplankton must have been feeding selectively on isotopically light food sources and doing so to a greater extent in the more humic lakes. Although phytoplankton were C-13-depleted relative to POM, their abundance and their variability between lakes did not appear to explain adequately the observed trend in zooplankton stable isotope ratios. We propose that some zooplankton were grazing on methanotrophic bacteria which utilise isotopically light methane derived from allochthonous organic matter decomposed under anaerobic conditions. This process would be more pronounced in coloured lakes with a higher loading of allochthonous organic matter and greater development of hypolimnetic anoxia.

Notes: Week 4: Land to Lake; Times Cited: 30

Cited Reference Count: 48

Cited References:

ARVOLA L, 1989, AQUA FENNICA, V19, P29

ARVOLA L, 1992, HYDROBIOLOGIA, V229, P253

BERTILSSON S, 1996, ARCH HYDROBIOL SPEC, V48, P133

BOWLING LC, 1990, AUST J MAR FRESH RES, V41, P747

COLE JJ, 1994, SCIENCE, V265, P1568

CONWAY NM, 1994, STABLE ISOTOPES ECOL, P158

CUTHBERT ID, 1992, LIMNOL OCEANOGR, V37, P1319

DELGIORGIO PA, 1993, CAN J FISH AQUAT SCI, V50, P282

DELGIORGIO PA, 1994, LIMNOL OCEANOGR, V39, P772

DELGIORGIO PA, 1996, LIMNOL OCEANOGR, V41, P359

DELGIORGIO PA, 1997, NATURE, V385, P148

DENIRO MJ, 1978, GEOCHIM COSMOCHIM AC, V42, P495

FALKOWSKI PG, 1997, AQUATIC PHOTOSYNTEHS

FRANCE RL, 1997, AQUAT MICROB ECOL, V12, P85

FRANCE RL, 1997, CAN J FISH AQUAT SCI, V54, P1255

FRY B, 1984, CONTRIB MAR SCI, V27, P15

GU BH, 1994, CAN J FISH AQUAT SCI, V51, P1338

HESSEN DO, 1985, FEMS MICROBIOL ECOL, V31, P215

HESSEN DO, 1985, OECOLOGIA, V66, P368

HESSEN DO, 1989, ARCH HYDROBIOL, V114, P321

HESSEN DO, 1990, LIMNOL OCEANOGR, V35, P84

HESSEN DO, 1992, ARCH HYDROBIOL BEIH, V37, P139

HESSEN DO, 1998, ECOL STUD, V133, P285

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JONES RI, 1992, HYDROBIOLOGIA, V229, P73

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KANKAALA P, 1988, FRESHWATER BIOL, V19, P285

KEOUGH JR, 1996, LIMNOL OCEANOGR, V41, P136

KUUPPOLEINIKKI P, 1992, HYDROBIOLOGIA, V229, P159

LAJTHA K, 1994, STABLE ISOTOPES ECOL, P1

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MEILI M, 1996, ARCH HYDROBIOL SPEC, V48, P53

MOLOT LA, 1997, GLOBAL BIOGEOCHEM CY, V11, P357

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PETERSON BJ, 1987, ANNU REV ECOL SYST, V18, P293

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English

Article

OIKOS

213HR

URL: <Go to ISI>://000081267100009

Author Address: Univ Lancaster, Inst Environm & Nat Sci, Dept Biol Sci, Lancaster LA1 4YQ, England. Inst Terr Ecol, Merlewood Res Stn, Grange Sands LA11 6JU, Cumbria, England. Univ Helsinki, Lammi Biol Stn, FIN-16900 Lammi, Finland.

Jones, RI, Univ Lancaster, Inst Environm & Nat Sci, Dept Biol Sci, Lancaster LA1 4YQ, England.

Reference Type: Journal Article

Record Number: 46

Author: Baron, J. S.; Poff, N. L.; Angermeier, P. L.; Dahm, C. N.; Gleick, P. H.; Hairston, N. G.; Jackson, R. B.; Johnston, C. A.; Richter, B. D.; Steinman, A. D.

Year: 2002

Title: Meeting ecological and societal needs for freshwater

Journal: Ecological Applications

Volume: 12

Issue: 5

Pages: 1247-1260

Date: Oct

Short Title: Meeting ecological and societal needs for freshwater

Alternate Journal: Ecol. Appl.

Accession Number: ISI:000179198600001

Keywords: ecological education

ecological integrity

ecosystem protection

ecosystem services, freshwater

freshwater ecosystems

lakes

restoration

rivers

waterflow: quantity, quality, timing,

seasonality

water management policy

watersheds

wetlands

colorado-river delta

united-states

ecosystem management

food webs

water

restoration

wetlands

lake

perspective

fish

Abstract: Human society has used freshwater from rivers, lakes, groundwater, and wetlands for many different urban, agricultural, and industrial activities, but in doing so has overlooked its value in supporting ecosystems. Freshwater is vital to human life and societal well-being, and thus its utilization for consumption, irrigation, and transport has long taken precedence over other commodities and services provided by freshwater ecosystems. However, there is growing recognition that functionally intact and biologically complex aquatic ecosystems provide many economically valuable services and long-term benefits to society. The short-term benefits include ecosystem goods and services, such as food supply, flood control, purification of human and industrial wastes, and habitat for plant and animal life-and these are costly, if, not impossible, to replace. Long-term benefits include the sustained provision of those goods and services, as well as the adaptive capacity of aquatic ecosystems to respond to future environmental alterations, such as climate change. Thus, maintenance of the processes and properties that support freshwater ecosystem integrity should be included in debates over sustainable water resource allocation. The purpose of this report is to explain how the integrity of freshwater ecosystems depends upon adequate quantity, quality, timing, and temporal variability of water flow. Defining these requirements in a comprehensive but general manner provides a better foundation for their inclusion in current and future debates about allocation of water resources. In this way the needs of freshwater ecosystems can be legitimately recognized and addressed. We also recommend ways in which freshwater ecosystems can be protected, maintained, and restored. Freshwater ecosystem structure and function are tightly linked to the watershed or catchment of which they are a part. Because riverine networks, lakes, wetlands, and their connecting groundwaters, are literally the "sinks" into 'Which landscapes drain, they are greatly influenced by terrestrial processes, including many human uses or modifications of land and water. Freshwater ecosystems, whether lakes, wetlands, or rivers, have specific requirements in terms of quantity, quality, and seasonality of their water supplies. Sustainability normally requires these systems to fluctuate within a natural range of variation. Flow regime, sediment and organic matter inputs, thermal and light characteristics, chemical and nutrient characteristics, and biotic assemblages are fundamental defining attributes of freshwater ecosystems. These attributes impart relatively unique characteristics of productivity and biodiversity to each ecosystem. The natural range of variation in each of these attributes is critical to maintaining the integrity and dynamic potential of aquatic ecosystems; therefore, management should allow for dynamic change. Piecemeal approaches cannot solve the problems confronting freshwater ecosystems. Scientific definitions of the requirements to protect and maintain aquatic ecosystems are necessary but insufficient for establishing the appropriate distribution between societal and ecosystem water needs. For scientific knowledge to be implemented science must be connected to a political agenda for sustainable development. We offer these recommendations as. a beginning to redress how water is viewed and managed in the United States: (1) Frame national and regional water management policies to explicitly incorporate freshwater ecosystem needs, particularly those related to naturally variable flow regimes and to the linking of water quality with water quantity; (2) Define water resources to include watersheds, so that freshwaters are viewed within a landscape, or systems context; (3) Increase communication and education across disciplines, especially among engineers, hydrologists, economists, and ecologists to facilitate an integrated view of freshwater resources; (4) Increase restoration efforts, using well-grounded ecological principles as guidelines; (5) Maintain and protect the remaining freshwater ecosystems that have high integrity; and (6) Recognize the dependence of human society on naturally functioning ecosystems.

Notes: Week 4: Land to Lake; Times Cited: 30

Cited Reference Count: 106

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English

Review

ECOL APPL

614PM

URL: <Go to ISI>://000179198600001

Author Address: Colorado State Univ, Nat Resource Ecol Lab, US Geol Survey, Ft Collins, CO 80523 USA. Colorado State Univ, Dept Biol, Ft Collins, CO 80523 USA. Virginia Polytech Inst & State Univ, Virginia Cooperat Fish & Wildlife Res Unit, US Geol Survey, Blacksburg, VA 24061 USA. Univ New Mexico, Dept Biol, Albuquerque, NM 87131 USA. Pacific Inst Studies Dev Environm & Secur, Oakland, CA 94612 USA. Cornell Univ, Ecol & Systemat Sect, Ithaca, NY 14853 USA. Duke Univ, Dept Biol, Durham, NC 27708 USA. Duke Univ, Nicholas Sch Environm, Durham, NC 27708 USA. Natl Sci Fdn, Div Environm Biol, Arlington, VA 22230 USA. Nature Conservancy, Charlottesville, VA 22901 USA. S Florida Water Management Dist, W Palm Beach, FL 33416 USA.

Baron, JS, Colorado State Univ, Nat Resource Ecol Lab, US Geol Survey, Ft Collins, CO 80523 USA.

Reference Type: Journal Article

Record Number: 80

Author: Carignan, R.; Planas, D.; Vis, C.

Year: 2000

Title: Planktonic production and respiration in oligotrophic Shield lakes

Journal: Limnology and Oceanography

Volume: 45

Issue: 1

Pages: 189-199

Date: Jan

Short Title: Planktonic production and respiration in oligotrophic Shield lakes

Alternate Journal: Limnol. Oceanogr.

Accession Number: ISI:000084949600017

Keywords: dissolved organic-carbon

phytoplankton photosynthesis

surface waters

humic matter

light

bacterial

balance

oxygen

parameters

ecosystems

Abstract: A precise oxygen method was used to measure primary production, community respiration and to determine the importance of exogenous organic carbon as an energy source to planktonic communities in the epilimnion of 12 oligotrophic to mesotrophic Shield lakes. Median photosynthetic parameters observed with the oxygen method were up to twice as high as those measured with C-14 in other oligotrophic Shield lakes. Gross photosynthesis was almost always larger than community respiration, with a median P: R ratio of 1.7. We observed strong relationships between respiration and gross photosynthesis, but could not detect any significant trend between respiration or the P: R ratio and the concentration of disserved organic carbon (DOC). DOC appeared to depress both photosynthesis and respiration. These results argue against the importance of exogenous organic carbon supply as a significant energy source to freshwater planktonic communities. Previously low P: R ratios reported for oligotrophic fresh waters may be due to the uncertain meaning of C-14 production data.

Notes: Week 4: Land to Lake; Times Cited: 42

Cited Reference Count: 42

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ARVOLA L, 1996, CAN J FISH AQUAT SCI, V53, P1646

BIDWELL RGS, 1977, CAN J BOT, V55, P809

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CARIGNAN R, 1998, CAN J FISH AQUAT SCI, V55, P1078

CARIGNAN R, 1998, LIMNOL OCEANOGR, V43, P969

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DELGIORGIO PA, 1994, LIMNOL OCEANOGR, V39, P772

DELGIORGIO PA, 1997, NATURE, V385, P148

DILLON PJ, 1997, BIOGEOCHEMISTRY, V36, P29

DUARTE CM, 1998, SCIENCE, V281, P234

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English

Article

LIMNOL OCEANOGR

277TL

URL: <Go to ISI>://000084949600017

Author Address: Univ Montreal, Dept Sci Biol, Montreal, PQ H3C 3J7, Canada. Univ Quebec, Dept Biol Sci, Montreal, PQ H3P 1B1, Canada.

Carignan, R, Univ Montreal, Dept Sci Biol, CP 6128,Succ Ctr Ville, Montreal, PQ H3C 3J7, Canada.

Reference Type: Journal Article

Record Number: 76

Author: Jansson, M.; Bergstrom, A. K.; Blomqvist, P.; Drakare, S.

Year: 2000

Title: Allochthonous organic carbon and phytoplankton/bacterioplankton production relationships in lakes

Journal: Ecology

Volume: 81

Issue: 11

Pages: 3250-3255

Date: Nov

Short Title: Allochthonous organic carbon and phytoplankton/bacterioplankton production relationships in lakes

Alternate Journal: Ecology

Accession Number: ISI:000165384000025

Keywords: allochthonous organic carbon

bacterioplankton production

clearwater

and humic lakes

phytoplankton production

bacterial production

aquatic systems

humic lake

phytoplankton

respiration

food

bacterioplankton

dynamics

dioxide

growth

Abstract: Humic lakes with high inputs of allochthonous dissolved organic carbon have a pelagic food chain that, to a large extent, is based on bacterioplankton energy mobilization from allochthonous organic carbon compounds. This is in contrast to clear lakes in which total pelagic production is based mainly on phytoplankton photosynthesis. The energy economy in humic lakes may be less efficient than in clear lakes, because it is Likely that one more link is included in the food chain. Lake data from Scandinavia and North America demonstrate that shifts between food chains based on heterotrophic production and food chains based on primary production can take place at moderate increases or decreases in the concentration of dissolved organic carbon from allochthonous sources. Large variations in the loading of allochthonous organic carbon (e.g., due to climatic variations) may have considerable effects on the biostructure and productivity of lakes.

Notes: Week 4: Land to Lake; Times Cited: 43

Cited Reference Count: 29

Cited References:

ANDERSSON T, 1991, LECT NOTES EARTH SCI, V33, P243

ARVOLA L, 1996, CAN J FISH AQUAT SCI, V53, P1646

COLE JJ, 1988, MAR ECOL-PROG SER, V42, P1

COLE JJ, 1993, AQUATIC MICROBIOLOGY, P101

COLE JJ, 1994, SCIENCE, V265, P1568

DELGIORGIO PA, 1993, VERH INT VEREIN LIMN, V25, P359

DELGIORGIO PA, 1994, LIMNOL OCEANOGR, V39, P772

DELGIORGIO PA, 1997, NATURE, V385, P148

DELGIORGIO PA, 1998, ANNU REV ECOL SYST, V29, P503

HESSEN DO, 1990, LIMNOL OCEANOGR, V35, P84

HESSEN DO, 1992, HYDROBIOLOGIA, V229, P115

HJELM J, 1999, IN PRESS OECOLOGIA

HOPE D, 1994, ENVIRON POLLUT, V84, P301

IVARSSON H, 1994, PROC INT ASSOC THEOR, V25, P1522

JAHNKE RA, 1995, LIMNOL OCEANOGR, V40, P436

JANSSON M, 1999, ARCH HYDROBIOL, V144, P409

JONES RI, 1992, HYDROBIOLOGIA, V229, P73

KANKAALA P, 1988, FRESHWATER BIOL, V19, P285

MORAN MA, 1990, LIMNOL OCEANOGR, V35, P1744

NURNBERG GK, 1998, HYDROBIOLOGIA, V382, P97

NYBERG P, 1976, THESIS SCRIPTA LIMNO

OCHS CA, 1995, J PLANKTON RES, V17, P365

SCHINDLER DW, 1972, SCIENCE, V177, P1192

STOCKNER IG, 1985, CAN J FISH AQUAT SCI, V42, P649

THURMAN EM, 1985, ORGANIC GEOCHEMISTRY

TRANVIK LJ, 1988, MICRO ECOL, V16, P311

TRANVIK LJ, 1989, J PLANKTON RES, V11, P985

TRANVIK LJ, 1998, AQUATIC HUMIC SUBSTA, P259

TULONEN T, 1993, MICROBIAL ECOL, V26, P201

English

Article

ECOLOGY

375DJ

URL: <Go to ISI>://000165384000025

Author Address: Umea Univ, Dept Ecol & Environm Sci, SE-90187 Umea, Sweden. Uppsala Univ, Evolutionary Biol Ctr, Dept Limnol, SE-75236 Uppsala, Sweden.

Jansson, M, Umea Univ, Dept Ecol & Environm Sci, SE-90187 Umea, Sweden.

Reference Type: Journal Article

Record Number: 74

Author: Grey, J.; Jones, R. I.; Sleep, D.

Year: 2001

Title: Seasonal changes in the importance of the source of organic matter to the diet of zooplankton in Loch Ness, as indicated by stable isotope analysis

Journal: Limnology and Oceanography

Volume: 46

Issue: 3

Pages: 505-513

Date: May

Short Title: Seasonal changes in the importance of the source of organic matter to the diet of zooplankton in Loch Ness, as indicated by stable isotope analysis

Alternate Journal: Limnol. Oceanogr.

Accession Number: ISI:000168511500004

Keywords: pelagic food-web

phytoplankton production

trophic interactions

oligotrophic lake

polyhumic lake

eutrophic lake

humic lake

carbon

bacterial

fractionation

Abstract: Seasonal variations in the stable isotope composition (delta C-13 and delta N-15) of crustacean zooplankton and their putative food sources in oligotrophic Loch Ness were recorded during 1998. Bulk particulate organic matter (POM) showed delta C-13 values consistent with a terrestrial plant origin from the catchment and exhibited little seasonal variation, whereas POM delta N-15 was more variable, probably due to associated microbial action. In contrast, phytoplankton delta C-13 was relatively light and showed some seasonal variation, but delta N-15 values were more constant. The isotopic signatures of both POM and phytoplankton remained sufficiently distinct from each other throughout the period of study to allow their relative contributions to zooplankton diet to be assessed. Zooplankton isotopic signatures shifted seasonally, reflecting a dietary switch from a reliance on allochthonous carbon derived from POM during winter and early spring to heavy dependence on algal production during summer. Annually, crustacean zooplankton in Loch Ness derive approximately 40% of their body carbon from allochthonous sources, likely mediated via microbial links. Separate determination of isotope ratios for the main zooplankton species allowed a more detailed trophic investigation. The most abundant zooplankton species in the loch, Eudiaptomus gracilis, incorporated appreciable allochthonous carbon even during the peak of phytoplankton productivity. By contrast, Daphnia hyalina grew mainly in late summer and autumn and derived almost 100% body carbon from algal sources. This study is the first to quantify such a seasonal switch in zooplankton dependence between allochthonous and autochthonous sources of organic matter in a large lake.

Notes: Week 4: Land to Lake; Times Cited: 43

Cited Reference Count: 49

Cited References:

ADAMS TS, 2000, LIMNOL OCEANOGR, V45, P601

AHLGREN G, 1990, J PLANKTON RES, V12, P809

ARVOLA L, 1999, LIMNOLOGY HUMIC WATE, P265

BAILEYWATTS AE, 1981, ECOLOGY SCOTLANDS LA, V44, P91

CARACO NF, 1998, MAR ECOL-PROG SER, V167, P59

DELGIORGIO PA, 1993, CAN J FISH AQUAT SCI, V50, P282

DELGIORGIO PA, 1994, LIMNOL OCEANOGR, V39, P772

DELGIORGIO PA, 1997, NATURE, V385, P148

DENIRO MJ, 1981, GEOCHIMICA COSMOCHIM, V45, P341

FINDLEY SF, 1982, SCIENCE, V219, P371

FRANCE RL, 1997, CAN J FISH AQUAT SCI, V54, P1255

FRY B, 1982, OECOLOGIA, V54, P200

FRY B, 1984, CONTRIB MAR SCI, V27, P15

FRYER G, 1957, J ANIM ECOL, V26, P263

FRYER G, 1998, J MARINE SYST, V15, P71

GEARING JN, 1984, GEOCHIM COSMOCHIM AC, V48, P1089

GOROKHOVA E, 1999, CAN J FISH AQUAT SCI, V56, P2203

GREY J, IN PRESS VERH INT VE

GREY J, 1999, RAPID COMMUN MASS SP, V13, P1311

GREY J, 2000, GLASGOW NAT, V23, P9

GREY J, 2000, OECOLOGIA, V123, P232

HESSEN DO, 1990, LIMNOL OCEANOGR, V35, P84

HESSEN DO, 1992, HYDROBIOLOGIA, V229, P115

HESSEN DO, 1998, AQUATIC HUMIC SUBSTA, V133, P285

JANSSON M, 1999, ARCH HYDROBIOL, V144, P409

JONES RI, 1992, HYDROBIOLOGIA, V229, P73

JONES RI, 1996, FRESHWATER BIOL, V35, P533

JONES RI, 1996, VERH INT VEREIN LIMN, V26, P330

JONES RI, 1998, P ROY SOC LOND B BIO, V265, P105

KANKAALA P, 1988, FRESHWATER BIOL, V19, P285

KLING GW, 1992, ECOLOGY, V73, P561

LAITHA K, 1994, STABLE ISOTOPES ECOL, P1

LAYBOURNPARRY J, 1998, FRESHWATER BIOL, V39, P1

MAITLAND PS, 1981, ECOLOGY SCOTLANDS LA, V44, P135

MEILI M, 1992, HYDROBIOLOGIA, V229, P23

MEILI M, 1996, ARCH HYDROBIOL SPEC, V48, P53

MICHENER RH, 1994, STABLE ISOTOPES ECOL, P138

MINAGAWA M, 1984, GEOCHIM COSMOCHIM AC, V48, P1135

OJALA A, 1995, HYDROBIOLOGIA, V315, P119

PINNEGAR JK, 1999, FUNCT ECOL, V13, P225

SIREVAG R, 1977, ARCH MICROBIOL, V112, P35

SUGISAKI H, 1991, MAR BIOL, V109, P241

TODA H, 1990, HYDROBIOLOGIA, V194, P85

TRANVIK LJ, 1992, HYDROBIOLOGIA, V229, P1

WADA E, 1980, ISOTOPE MARINE CHEM, P375

WAHLSTROM E, 1999, CAN J FISH AQUAT SCI, V56, P1865

YOSHII K, 1999, LIMNOL OCEANOGR, V44, P502

YOSHIOKA T, 1994, ECOLOGY, V75, P835

ZOHARY T, 1994, LIMNOL OCEANOGR, V39, P1030

English

Article

LIMNOL OCEANOGR

429HV

URL: <Go to ISI>://000168511500004

Author Address: Univ Lancaster, Inst Environm & Nat Sci, Dept Biol Sci, Lancaster LA1 4YQ, England. CEH, Grange Over Sands LA11 6JU, Cumbria, England.

Grey, J, Univ Lancaster, Inst Environm & Nat Sci, Dept Biol Sci, Lancaster LA1 4YQ, England.

Reference Type: Journal Article

Record Number: 39

Author: Boon, P. I.; Bunn, S. E.

Year: 1994

Title: Variations in the Stable-Isotope Composition of Aquatic Plants and Their Implications for Food-Web Analysis

Journal: Aquatic Botany

Volume: 48

Issue: 2

Pages: 99-108

Date: May

Short Title: Variations in the Stable-Isotope Composition of Aquatic Plants and Their Implications for Food-Web Analysis

Alternate Journal: Aquat. Bot.

Accession Number: ISI:A1994PB12800001

Keywords: carbon

macrophytes

variability

nitrogen

Abstract: The use of stable isotopes to identify the structure of aquatic food webs is predicated upon there being significant and consistent differences in the isotopic composition of the various classes of primary producers. The structure of food webs will be interpreted incorrectly if variations in the isotopic composition of primary producers are not taken into account. We detected significant temporal and spatial variations in the deltaC-13 and deltaN-15 values of aquatic plants collected from three small, lentic water bodies in south-eastern Australia. Carbon- and nitrogen-isotope values of individual taxa could each vary by up to 10 delta units, according to site and season. The magnitude of these variations is sufficiently great for them to have important consequences for the interpretation of aquatic food webs. Greater attention must be given to fluctuations in the isotopic signatures of the primary producers if the structure of aquatic food webs is to be properly understood.

Notes: Week 4: Land to Lake; Times Cited: 55

Cited Reference Count: 15

Cited References:

BOON PI, 1990, MURRAY, P182

BUNN SE, 1993, OECOLOGIA, V96, P85

EHLERINGER JR, 1989, PLANT PHYSL ECOLOGY, P281

FORSBERG BR, 1993, ECOLOGY, V74, P643

FRY B, 1988, LIMNOL OCEANOGR, V33, P1182

HAMILTON SK, 1992, OECOLOGIA, V89, P324

HANDLEY LL, 1992, PLANT CELL ENVIRON, V15, P965

HILLMAN TJ, 1986, LIMNOLOGY AUSTR, P457

JACKSON D, 1987, OIKOS, V48, P258

KEELEY JE, 1992, PLANT CELL ENVIRON, V15, P1021

LAZERTE BD, 1982, LIMNOL OCEANOGR, V27, P413

NEILL C, 1992, WETLANDS, V12, P217

PETERSON BJ, 1987, ANNU REV ECOL SYST, V18, P293

SIMENSTAD CA, 1993, MAR BIOL, V116, P147

STEPHENSON RL, 1984, MAR BIOL, V81, P223

English

Article

AQUAT BOT

PB128

URL: <Go to ISI>://A1994PB12800001

Author Address: GRIFFITH UNIV,FAC ENVIRONM SCI,CTR CATCHMENT & IN STREAM RES,NATHAN,QLD 4111,AUSTRALIA.

BOON, PI, MURRAY DARLING FRESHWATER RES CTR,POB 921,ALBURY,NSW 2640,AUSTRALIA.

Reference Type: Journal Article

Record Number: 95

Author: Delgiorgio, P. A.; Peters, R. H.

Year: 1993

Title: Balance between Phytoplankton Production and Plankton Respiration in Lakes

Journal: Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences

Volume: 50

Issue: 2

Pages: 282-289

Date: Feb

Short Title: Balance between Phytoplankton Production and Plankton Respiration in Lakes

Alternate Journal: Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci.

Accession Number: ISI:A1993LK29600008

Keywords: bacterial-growth

empirical relationships

swedish lakes

humic

content

chlorophyll concentration

organic-carbon

oxygen-uptake

green-algae

biomass

zooplankton

Abstract: We analyzed published rates of algal photosynthesis and plankton community respiration to test the hypothesis that the ratio of planktonic primary production to community respiration (P/R) varies systematically with lake trophy. Regression analyses show that algal production and plankton respiration are closely related to chlorophyll concentrations for lakes spanning a wide trophic range. More surprisingly, plankton respiration exceeds algal photosynthesis in oligotrophic lakes, and P/R rises above unity only when chlorophyll concentrations are above 17 mg.m-3. A simple allometric model based on the predicted biomasses of the different planktonic components yields rates of community respiration that are in good agreement with measured values. Moreover, the model suggests that in oligotrophic lakes, microbial respiration may greatly exceed the current estimates based on bacterial production data and that heterotrophs contribute proportionately more to total plankton metabolism than they do in eutrophic lakes. Because such high respiration rates require external energy subsidies, these results challenge the view that pelagial communities of most lakes are even approximately self-supporting.

Notes: Week 4: Land to Lake; Times Cited: 55

Cited Reference Count: 92

Cited References:

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ADAMS MS, 1990, VERH INT VER LIMNOL, V24, P432

AHRENS MA, 1991, HYDROBIOLOGIA, V224, P77

ALIMOV AF, 1972, VERH INT VER THEOR 1, V18, P65

BAINES SB, 1991, LIMNOL OCEANOGR, V36, P1078

BANNISTER TT, 1974, LIMNOL OCEANOGR, V19, P1

BARICA J, 1975, VERH INT VEREIN LIMN, V19, P606

BAYNE DR, 1990, HYDROBIOLOGIA, V199, P143

BEAUCHAMP ST, 1989, WATER AIR SOIL POLL, V46, P323

BEAVER JR, 1991, CAN J FISH AQUAT SCI, V48, P1145

BELAY A, 1984, VERH INT VEREIN LIMN, V22, P1187

BELL RT, 1984, APPL ENVIRON MICROB, V48, P1221

BENNER R, 1988, LIMNOL OCEANOGR, V33, P1514

BIRD DF, 1984, CAN J FISH AQUAT SCI, V41, P1015

CARMOUZE JP, 1983, MONOGR BIOL, V33

CARON AW, 1976, THESIS MCGILL U MONT

CHARLTON MN, 1980, CAN J FISH AQUAT SCI, V37, P1531

CHENARD PG, 1980, THESIS MCGILL U MONT

COLE JJ, 1988, MAR ECOL-PROG SER, V43, P1

COLE JJ, 1989, LIMNOL OCEANOGR, V34, P286

CORNETT RJ, 1979, SCIENCE, V205, P580

CORNETT RJ, 1982, THESIS MCGILL U MONT

CURRIE DJ, 1990, LIMNOL OCEANOGR, V35, P1437

DEVOL AH, 1979, LIMNOL OCEANOGR, V24, P893

DILLON PJ, 1974, LIMNOL OCEANOGR, V19, P767

DUBINSKY Z, 1984, J PLANKTON RE, V6, P330

DUCKLOW HW, 1991, MAR MICROB FOOD WEBS, V5, P129

FINDLAY S, 1986, LIMNOL OCEANOGR, V31, P1335

FONTAINE TD, 1981, LIMNOL OCEANOGR, V26, P754

GANF GG, 1974, OECOLOGIA, V15, P17

GIBSON CE, 1975, J ECOL, V63, P867

GRANELI W, 1978, OIKOS, V30, P7

GROBBELAAR JU, 1985, J PLANKTON RES, V7, P497

HARGRAVE BT, 1973, J FISH RES BOARD CAN, V30, P1317

HARRIS GP, 1984, J PLANKTON RES, V6, P219

HESSEN DO, 1990, LIMNOL OCEANOGR, V35, P84

HESSEN DO, 1992, HYDROBIOLOGIA, V229, P115

HEYMAN U, 1983, HYDROBIOLOGIA, V101, P89

HOPKINSON CS, 1989, MAR ECOL-PROG SER, V51, P155

HUNDING C, 1979, OIKOS, V32, P139

IKEDA T, 1978, MAR SCI COMMUN, V4, P329

JACKSON DF, 1969, VERH INT VER LIMNOL, V17, P86

JACKSON TA, 1980, CAN J FISH AQUAT SCI, V37, P2300

JOHANSSON JA, 1983, HYDROBIOLOGIA, V101, P71

JONES RI, 1977, J ECOL, V65, P561

KAMPNIELSEN L, 1981, VERH INT VERIN LIMNO, V21, P431

KANKAALA P, 1988, FRESHWATER BIOL, V19, P285

KIFLE D, 1990, HYDROBIOLOGIA, V196, P217

KRAVTSOVA GV, 1988, HYDROBIOLOGIA, V23, P1

LAFOND M, 1990, HYDROBIOLOGIA, V196, P25

LAWS EA, 1987, LIMNOL OCEANOGR, V32, P905

LIKENS GE, 1979, ARCH HYDROBIOL, V13, P195

LINLEY EAS, 1984, B MAR SCI, V35, P409

MALUEG KW, 1972, VERH INT VER LIMNOL, V18, P292

MARKAGER S, 1989, J ECOL, V77, P49

MCCAULEY E, 1981, CAN J FISH AQUAT SCI, V38, P458

MITCHELL SF, 1979, NZ J MARINE FRESHWAT, V13, P427

NORTHCOTE TG, 1989, POLLUTION LAKE TITIC

ODUM HT, 1957, ECOL MONOGR, V27, P55

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PICK FR, 1984, VERH INT VER LIMNOL, V22, P326

RASMUSSEN JB, 1989, LIMNOL OCEANOGR, V34, P1336

RICKER WE, 1973, J FISH RES BOARD CAN, V30, P409

ROBINSON WR, 1983, CAN J ZOOL, V61, P281

RUGGIU D, 1984, VERH INT VER LIMNOL, V22, P1106

SALONEN K, 1983, HYDROBIOLOGIA, V101, P65

SALONEN K, 1986, OECOLOGIA, V68, P246

SARVALA J, 1981, VERH INT VER LIMNOL, V21, P454

SCAVIA D, 1987, LIMNOL OCEANOGR, V32, P1017

SCHWAERTER S, 1988, J PLANKTON RES, V10, P515

SERRUYA C, 1972, VERH INT VER LIMNOL, V18, P580

SMITH REH, 1986, MAR ECOL-PROG SER, V34, P171

SMITH VH, 1979, LIMNOL OCEANOGR, V24, P1051

SPURR B, 1975, NZ J MAR FRESHWATER, V9, P547

STOCKNER IG, 1985, CAN J FISH AQUAT SCI, V42, P649

STRASKRABOVA V, 1979, ARCH HYDROBIOL, V12, P3

STRAYER D, 1988, LIMNOL OCEANOGR, V33, P1217

TALLING JF, 1973, FRESHWATER BIOL, V3, P53

TOLSTOY A, 1988, ARH HYROBIOLOGIE, V113, P381

TRANVIK LJ, 1988, MICRO ECOL, V16, P311

TRANVIK LJ, 1992, HYDROBIOLOGIA, V229, P107

WATSON S, 1988, CAN J FISH AQUAT SCI, V45, P915

WELCH HE, 1974, LIMNOL OCEANOGR, V19, P65

WELCH HE, 1976, J FISH RES BOARD CAN, V33, P1809

WETZEL RG, 1978, VERH INT VER LIMNOL, V20, P605

WETZEL RG, 1983, LIMNOLOGY

WETZEL RG, 1990, MEM I ITAL IDROBIOL, V47, P233

WHITE PA, 1991, MICROBIAL ECOL, V21, P99

WILLIAMS PJL, 1981, OCEANOL ACTA, V4, P359

WISSMAR RC, 1977, J FISH RES BOARD CAN, V34, P1410

English

Article

CAN J FISHERIES AQUAT SCI

LK296

URL: <Go to ISI>://A1993LK29600008

Author Address: DELGIORGIO, PA, MCGILL UNIV,DEPT BIOL,1205 DR PENFIELD,MONTREAL H3A 1B1,QUEBEC,CANADA.

Reference Type: Journal Article

Record Number: 92

Author: delGiorgio, P. A.; France, R. L.

Year: 1996

Title: Ecosystem-specific patterns in the relationship between zooplankton and POM or microplankton delta C-13

Journal: Limnology and Oceanography

Volume: 41

Issue: 2

Pages: 359-365

Date: Mar

Short Title: Ecosystem-specific patterns in the relationship between zooplankton and POM or microplankton delta C-13

Alternate Journal: Limnol. Oceanogr.

Accession Number: ISI:A1996UK85000018

Keywords: food-web structure

carbon isotopes

stable isotopes

ratios

lakes

Abstract: Measurements of plankton delta(13)C from 28 temperate lakes show that zooplankton are depleted in C-13 relative to smaller planktonic size fractions. A broad literature survey indicates that this is a general pattern in lakes but not in marine and estuarine plankton communities, where zooplankton are generally enriched in C-13 relative to particulate organic matter (POM) or microplankton. Marine plankton thus conform to the assumptions that pelagic food webs are essentially driven by phytoplankton and that POM or small planktonic size classes largely reflect algal carbon, which is transferred to zooplankton with a slight enrichment in C-13. The plankton of lakes and possibly of estuaries, however, do not conform to this expectation. We show that there is a continuum in the delta(13)C differences between POM and zooplankton from open ocean to coastal areas and estuaries and that a similar pattern occurs from unproductive to highly productive lakes. These differences probably reflect both the degree in POM dilution by nonalgal sources of organic carbon and depth-related changes in the isotopic signature of phytoplankton in lakes and suggest systematic differences in organic carbon flow pathways among aquatic ecosystems.

Notes: Week 4: Land to Lake; Times Cited: 57

Cited Reference Count: 25

Cited References:

CARBANA G, 1994, NATURE, V372, P255

COLE JJ, 1994, SCIENCE, V265, P1568

DELGIORGIO PA, 1994, LIMNOL OCEANOGR, V39, P772

DELGIORGIO PA, 1995, AM NAT, V146, P135

DENIRO MJ, 1978, GEOCHIM COSMOCHIM AC, V42, P495

ELSER JJ, 1994, NATURE, V370, P211

FRANCE RL, 1995, LIMNOL OCEANOGR, V40, P1310

FRY B, 1984, CONTRIB MAR SCI, V27, P15

FRY B, 1984, CONTRIB MAR SCI, V27, P49

GOERING J, 1990, ESTUAR COAST SHELF S, V30, P239

GRIESBACH SJ, 1991, LAKE RESERV MANAGE, V7, P97

GU BH, 1994, CAN J FISH AQUAT SCI, V51, P1338

HAMILTON SK, 1992, GEOCHIM COSMOCHIM AC, V56, P4237

JEFFREY AWA, 1983, DEEP-SEA RES, V30, P971

KLING GW, 1992, ECOLOGY, V73, P561

MCCONNAUGHEY T, 1979, MAR BIOL, V53, P257

MEILI M, 1992, HYDROBIOLOGIA, V229, P23

MEILI M, 1993, VERH INT VEREIN LIMN, V25, P501

PETERSON B, 1994, ESTUARIES, V17, P111

PETERSON BJ, 1987, ANNU REV ECOL SYST, V18, P293

QUAY PD, 1986, LIMNOL OCEANOGR, V31, P596

RAU GH, 1978, SCIENCE, V201, P901

RAU GH, 1988, DEEP-SEA RES, V36, P1103

TAKAHASHI K, 1990, ARCH HYDROBIOL, V120, P197

ZOHARY T, 1994, LIMNOL OCEANOGR, V39, P1030

English

Article

LIMNOL OCEANOGR

UK850

URL: <Go to ISI>://A1996UK85000018

Author Address: MCGILL UNIV,DEPT BIOL,MONTREAL,PQ H3A 1B1,CANADA.

delGiorgio, PA, UNIV QUEBEC,DEPT SCI BIOL,CP 8888,SUCC CTR VILLE,MONTREAL,PQ H3C 3P8,CANADA.

Reference Type: Journal Article

Record Number: 101

Author: Salonen, K.; Hammar, T.

Year: 1986

Title: On the Importance of Dissolved Organic-Matter in the Nutrition of Zooplankton in Some Lake Waters

Journal: Oecologia

Volume: 68

Issue: 2

Pages: 246-253

Short Title: On the Importance of Dissolved Organic-Matter in the Nutrition of Zooplankton in Some Lake Waters

Alternate Journal: Oecologia

Accession Number: ISI:A1986AXX1300014

Notes: Week 4: Land to Lake; Times Cited: 68

Cited Reference Count: 36

Cited References:

ARVOLA L, 1983, HYDROBIOLOGIA, V101, P105

BUSCEMI PA, 1975, VERH INT VEREIN LIMN, V19, P358

COVENEY MF, 1978, VERH INT VEREIN LIMN, V20, P1264

DAVIS PG, 1984, MAR ECOL-PROG SER, V19, P237

FENCHEL T, 1982, MAR ECOL-PROG SER, V8, P211

FENCHEL T, 1982, MAR ECOL-PROG SER, V9, P35

GELLER W, 1981, OECOLOGIA BERLIN, V49, P316

HORVATH RS, 1972, BACTERIOL REV, V36, P146

ILMAVIRTA V, 1974, ANN BOT FENN, V11, P121

ILMAVIRTA V, 1983, VERH INT VER LIMNOL, V21, P442

JOHNSON BD, 1980, LIMNOL OCEANOGR, V25, P653

JORGENSEN CB, 1976, BIOL REV CAMBRIDGE P, V51, P291

KROGH A, 1931, BIOL REV, V6, P412

KUSNETSOV SI, 1966, VERH INT VEREIN LIMN, V16, P1493

MCCOLL RHS, 1972, NEW ZEAL J MAR FRESH, V6, P399

MURRAY RE, 1984, APPL ENVIRON MICROB, V47, P685

NEIHOF RA, 1972, LIMNOL OCEANOGR, V17, P7

PRESTON RL, 1982, AM ZOOL, V22, P709

PUTTER A, 1909, ERNAHRUNG WASSERTIER

RAU GH, 1978, SCIENCE, V201, P901

RAU GH, 1983, ECOLOGY, V64, P1314

RODHE W, 1955, VERH INT VER LIMNOL, V12, P117

ROMANENKO VI, 1964, MICROBIOLOGIA, V33, P679

SALONEN K, 1979, LIMNOL OCEANOGR, V24, P177

SALONEN K, 1981, WATER RES, V15, P403

SALONEN K, 1983, HYDROBIOLOGIA, V101, P65

SALONEN K, 1984, FRESHWATER BIOL, V14, P431

SARVALA J, 1981, VERH INT VER LIMNOL, V21, P454

SCHELL DM, 1983, SCIENCE, V219, P1068

SEPERS ABJ, 1977, HYDROBIOLOGIA, V52, P39

SHELDON RW, 1972, LIMNOL OCEANOGR, V17, P494

SOROKIN YI, 1972, PRODUCTIVITY PROBLEM, P493

SOUTHWARD AJ, 1982, AM ZOOL, V22, P647

STEPHENS GC, 1957, BIOL BULL, V113, P356

STEPHENS GC, 1982, AM ZOOL, V22, P611

WRIGHT RT, 1984, MICROBIAL ECOL, V10, P137

English

Article

OECOLOGIA

AXX13

URL: <Go to ISI>://A1986AXX1300014

Author Address: SALONEN, K, UNIV HELSINKI,LAMMI BIOL STN,SF-16900 LAMMI,FINLAND.

Reference Type: Journal Article

Record Number: 98

Author: Tranvik, L. J.

Year: 1992

Title: Allochthonous Dissolved Organic-Matter as an Energy-Source for Pelagic Bacteria and the Concept of the Microbial Loop

Journal: Hydrobiologia

Volume: 229

Pages: 107-114

Date: Feb 21

Short Title: Allochthonous Dissolved Organic-Matter as an Energy-Source for Pelagic Bacteria and the Concept of the Microbial Loop

Alternate Journal: Hydrobiologia

Accession Number: ISI:A1992HL35400009

Keywords: allochthonous dom

recalcitrant dom

bacterioplankton

microbial loop

fluorescently labeled bacteria

aquatic environments

bacterioplankton

production

thymidine incorporation

protozoan bacterivory

planktonic

bacteria

oligotrophic lakes

grazing rates

latex beads

carbon

Abstract: Substantial evidence exists that allochthonous dissolved organic matter (DOM) can provide an important carbon source for pelagic bacteria. On the other hand, it is implicit in the concept of the 'microbial loop' that the degradation of recalcitrant, allochthonous DOM should be retarded in the pelagic environment, as bacteria able to utilize recalcitrant DOM compounds for slow growth would be out-competed by faster-growing bacteria utilizing more labile DOM compounds. Several possible solutions of this apparent paradox are suggested in this paper, including formation of labile DOM from recalcitrant DOM by e.g. photochemical reactions, and mechanisms enabling the maintenance of a metabolically diverse bacterioplankton. These mechanisms include an explanation analogous to Hutchinson's classical solution to the 'paradox of plankton', and differential mortality of different populations within the bacterioplankton enabled by selective grazing, infections by bacteriophages and predatory bacteria, and spatial micropatchiness.

Notes: Week 4: Land to Lake; Times Cited: 68

Cited Reference Count: 64

Cited References:

ANDERSSON A, 1986, MAR ECOL-PROG SER, V33, P51

AZAM F, 1983, MAR ECOL-PROG SER, V10, P257

AZAM F, 1987, ECOLOGY MICROBIAL CO, P261

BERGH O, 1989, NATURE, V340, P467

BLOEM J, 1988, APPL ENVIRON MICROB, V54, P3113

BLOEM J, 1989, APPL ENVIRON MICROB, V55, P1787

BORSHEIM KY, 1984, OECOLOGIA, V63, P286

BOSELMANN S, 1986, CARBON DYNAMICS EUTR, P199

CARON DA, 1982, SCIENCE, V218, P795

DEHAAN H, 1977, LIMNOL OCEANOGR, V22, P38

FENCHEL T, 1982, MAR ECOL-PROG SER, V9, P35

FENCHEL T, 1986, BROCK SPRINGER SERIE

FENCHEL T, 1988, ANNU REV ECOL SYST, V19, P19

FUHRMAN JA, 1980, APPL ENVIRON MICROB, V39, P1085

FUHRMAN JA, 1982, MAR BIOL, V66, P109

GAST V, 1985, MAR ECOL-PROG SER, V22, P107

GIOVANNONI SJ, 1990, NATURE, V345, P60

GOLDMAN JC, 1984, B MAR SCI, V35, P462

GONZALEZ JM, 1990, APPL ENVIRON MICROB, V56, P583

GUDE H, 1986, J PLANKTON RES, V8, P795

HAGSTROM A, 1979, APPL ENVIRON MICROB, V37, P805

HESSEN DO, 1985, FEMS MICROBIOL ECOL, V31, P215

HESSEN DO, 1990, LIMNOL OCEANOGR, V35, P84

HOBBIE JE, 1988, LIMNOL OCEANOGR, V33, P750

HOFLE MG, 1990, BROCK SPRINGER SERIE, P129

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JONES RI, 1985, HOLARCTIC ECOL, V8, P133

KEPKAY PE, 1989, NATURE, V338, P63

LARSSON U, 1979, MAR BIOL, V52, P199

MCMANUS GB, 1986, LIMNOL OCEANOGR, V31, P420

MITCHELL GC, 1988, J PROTOZOOL, V35, P219

MITCHELL JG, 1985, NATURE, V316, P58

MOALEDJ K, 1978, ARCH HYDROBIOL, V82, P98

MOPPER K, 1991, NATURE, V353, P60

NYGAARD K, 1988, MAR ECOL-PROG SER, V44, P159

PACE ML, 1987, MAR ECOL-PROG SER, V40, P185

PACE ML, 1988, HYDROBIOLOGIA, V159, P41

POMEROY LR, 1974, BIOSCIENCE, V24, P499

PORTER KG, 1985, J PROTOZOOL, V32, P409

PROCTOR LM, 1990, NATURE, V343, P60

RODINA AG, 1967, MIKROBIOLOGIYA, V38, P531

SALONEN K, 1981, VERH INT VER LIMNOL, V21, P448

SALONEN K, 1983, HYDROBIOLOGIA, V101, P65

SALONEN K, 1986, OECOLOGIA, V68, P246

SCAVIA D, 1987, LIMNOL OCEANOGR, V32, P1017

SHERR BF, 1984, CURRENT PERSPECTIVES, P412

SHERR BF, 1987, APPL ENVIRON MICROB, V53, P958

SHERR BF, 1988, HYDROBIOLOGIA, V159, P19

SHERR BF, 1989, MAR ECOL-PROG SER, V54, P209

SHERR EB, 1988, NATURE, V335, P348

SIBBALD MJ, 1987, MAR ECOL-PROG SER, V36, P201

SIEBURTH JM, 1979, SEA MICROBES

SIEBURTH JM, 1982, ANN I OCEANOGR PAR S, V58, P285

STEVENSON LH, 1978, MICROBIAL ECOL, V4, P127

TRANVIK LJ, 1987, APPL ENVIRON MICROB, V53, P482

TRANVIK LJ, 1988, MICRO ECOL, V16, P311

TRANVIK LJ, 1989, J PLANKTON RES, V11, P985

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WETZEL RG, 1984, B MAR SCI, V35, P503

WIKNER J, 1986, APPL ENVIRON MICROB, V52, P4

WILLIAMS PJL, 1976, MAR BIOL, V35, P31

WILLIAMS PJL, 1981, KIELER MEERESFORSCH, V5, P1

WRIGHT RT, 1984, CURRENT PERSPECTIVES, P485

English

Article

HYDROBIOLOGIA

HL354

URL: <Go to ISI>://A1992HL35400009

Author Address: TRANVIK, LJ, UNIV LUND,INST ECOL LIMNOL,BOX 65,S-22100 LUND,SWEDEN.

Reference Type: Journal Article

Record Number: 100

Author: Hessen, D. O.; Andersen, T.; Lyche, A.

Year: 1990

Title: Carbon Metabolism in a Humic Lake - Pool Sizes and Cycling through Zooplankton

Journal: Limnology and Oceanography

Volume: 35

Issue: 1

Pages: 84-99

Date: Jan

Short Title: Carbon Metabolism in a Humic Lake - Pool Sizes and Cycling through Zooplankton

Alternate Journal: Limnol. Oceanogr.

Accession Number: ISI:A1990DB63600009

Notes: Week 4: Land to Lake; Times Cited: 77

Cited Reference Count: 49

Cited References:

ANDERSON DH, 1983, COMPARTMENTAL MODELI

ARVOLA L, 1984, HOLARCTIC ECOL, V7, P390

BIRD DF, 1987, LIMNOL OCEANOGR, V32, P277

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GOPHEN M, 1974, NATURE, V247, P393

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HESSEN DO, 1985, FEMS MICROBIOL ECOL, V31, P215

HESSEN DO, 1985, OECOLOGIA, V66, P368

HESSEN DO, 1989, ARCH HYDROBIOL, V114, P321

HESSEN DO, 1989, J PLANKTON RES, V11, P649

HOBBIE JE, 1977, APPLIED ENV MICROBIO, V33, P1225

JENSEN LM, 1988, INT VER THEOR ANGEW, V23, P445

JOHANSSON JA, 1976, STUDIES ZOOPLANKTON

JOHANSSON JA, 1983, HYDROBIOLOGIA, V101, P71

JORDAN MJ, 1975, VERH INT VEREIN LIMN, V19, P994

JORDAN MJ, 1980, LIMNOL OCEANOGR, V25, P719

KOGURE K, 1987, APPL ENVIRON MICROB, V53, P274

LAMPERT W, 1978, LIMNOL OCEANOGR, V23, P831

LAMPERT W, 1984, IBP HDB, V17, P413

LANGELAND A, 1982, HOLARCTIC ECOL, V5, P253

LEE S, 1987, APPL ENVIRON MICROB, V53, P1298

LOVELL CR, 1985, APPL ENVIRON MICROB, V49, P485

MELACK JM, 1985, HYDROBIOLOGIA, V125, P209

MORAN MA, 1988, ECOLOGY, V69, P1525

MURRAY RE, 1984, APPL ENVIRON MICROB, V47, P685

MURRAY RE, 1985, APPL ENVIRON MICROB, V49, P650

NAUMANN E, 1918, LUNDS U ARSSKR, V14, P1

NAUWERCK A, 1963, SYMB BOT UPS, V17

OLSEN Y, 1986, J PLANKTON RES, V8, P505

PACE ML, 1983, ECOLOGY, V64, P1145

PERSSON G, 1985, INT REV GES HYDROBIO, V70, P335

RIEMANN B, 1982, INT REV GES HYDROBIO, V67, P145

RIEMANN B, 1986, CARBON DYNAMICS EUTR

RUBINOW SI, 1975, INTRO MATH BIOL

SALONEN K, 1981, VERH INT VER LIMNOL, V21, P448

SALONEN K, 1984, HYDROBIOLOGIA, V101, P65

SALONEN K, 1986, OECOLOGIA, V68, P246

SATOH Y, 1987, ARCH HYDROBIOL, V110, P589

SAUNDERS GW, 1971, RES DIV MONOGR VIRGI, V3, P31

SCAVIA D, 1987, LIMNOL OCEANOGR, V32, P1017

SONDERGAARD M, 1985, OIKOS, V45, P323

THURMAN EM, 1985, ORGANIC GEOCHEMISTRY

VADSTEIN O, 1988, LIMNOL OCEANOGR, V33, P489

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WATSON SW, 1977, APPLIED ENV MICROBIO, V33, P940

English

Article

LIMNOL OCEANOGR

DB636

URL: <Go to ISI>://A1990DB63600009

Author Address: UNIV OSLO,DEPT BIOL,DIV MARINE BOT,N-0316 OSLO 3,NORWAY. UNIV OSLO,DEPT BIOL,DIV LIMNOL,N-0316 OSLO 3,NORWAY.

HESSEN, DO, UNIV OSLO,DEPT BIOL,DIV ZOOL,N-0316 OSLO 3,NORWAY.

Reference Type: Journal Article

Record Number: 97

Author: Jones, R. I.

Year: 1992

Title: The Influence of Humic Substances on Lacustrine Planktonic Food-Chains

Journal: Hydrobiologia

Volume: 229

Pages: 73-91

Date: Feb 21

Short Title: The Influence of Humic Substances on Lacustrine Planktonic Food-Chains

Alternate Journal: Hydrobiologia

Accession Number: ISI:A1992HL35400007

Keywords: lakes

humic substances

plankton

food chains

dissolved organic-carbon

lake water constituents

molecular-weight

eutrophic lake

phosphorus transformations

tjeukemeer netherlands

aquatic environments

complex phosphorus

oligotrophic lakes

southern

finland

Abstract: Humic substances (HS) might influence planktonic food chains in lakes in two ways: 1) by altering the physical or chemical environment and thus modifying autotrophic primary production and the dependent food chains; 2) by acting as a direct carbon/energy source for food chains. HS compete with phytoplankton for available quanta underwater and this effect is seen in the reduced euphotic zone depth in lakes with high concentrations of HS. Thus potential photosynthetic production is lower in the presence of HS. However, this effect can be offset in small lakes in which the depth of mixing is also reduced when HS concentrations are high. Complexation by HS of important nutrients such as iron and phosphorus may also restrict primary production. Evidence is accumulating that photosynthetic primary production is insufficient to support measured metabolic activity in human lakes, which implies that metabolism of allochthonous HS underpins much of the observed activity. Studies of bacterial abundance and growth in the presence of HS support the view that bacteria are the most significant utilisers of HS. This use is apparently facilitated by photolysis of HS, particularly by short wavelength radiation. Bacteria are grazed by both micro-zooplankton (heterotrophic and mixotrophic flagellates and ciliates) and macrozooplankton. It is within this microbial community that the food chains derived from autotrophic and allotrophic sources interact. These effects of HS on food chains are discussed in relation to possible implications for the response of different lake types to eutrophication.

Notes: Week 4: Land to Lake; Times Cited: 93

Cited Reference Count: 124

Cited References:

AIKEN GR, 1985, HUMIC SUBSTANCES SOI

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ARVOLA L, 1984, HOLARCTIC ECOL, V7, P390

ARVOLA L, 1989, AQUA FENNICA, V19, P29

ARVOLA L, 1990, IN PRESS LIMNOLOGY B

AUCLAIR JC, 1985, WATER RES, V19, P1447

AZAM F, 1983, MAR ECOL-PROG SER, V10, P257

BELL RT, 1983, APPL ENVIRON MICROB, V45, P1709

BIRD DF, 1987, LIMNOL OCEANOGR, V32, P277

BIRD DF, 1989, LIMNOL OCEANOGR, V34, P155

BIRGE EA, 1927, P AM PHILOS SOC, V66, P357

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BOWLING LC, 1990, AUST J MAR FRESH RES, V41, P429

BOWLING LC, 1990, AUST J MAR FRESH RES, V41, P747

BRASSARD P, 1984, CAN J FISH AQUAT SCI, V41, P166

BRATBAK G, 1985, MAR ECOL-PROG SER, V25, P23

BUTTON DK, 1985, MICROBIOL REV, V49, P270

CARON DA, 1988, HYDROBIOLOGIA, V159, P27

CHROST RJ, 1989, J PLANKTON RES, V11, P223

COLE JJ, 1982, LIMNOL OCEANOGR, V27, P1080

COLE JJ, 1984, OIKOS, V42, P1

COTNER JB, 1990, LIMNOL OCEANOGR, V35, P1175

COVENEY MF, 1982, OIKOS, V38, P8

CROOME RL, 1988, HYDROBIOLOGIA, V161, P245

CURRIE DJ, 1984, LIMNOL OCEANOGR, V29, P298

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DEHAAN H, 1977, LIMNOL OCEANOGR, V22, P38

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DEHAAN H, 1992, HYDROBIOLOGIA, V229, P59

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FRANCKO DA, 1986, CAN J FISH AQUAT SCI, V43, P302

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GELLER A, 1985, SCHWEIZ Z HYDROL, V47, P27

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HAVENS KE, 1989, J PLANKTON RES, V11, P1321

HESSEN DO, 1985, FEMS MICROBIOL ECOL, V31, P215

HESSEN DO, 1985, OECOLOGIA, V66, P368

HESSEN DO, 1988, INT REV GES HYDROBIO, V73, P379

HESSEN DO, 1989, ARCH HYDROBIOL, V114, P321

HESSEN DO, 1990, LIMNOL OCEANOGR, V35, P84

ILMAVIRTA V, 1984, VERH INT VER THEOR A, V22, P817

ILMAVIRTA V, 1988, HYDROBIOLOGIA, V161, P255

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JARNEFELT H, 1958, VERH INT VER LIMNOL, V13, P228

JONES AK, 1986, BRIT PHYCOL J, V21, P341

JONES RI, 1977, J ECOL, V65, P561

JONES RI, 1977, J ECOL, V65, P579

JONES RI, 1984, VERH INT VEREIN LIMN, V22, P811

JONES RI, 1985, HOLARCTIC ECOL, V8, P133

JONES RI, 1988, FRESHWATER BIOL, V19, P357

JONES RI, 1990, FRESHWATER BIOL, V23, P323

KANKAALA P, 1988, FRESHWATER BIOL, V19, P285

KIEBER DJ, 1989, NATURE, V341, P637

KIRK JTO, 1983, LIGHT PHOTOSYNTHESIS

LATJA R, 1974, LUONNON TUTKIJA, V78, P153

MAKAREWICZ JC, 1985, ECOSYSTEM APPROACH A, P323

MILES CJ, 1981, ENVIRON SCI TECHNOL, V15, P1089

PEDROSALIO C, 1983, FRESHWATER BIOL, V13, P227

PETERSON BJ, 1978, LIMNOL OCEANOGR, V23, P1039

POMEROY LR, 1974, BIOSCIENCE, V24, P499

POMEROY LR, 1988, HYDROBIOLOGIA, V159, P7

PRAKASH A, 1973, LIMNOL OCEANOGR, V18, P516

PRATT JR, 1989, HYDROBIOLOGIA, V182, P165

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SALOKHE VM, 1990, SOIL TILL RES, V17, P1

SALONEN K, 1981, VERH INT VER LIMNOL, V21, P448

SALONEN K, 1983, HYDROBIOLOGIA, V101, P65

SALONEN K, 1986, OECOLOGIA, V68, P246

SALONEN K, 1987, LAMMI NOTES, V14, P6

SALONEN K, 1988, HYDROBIOLOGIA, V161, P203

SALONEN K, 1988, VERH INT VER LIMNOL, V23, P462

SALONEN K, 1990, VERH INT VER LIMNOL, V24, P294

SALONEN K, 1992, HYDROBIOLOGIA, V229, P125

SALONEN K, 1992, HYDROBIOLOGIA, V229, P143

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SANDGREN CD, 1988, GROWTH REPROD STRATE, P9

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SATOH Y, 1987, ARCH HYDROBIOL, V111, P25

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SEPERS ABJ, 1977, HYDROBIOLOGIA, V52, P39

SHERR BF, 1988, HYDROBIOLOGIA, V159, P19

SHERR EB, 1988, NATURE, V335, P348

SIEGEL A, 1971, ORGANIC COMPOUNDS AQ, P265

SLEIGH MA, 1989, PROTOZOA OTHER PROTI

STABEL HH, 1979, ARCH HYDROBIOL BEIH, V12, P95

STEINBERG C, 1981, VERH INT VER LIMNOL, V21, P231

STEINBERG C, 1984, ARCH HYDROBIOL, V100, P61

STEINBERG C, 1985, HUMIC SUBSTANCES SOI, P104

STEVENS RJ, 1982, WATER RES, V16, P1507

STEWART AJ, 1981, ARCH HYDROBIOL, V92, P265

STEWART AJ, 1982, FRESHWATER BIOL, V12, P369

STROME DJ, 1978, VERH INT VER LIMNOL, V20, P1248

SUNDH I, 1989, J PLANKTON RES, V11, P463

TALLING JF, 1957, NEW PHYTOL, V56, P133

THIENEMANN A, 1925, BINNENGEWASSER MITTE

TRANVIK LJ, 1987, APPL ENVIRON MICROB, V53, P482

TRANVIK LJ, 1988, MICRO ECOL, V16, P311

TRANVIK LJ, 1989, J PLANKTON RES, V11, P985

TRANVIK LJ, 1989, OECOLOGIA, V78, P473

VADSTEIN O, 1989, LIMNOL OCEANOGR, V34, P840

VEEN A, 1990, BR PHYCOL J, V25, P98

VISSER SA, 1984, FRESHWATER BIOL, V14, P79

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WETZEL RG, 1983, LIMNOLOGY

WILLIAMS PJL, 1981, KIELER MEERESFORSCH, V5, P1

WRIGHT RT, 1984, HETEROTROPHIC ACTIVI, P121

WRIGHT RT, 1988, HYDROBIOLOGIA, V159, P111

English

Article

HYDROBIOLOGIA

HL354

URL: <Go to ISI>://A1992HL35400007

Author Address: JONES, RI, UNIV LANCASTER,INST ENVIRONM & BIOL SCI,DIV BIOL SCI,LANCASTER LA1 4YQ,ENGLAND.

Reference Type: Journal Article

Record Number: 75

Author: Elser, J. J.; Fagan, W. F.; Denno, R. F.; Dobberfuhl, D. R.; Folarin, A.; Huberty, A.; Interlandi, S.; Kilham, S. S.; McCauley, E.; Schulz, K. L.; Siemann, E. H.; Sterner, R. W.

Year: 2000

Title: Nutritional constraints in terrestrial and freshwater food webs

Journal: Nature

Volume: 408

Issue: 6812

Pages: 578-580

Date: Nov 30

Short Title: Nutritional constraints in terrestrial and freshwater food webs

Alternate Journal: Nature

Accession Number: ISI:000165548600116

Keywords: n-p stoichiometry

ecosystems

phosphorus

growth

phytoplankton

zooplankton

limitation

patterns

daphnia

plants

Abstract: Biological and environmental contrasts between aquatic and terrestrial systems have hindered analyses of community and ecosystem structure across Earth's diverse habitats. Ecological stoichiometry(1,2) provides an integrative approach for such analyses, as all organisms are composed of the same major elements (C, N, P) whose balance affects production, nutrient cycling, and food-web dynamics(3,4). Here we show both similarities and differences in the C:N:P ratios of primary producers (autotrophs) and invertebrate primary consumers (herbivores) across habitats. Terrestrial food webs are built on an extremely nutrient-poor autotroph base with C:P and C:N ratios higher than in lake particulate matter, although the N:P ratios are nearly identical. Terrestrial herbivores (insects) and their freshwater counterparts (zooplankton) are nutrient-rich and indistinguishable in C:N:P stoichiometry. In both lakes and terrestrial systems, herbivores should have low growth efficiencies (10-30%) when consuming autotrophs with typical carbon-to-nutrient ratios. These stoichiometric constraints on herbivore growth appear to be qualitatively similar and widespread in both environments.

Notes: Week 4: Land to Lake; Times Cited: 133

Cited Reference Count: 25

Cited References:

ANDERSEN T, 1997, PELAGIC NUTR CYCLES

BUTLER NM, 1989, OECOLOGIA, V78, P368

CEBRIAN J, 1999, AM NAT, V154, P449

CHAPIN FS, 1997, SCIENCE, V277, P500

CYR H, 1993, NATURE, V361, P148

DEMOTT WR, 1998, LIMNOL OCEANOGR, V43, P1147

ELSER JJ, 1990, CAN J FISH AQUAT SCI, V47, P1468

ELSER JJ, 1995, MICROBIAL ECOL, V29, P145

ELSER JJ, 1996, BIOSCIENCE, V46, P674

ELSER JJ, 1999, ECOLOGY, V80, P735

ELTON C, 1927, ANIMAL ECOLOGY

FUTUYMA DJ, 1979, ECOL MONOGR, V49, P33

LEIBOLD MA, 1989, AM NAT, V134, P922

MAIN TM, 1997, LIMNOL OCEANOGR, V42, P1474

MCCAULEY E, 1999, NATURE, V402, P653

REINERS WA, 1986, AM NAT, V127, P59

SCHLESINGER WH, 1997, BIOGEOCHEMISTRY ANAL

SLANSKY F, 1977, ECOL MONOGR, V47, P209

STERNER RW, 1994, ANNU REV ECOL SYST, V25, P1

STERNER RW, 1997, FRESHWATER BIOL, V38, P473

STRONG DR, 1984, INSECTS PLANTS COMMU

STRONG DR, 1992, ECOLOGY, V73, P747

TILMAN D, 1997, SCIENCE, V277, P1300

VERHOEVEN JTA, 1996, TRENDS ECOL EVOL, V11, P494

WHITE TCR, 1993, INADEQUATE ENV NITRO

English

Article

NATURE

377WE

URL: <Go to ISI>://000165548600116

Author Address: Arizona State Univ, Dept Biol, Tempe, AZ 85287 USA. Univ Maryland, Dept Entomol, College Pk, MD 20742 USA. Drexel Univ, Sch Environm Sci Engn & Policy, Philadelphia, PA 19104 USA. Univ Calgary, Dept Biol Sci, Div Ecol, Calgary, AB T2N 1N4, Canada. SUNY Syracuse, Dept Environm & Forest Biol, Syracuse, NY 13210 USA. Rice Univ, Dept Ecol & Evolutionary Biol, Houston, TX 77005 USA. Univ Minnesota, Dept Ecol Evolut & Behav, St Paul, MN 55108 USA.

Elser, JJ, Arizona State Univ, Dept Biol, Tempe, AZ 85287 USA.

Reference Type: Journal Article

Record Number: 99

Author: Kling, G. W.; Fry, B.; Obrien, W. J.

Year: 1992

Title: Stable Isotopes and Planktonic Trophic Structure in Arctic Lakes

Journal: Ecology

Volume: 73

Issue: 2

Pages: 561-566

Date: Apr

Short Title: Stable Isotopes and Planktonic Trophic Structure in Arctic Lakes

Alternate Journal: Ecology

Accession Number: ISI:A1992HK46400016

Keywords: arctic lakes

copepod predation

energy flow

food webs

omnivory

realized vs potential food web

stable isotopes

trophic structure

zooplankton

food webs

carbon isotope

zooplankton

n-15

nitrogen

c-13

Abstract: Actual food-web structure or function is difficult to determine based on visual observation, gut analyses, or the feeding interactions expected from a given list of species. We used C and N stable-isotope distributions to define food-web structure in arctic lakes, and we compared that structure with results based on more traditional analyses. Although zooplankton species composition was similar across the eight lakes studied, the food-web structure varied greatly. In some lakes the copepod predator Heterocope fed on the herbivorous copepod Diaptomus as expected in a conventional food web. In most lakes, however, delta-N-15 data were consistent with Heterocope functioning as an herbivore rather than a predator. These inferences were supported by evidence from carbon isotopes and energy-flow data. Our study indicates that only two or three trophic levels exist in the macrozooplankton of these lakes, in comparison to five or six trophic levels reported in temperate lakes. Isotope analyses showed that actual food-web structure is poorly predicted from simple consideration of species lists and potential trophic interactions.

Notes: Week 4: Land to Lake; Times Cited: 153

Cited Reference Count: 32

Cited References:

BENNER R, 1987, NATURE, V329, P708

BIDIGARE RR, 1991, ANAL CHEM, V63, P130

DENIRO MJ, 1978, GEOCHIM COSMOCHIM AC, V42, P495

ESTEP MLF, 1985, CAN J FISH AQUAT SCI, V42, P1712

FOLCH J, 1957, J BIOL CHEM, V226, P497

FREEMAN KH, 1990, NATURE, V343, P254

FRY B, 1986, LIMNOL OCEANOGR, V3, P79

HESSEN DO, 1990, LIMNOL OCEANOGR, V35, P84

HOBBIE JE, 1988, ARCH HYDROBIOL BEIH, V31, P281

HUTCHINSON GE, 1967, TREATISE LIMNOLOGY, V2

LAZERTE BD, 1983, CAN J FISH AQUAT SCI, V40, P1658

LUECKE C, 1983, LIMNOL OCEANOGR, V28, P367

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MILLER MC, 1986, ARCH HYDROBIOL S, V74, P97

MINAGAWA M, 1984, GEOCHIM COSMOCHIM AC, V48, P1135

MIYAKE Y, 1967, REC OCEANOGR WORKS J, V9, P32

MONTOYA JP, 1990, MAR ECOL-PROG SER, V65, P35

MONTOYA JP, 1990, THESIS HARVARD U CAM

OBRIEN WJ, 1979, ARCTIC, V32, P237

OWENS NJP, 1987, ADV MAR BIOL, V24, P389

PAINE RT, 1988, ECOLOGY, V69, P1648

PARKER PL, 1964, GEOCHIM COSMOCHIM AC, V28, P1155

PETERSON BJ, 1987, ANNU REV ECOL SYST, V18, P293

PIMM SL, 1982, FOOD WEBS

PIMM SL, 1991, NATURE, V350, P669

RAU GH, 1980, CAN J FISH AQUAT SCI, V37, P742

RAU GH, 1983, ECOLOGY, V64, P1314

SCHELL DM, 1983, SCIENCE, V219, P1068

SCHIMMELMANN A, 1985, THESIS U CALIFORNIA

SPRULES WG, 1988, ECOLOGY, V69, P418

STROSS RG, 1980, LIMNOLOGY TUNDRA PON, P251

YODZIS P, 1981, NATURE, V289, P674

English

Article

ECOLOGY

HK464

URL: <Go to ISI>://A1992HK46400016

Author Address: MARINE BIOL LAB,CTR ECOSYST,WOODS HOLE,MA 02543. UNIV KANSAS,DEPT SYSTEMAT & BIOL,LAWRENCE,KS 66044.

Reference Type: Journal Article

Record Number: 51

Author: Hairston, N. G.

Year: 1993

Title: Cause-Effect Relationships in Energy-Flow, Trophic Structure, and Interspecific Interactions

Journal: American Naturalist

Volume: 142

Issue: 3

Pages: 379-411

Date: Sep

Short Title: Cause-Effect Relationships in Energy-Flow, Trophic Structure, and Interspecific Interactions

Alternate Journal: Am. Nat.

Accession Number: ISI:A1993LY87300001

Keywords: food-chain length

primary productivity

community structure

habitat

compartmentation

stable isotopes

top predators

web theory

lake

ecosystems

dynamics

Abstract: Measurements of the efficiency of energy transfer between trophic levels are consistent with the hypothesis that it is trophic structure that controls the fraction of energy consumed at each trophic level, rather than energetics controlling trophic structure. Moreover, trophic structure is determined by competitive and predator-prey interactions. In freshwater pelagic communities, the collective efficiency of herbivorous plankton in consuming primary producers is up to 10 times as great as is the efficiency of forest herbivores in consuming their food. Conversely, forest predators are about three times as efficient in consuming herbivore production. as are zooplanktivorous fish. The presence of an additional level, piscivorous fish, in pelagic communities accounts for the difference. In the aquatic system, herbivorous zooplankton are freed from predation by the effect of piscivorous fish on their predators; in the terrestrial system, green plants are freed from herbivory by predation on the herbivores. We explain the contrast between freshwater pelagic systems and forests and prairies as follows: Pelagic ecosystems have more trophic levels as a result of selection for small rapidly growing primary producers, which cannot hold space in the fluid medium, in contrast to large space-occupying producers in the terrestrial environment. Consumers in pelagic systems are more frequently gape limited in the size range of food they can ingest than are grasping consumers in terrestrial systems. This difference makes for two largely distinct levels of predators in pelagic communities. The energy within the living, nondetrital components is more finely divided between trophic levels in pelagic systems than in terrestrial systems. Ecological efficiencies do not determine trophic structure; rather, they are its product.

Notes: Week 4: Land to Lake; Times Cited: 154

Cited Reference Count: 176

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English

Article

AMER NATURALIST

LY873

URL: <Go to ISI>://A1993LY87300001

Author Address: UNIV N CAROLINA,DEPT BIOL,CHAPEL HILL,NC 27599.

HAIRSTON, NG, CORNELL UNIV,ECOL & SYSTEMAT SECT,ITHACA,NY 14853.

Reference Type: Journal Article

Record Number: 89

Author: delGiorgio, P. A.; Cole, J. J.; Cimbleris, A.

Year: 1997

Title: Respiration rates in bacteria exceed phytoplankton production in unproductive aquatic systems

Journal: Nature

Volume: 385

Issue: 6612

Pages: 148-151

Date: Jan 9

Short Title: Respiration rates in bacteria exceed phytoplankton production in unproductive aquatic systems

Alternate Journal: Nature

Accession Number: ISI:A1997WB72800051

Keywords: dissolved organic-carbon

fresh-water

continental-shelf

bacterioplankton

matter

metabolism

estuarine

nearshore

plankton

biomass

Abstract: PLANKTONIC bacteria are a fundamental component of the organic carbon cycle in aquatic systems(1). Organic carbon consumption by planktonic bacteria is the sum of bacterial production (BP) and bacterial respiration (BR), IL is now estimated that. 30-60% of phytoplankton production (the amount of inorganic carbon fixed by phytoplankton photosynthesis, corrected far phytoplankton respiration) in marine and freshwater systems is processed by bacterial(1-3). These estimates of carbon flow through bacteria are conservative, however, because losses due to bacterial respiration are seldom directly measured(4,5). We report here that bacterial respiration is generally high, and tends to exceed phytoplankton net production in unproductive systems (less than 70 to 120 mu g carbon per litre per day). A large proportion of the world's aquatic systems have phytoplankton productivities below this value(6). Bacterial growth efficiency (BGE) is the result of BP and BR[BGE = BP/(BR + BP)]. Comparisons of our models of bacterial respiration with published models of bacterial secondary production(1,7) show that bacterial growth efficiency must range fi om less than 10% to 25% in most freshwater and marine systems, well below the values commonly assumed in many current ecological models(1,2,8,9). The imbalance between bacterial respiration and phytoplankton production suggests that in unproductive aquatic systems, the biological system is a net source of CO2.

Notes: Week 4: Land to Lake; Times Cited: 221

Cited Reference Count: 30

Cited References:

BIDDANDA B, 1994, LIMNOL OCEANOGR, V39, P1259

CHO BC, 1988, NATURE, V332, P441

COLE JJ, 1988, MAR ECOL-PROG SER, V43, P1

COLE JJ, 1994, SCIENCE, V265, P1568

CRAWFORD CC, 1974, ECOLOGY, V55, P551

DANIERI G, 1994, J PLANKTON RES, V16, P105

DELGIORGIO PA, 1994, LIMNOL OCEANOGR, V39, P772

DUCKLOW HW, 1992, ADV MICROB ECOL, V12, P113

DUCKLOW HW, 1993, DEEP-SEA RES PT II, V40, P245

FINDLAY S, 1992, MAR ECOL-PROG SER, V89, P147

FUHRMAN JA, 1989, MAR ECOL-PROG SER, V57, P207

GRIFFITH PC, 1990, MAR ECOL-PROG SER, V59, P263

HANSELL DA, 1995, MAR CHEM, V51, P201

HOPKINSON CS, 1985, MAR BIOL, V87, P19

JAHNKE RA, 1995, LIMNOL OCEANOGR, V40, P436

KIEBER DJ, 1989, NATURE, V341, P637

KIRCHMAN DL, 1991, NATURE, V352, P612

KLING GW, 1991, SCIENCE, V251, P298

KRISTIANSEN K, 1992, MICROB ECOL, V24, P145

KROER N, 1993, LIMNOL OCEANOGR, V38, P1282

LIETH H, 1975, PRIMARY PRODUCTION B

MCARDLE BH, 1988, CAN J ZOOL, V66, P2329

MEYERSSCHULTE KJ, 1986, NATURE, V321, P61

MORAN MA, 1991, LIMNOL OCEANOGR, V36, P1134

SMITH SV, 1987, GLOBAL BIOGEOCHEM CY, V1, P187

STRAYER D, 1988, LIMNOL OCEANOGR, V33, P1217

TORTELL PD, 1996, NATURE, V383, P330

WHITE PA, 1991, MICROBIAL ECOL, V21, P99

WILLIAMS PJ, 1981, KIELER MEERESFORSCH, V51, P1

WRIGHT RT, 1988, HYDROBIOLOGIA, V159, P111

English

Article

NATURE

WB728

URL: <Go to ISI>://A1997WB72800051

Author Address: MCGILL UNIV,DEPT BIOL,MONTREAL,PQ H3A 1B1,CANADA.

delGiorgio, PA, INST ECOSYST STUDIES,BOX AB,MILLBROOK,NY 12545.

Reference Type: Book Section

Record Number: 117

Author: Kratz, T.K.; Webster, K.E.; Riera, J.L.; Lewis, D.B.; Pollard, A.I.

Year: 2006

Title: Making sense of the landscape: Geomorphic legacies and the landscape position of lakes.

Editor: Magnuson, J.J.; Kratz, T.K.; Benson, B.J.

Book Title: Long-term dynamics of lakes in the landscape: long-term ecological research on North Temperate Lakes

Publisher: Oxford University Press

Pages: 49-66

Short Title: Making sense of the landscape: Geomorphic legacies and the landscape position of lakes.

Notes: Week 4: Land to Lake; Using time series data from several neighboring lakes, the authors show that many physical, chemical, and biological properties of lakes are strongly influenced on the geomorphic legacy of a lake. Lakes high in elevation, relative to neighboring lakes, recieve most of their water from precipitation and are thus not terribly influenced by the surrounding landscape--at least relative to lakes that are lower in elevation and position in the drainage basin. The water reaching these lakes carries a significant subsidy of material from the terrestrial system (Silica, calcium, magnesium, carbon, nutrients, etc), which ultimately affect the biological properties of the lake. The abundance and diversity of organisms in the foodweb are supported by significant terrestrial fluxes of material.

Reference Type: Journal Article

Record Number: 105

Author: Cole, J. J.; Pace, M. L.; Carpenter, S. R.; Kitchell, J. F.

Year: 2000

Title: Persistence of net heterotrophy in lakes during nutrient addition and food web manipulations

Journal: Limnology And Oceanography

Volume: 45

Issue: 8

Pages: 1718-1730

Date: Dec

Short Title: Persistence of net heterotrophy in lakes during nutrient addition and food web manipulations

Alternate Journal: Limnol. Oceanogr.

Accession Number: ISI:000165834700005

Keywords: Dissolved organic-carbon

fresh-waters

ecosystems

exchange

respiration

phosphorus

responses

biomass

dioxide

rates

Abstract: Net ecosystem production (NEP) is the difference between gross primary production (GPP) and community respiration (R). We estimated in situ NEP using three independent approaches (net CO2 gas flux, net O-2 gas flux, and continuous diel O-2 measurements) over a 4-7 yr period in a series of small lakes in which food webs were manipulated and nutrient loadings were experimentally varied. In the absence of manipulation, these lakes were net heterotrophic according to all three approaches. NEP (NEP = GPP-R) was consistently negative and averaged -35.5 +/- 3.7 (standard error) mmol C m(-2) d(-1). Nutrient enrichment, in the absence of strong planktivory, tended to cause increases in estimates of both GPP and R (estimated from the continuous O-2 data) but resulted in little change in the GPP/R ratio, which remained <1, or NEP, which remained negative. When planktivorous fish dominated the food web, large zooplankton were rare and nutrient enrichment produced positive values of NEP by all three methods. Among lakes and years, daily values of NEP ranged from -241 to +175 mmol m(-2) d(-1); mean seasonal NEP was positive only under a combination of high nutrient loading and a planktivore-dominated food web. Community R is significantly subsidized by allochthonous sources of organic matter in these lakes. Combining all lakes and years, we estimate that <similar to>26 mmol C m(-2) d(-1) of allochthonous origin is respired on average. This respiration of allochthonous organic matter represents 13 to 43% of total R, and this fraction declines with increasing GPP.

Notes: Week 4: Land to Lake; Using whole lake manipulations, the authors show that nutrient subsidies increase primary production. What's new, however, is that despite the increased nutrients, the lakes remained net heterotrophic when planktivorous fish were largely absent--zooplankton were able to keep algal biomass low thus keeping GPP low relative to R. However, in the presence of planktivores, lakes became net autotrophic when enriched with nutrients. While this paper shows the effect of the food web on the metabolic balance of the lake in light of nutrient additions (nutrient subsidies must interact with the food web), it leaves unanswered questions regarding the effect of the nutrient subsidies on the food web structure. Interestingly, the authors find that at least 13% of the respiration in even the most productive (net autotrophic) lakes is supported by terrestrial subsidies of organic C.

URL: <Go to ISI>://000165834700005

Reference Type: Journal Article

Record Number: 211

Author: Altieri, A. H.; Witman, J. D.

Year: 2006

Title: Local extinction of a foundation species in a hypoxic estuary: Integrating individuals to ecosystem

Journal: Ecology

Volume: 87

Issue: 3

Pages: 717-730

Date: Mar

Short Title: Local extinction of a foundation species in a hypoxic estuary: Integrating individuals to ecosystem

ISSN: 0012-9658

Accession Number: ISI:000236289600020

Keywords: asterias forbesi

benthic-pelagic coupling

bivalve

dissolved oxygen

disturbance

environmental stress

eutrophication

filtration

mussel

mytilus edulis

predation

refuge

rocky subtidal community

mytilus-edulis-l

narragansett bay

carcinus-maenas

chesapeake bay

intertidal community

habitat degradation

oyster reefs

new-england

shore crab

Abstract: We integrated across individual, Population, Community, and ecosystem levels to understand the impact of environmental stress by tracking the foundation species Mytilus edulis in the hypoxic estuary Narragansett Bay, Rhode Island, USA. Our initial Surveys revealed that the Mussels occurred in nine extensive (2-28 ha) dense (814-9943 individuals/m(2)) subtidal reefs; that attracted a diverse suite of predators (sea stars, crabs, gastropods). Hypoxia occurred in the summer of 2001, and a Mussel transplant experiment revealed overall reduced growth rates of individuals, and higher mortality rates arriong larger mussels. At the Population level, large decreases in densities and cover of mussels were correlated with dissolved oxygen concentrations, leading to extinction at one site and reductions of over ail order of magnitude at others. Within one year, seven of the eight remaining populations were edged to extinction, and the previously extinct population was recolonized. At the community level, a predator exclusion experiment indicated that predation was an unimportant source of mussel mortality during the hypoxic period, in part due to the emigration of sea stars, as predicted by tile Consumer Stress Model. However, mussels were too intolerant to hypoxia to have a net benefit from the predation refuge. The seasonal (summer) occurrence of hypoxia allowed sea stars to return following a lag, as predicted by a stress return time model, and the resumption of predation contributed to the subsequent extinction of mussel populations. At the ecosystem level, the initial filtration rate of the mussel reefs was estimated at 134.6 X 10(6) m(3)/d, equivalent to filtering the Volume of the bay 1.3 times during the 26-d average residence time. That function was reduced by > 75% following hypoxia. The effect of hypoxia on each level of organization had consequences at others. For example, size-specific mortality and decreased growth of individuals, and reduced filtration capacity of reefs, indicated a loss of the ability of mussels to entrain planktonic productivity and potential to control future eutrophication and hypoxia. Our study quantified patterns of loss and identified pathways within ail integrative framework of feedbacks, Summarized in a conceptual model that is applicable to similar foundation species subjected to environmental stress.

Notes: Week 5: Benthic-Pelagic; 025TK

Times Cited:0

Cited References Count:77

Marine, Mussels are important! Filter volume of bay 1.3 times during 26 day residence time. Hypoxia vastly reduced filtration.

URL: <Go to ISI>://000236289600020

Author Address: Altieri, AH

Brown Univ, Dept Ecol & Evolutionary Biol, Box G-W, Providence, RI 02912 USA

Brown Univ, Dept Ecol & Evolutionary Biol, Providence, RI 02912 USA

Language: English

Reference Type: Journal Article

Record Number: 199

Author: Wilhelm, F. M.; Hudson, J. J.; Schindler, D. W.

Year: 1999

Title: Contribution of Gammarus lacustris to phosphorus recycling in a fishless alpine lake

Journal: Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences

Volume: 56

Issue: 9

Pages: 1679-1686

Date: Sep

Short Title: Contribution of Gammarus lacustris to phosphorus recycling in a fishless alpine lake

ISSN: 0706-652X

Accession Number: ISI:000082745700018

Keywords: phytoplankton production

benthic invertebrates

oligotrophic lake

water-quality

gizzard shad

release

regeneration

nitrogen

zooplankton

excretion

Abstract: We estimated the net P transport by Gammarus lacustris from the benthic to pelagic regions of a fishless alpine lake and compared it with P regeneration by the entire plankton community. Gammarus lacustris released between 5.2 and 18.1 ng P.L-1.h(-1) (adults only and adults plus immatures, respectively) in the pelagic region during nighttime vertical migration. Additional P released into and removed from the water column due to predation on zooplankton was estimated at 1.87 and 2.3 ng P.L-1.h(-1), respectively The net daily regeneration of 52.2-181.4 ng P.L-1.day(-1) by the G. lacustris population represented 9.5-32.9% of the total P regenerated by the planktonic community. The majority of the P released by G. lacustris represents "new" P to the pelagic zone because it originated in sediments. We conclude that G. lacustris can represent an important link in benthic-pelagic coupling in oligotrophic mountain lakes.

Notes: Week 5: Benthic-Pelagic; 239AB

Times Cited:10

Cited References Count:37

Freshwater, In fishless alpine lake, benthic Gammarus (amphipod) moves to the pelagic by night. In doing so it brings up 32.9% of the total P regenerated in the pelagic each day. Movement of organisms from benthic to pelagic can represent a significant within lake flux of nutrients and materials. Chaoborus and Mysis come to mind.

URL: <Go to ISI>://000082745700018

Author Address: Wilhelm, FM

Univ Alberta, Dept Sci Biol, Edmonton, AB T6G 2E9, Canada

Univ Alberta, Dept Sci Biol, Edmonton, AB T6G 2E9, Canada

Language: English

Reference Type: Journal Article

Record Number: 213

Author: Gunnarsson, J.; Bjork, M.; Gilek, M.; Granberg, M.; Rosenberg, R.

Year: 2000

Title: Effects of eutrophication on contaminant cycling in marine benthic systems

Journal: Ambio

Volume: 29

Issue: 4-5

Pages: 252-259

Date: Aug

Short Title: Effects of eutrophication on contaminant cycling in marine benthic systems

ISSN: 0044-7447

Accession Number: ISI:000089408300009

Keywords: mussel mytilus-edulis

hydrophobic organic-compounds

stars amphiura-filiformis

blue mussel

baltic-sea

phytoplankton sedimentation

polychlorinated-biphenyls

nereis-diversicolor

feeding polychaete

algal food

Abstract: Effects of inputs of organic matter were studied on bioavailability and cycling of hydrophobic organic contaminants (HOCs) in benthic ecosystems of the Baltic and Kattegat Seas. In laboratory experiments, effects of microalgae additions were studied on the bioaccumulation of HOCs (PCBs and PAHs) by the blue mussel Mytilus edulis, the brittle star Amphiura filiformis, and the polychaete Nereis diversicolor. Contrary to the equilibrium partitioning theory, bioaccumulation was proportional to the concentrations of algae and organic carbon. This was attributed to the high nutritional quality of the algal organic carbon and suggests that feeding rather than equilibrium partitioning governed bioaccumulation in these species. In the field, annual mass fluxes of PCBs in blue mussels and in brittle stars were estimated, as well as contaminant transfer to higher trophic levels. Our results suggest that: I) Eutrophication processes may contribute to increase HOC accumulation in benthic species. ii) Temporal variation in the quantity and quality of organic carbon needs to be considered when assessing contamination of benthic systems. ill) Macrofaunal feeding activities are important for the benthic-pelagic coupling of HOCs. iv) Bioturbation enhances the release of HOCs from sediment to overlying water.

Notes: Week 5: Benthic-Pelagic; 355VB

Times Cited:8

Cited References Count:59

Marine, Is a good example of some of the issues concerning bivalve bioaccumulation.

URL: <Go to ISI>://000089408300009

Author Address: Gunnarsson, J

Univ Gothenburg, Dept Marine Ecol, Kristineberg Marine Res Stn, SE-45034 Fiskebackskil, Sweden

Univ Gothenburg, Dept Marine Ecol, Kristineberg Marine Res Stn, SE-45034 Fiskebackskil, Sweden
Stockholm Univ, Dept Syst Ecol, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden

Language: English

Reference Type: Journal Article

Record Number: 208

Author: Vadeboncoeur, Y.; Vander Zanden, M. J.; Lodge, D. M.

Year: 2002

Title: Putting the lake back together: Reintegrating benthic pathways into lake food web models

Journal: Bioscience

Volume: 52

Issue: 1

Pages: 44-54

Date: Jan

Short Title: Putting the lake back together: Reintegrating benthic pathways into lake food web models

ISSN: 0006-3568

Accession Number: ISI:000173456700011

Keywords: periphytic algae

trophic position

fish production

zebra mussels

shallow lakes

phytoplankton

macrophytes

bacteria

biomass

waters

Notes: Week 5: Benthic-Pelagic; 514TG

Times Cited:38

Cited References Count:54

Freshwater, Fish eat benthic inverts a lot more than the past pelagic focus in limnology would suggest. Under what circumstances does this matter to energy flow pathways?

URL: <Go to ISI>://000173456700011

Author Address: Univ Wisconsin, Ctr Limnol, Madison, WI 53706 USA
Univ Notre Dame, Dept Biol Sci, Notre Dame, IN 46556 USA

Language: English

Reference Type: Journal Article

Record Number: 201

Author: Vander Zanden, M. J.; Vadeboncoeur, Y.

Year: 2002

Title: Fishes as integrators of benthic and pelagic food webs in lakes

Journal: Ecology

Volume: 83

Issue: 8

Pages: 2152-2161

Date: Aug

Short Title: Fishes as integrators of benthic and pelagic food webs in lakes

ISSN: 0012-9658

Accession Number: ISI:000177434200010

Keywords: apparent competition

cross-chain omnivory

diet analysis

energy flow

food chain

food web

pelagic

stable isotope analysis

trophic dynamics

zoobenthos

trophic position

stable-isotope

whole-lake

community structure

delta-n-15

dynamics

productivity

resilience

complexity

delta-c-13

Abstract: Studies of take ecosystems generally focus on pelagic food chains and processes. Recently, there has been an emerging recognition of the importance of benthic production and processes to whole-lake ecosystems. To examine the extent to which zoo-benthos contribute to higher trophic level production in lakes, we synthesized diet data from 470 fish populations (15 species) and stable isotope data from 90 fish Populations (I I species), all of which are common inhabitants of north-temperate lakes. Across all species considered, zoobenthos averaged 50% of total prey consumption. Indirect consumption of zoobenthos (i.e., feeding on zoobenthos-supported fishes) contributed another 15%, for a total of 65% reliance on benthic secondary production. Stable isotopes provided estimates of mean zoobenthivory ranging from 43% to 59%. For most fish species. consumption of zoobenthos was highly variable among populations. The overwhelming concern of ecologists with pelagic food chains and processes contrasts sharply with our finding that benthic secondary production plays a central role in supporting higher trophic level production. This extensive zoobenthivory can subsidize fish populations, leading to apparent competition and otherwise altering trophic dynamics and ecosystem processes in the pelagic zone. We argue for a more integrated view of lake ecosystems that recognizes the duality of benthic and pelagic production pathways. Food web models that explicitly consider energy flow from pelagic and benthic sources will provide a more realistic energy flow template for understanding the regulation of lake ecosystem functioning.

Notes: Week 5: Benthic-Pelagic; 583WP

Times Cited:43

Cited References Count:45

Freshwater, Much empirical evidence for the importance of benthic energy pathways to many fish species in many different types of lakes.

URL: <Go to ISI>://000177434200010

Author Address: Vander Zanden, MJ

Univ Wisconsin, Ctr Limnol, 680 N Pk St, Madison, WI 53706 USA

McGill Univ, Dept Biol, Montreal, PQ H3A 1B1, Canada
Univ Calif Davis, Dept Environm Sci & Policy, Davis, CA 95616 USA

Language: English

Reference Type: Journal Article

Record Number: 205

Author: Grall, J.; Chauvaud, L.

Year: 2002

Title: Marine eutrophication and benthos: the need for new approaches and concepts

Journal: Global Change Biology

Volume: 8

Issue: 9

Pages: 813-830

Date: Sep

Short Title: Marine eutrophication and benthos: the need for new approaches and concepts

ISSN: 1354-1013

Accession Number: ISI:000177545800001

Keywords: benthos

eutrophication

nutrients and carbon fluxes

phytobenthos

suspension feeders

zoobenthos

san-francisco bay

long-term changes

clam potamocorbula-amurensis

spring phytoplankton bloom

swedish west-coast

community structure

suspension feeders

wadden sea

nutrient enrichment

north-sea

Abstract: In this review, using examples drawn from field observations or experimental studies, our goals are (i) to briefly summarize the major changes, in terms of species composition and functional structure, occurring in phyto and zoobenthic communities in relation to nutrient enrichment of the ecosystems; particular interest is given to the major abiotic and biotic factors occurring during the eutrophication process, (ii) to discuss the direct and indirect influences of benthic organisms on eutrophication and whether the latter can be controlled or favoured by benthos; most benthic species play a major role in the process of benthic nutrient regeneration, affecting primary production by supplying nutrients directly and enhancing rates of pelagic recycling; experimental studies have shown that the impact of benthic fauna on benthic-pelagic coupling and nutrient release is considerable. Thus, once the eutrophication process is engaged-that is, high organic matter sedimentation-it may be indirectly favoured by benthic organisms; benthos should always be considered in eutrophication studies, (iii) to evaluate the limits of our observations and data, highlighting the strong need for integrated studies leading to new concepts. Coastal ecosystems and benthic communities are potentially impacted by numerous human activities (demersal fishing, toxic contaminants, aquaculture.); in order to design strategies of ecosystem restoration or rehabilitation, we have to better understand coastal eutrophication and develop tools for quantifying the impacts; in order to achieve this goal, some possible directions proposed are: integrated studies leading to new concepts, model development based on these concepts and finally comparison of various ecosystems on a global scale.

Notes: Week 5: Benthic-Pelagic; 585VT

Times Cited:11

Cited References Count:153

Marine, This is a really interesting synopsis of marine coastal eutrophication. It describes the concept of 'benthic eutrophication' which is not often considered in freshwater systems. It describes potential shifts in biomass, abundance, and benthic and primary producer community composition that occur as a result of eutrophication (again, not often described for freshwater systems). It also touches upon the types of hydrological characteristics of a waterbody that are likely to mediate the impacts of nutrient/organic matter loading on benthos (e.g., residence time).

URL: <Go to ISI>://000177545800001

Author Address: Grall, J

CNRS, LEMAR, UMR 6539, Inst Univ European Mer, Pl Copern, F-29280 Plouzane, France

CNRS, LEMAR, UMR 6539, Inst Univ European Mer, F-29280 Plouzane, France

Language: English

Reference Type: Journal Article

Record Number: 214

Author: Hiwatari, T.; Kohata, K.; Iijima, A.

Year: 2002

Title: Nitrogen budget of the bivalve Mactra veneriformis, and its significance in benthic-pelagic systems in the Sanbanse area of Tokyo Bay

Journal: Estuarine Coastal and Shelf Science

Volume: 55

Issue: 2

Pages: 299-308

Date: Aug

Short Title: Nitrogen budget of the bivalve Mactra veneriformis, and its significance in benthic-pelagic systems in the Sanbanse area of Tokyo Bay

ISSN: 0272-7714

Accession Number: ISI:000178785500010

Keywords: nitrogen budget

benthic-pelagic coupling

suspension-feeding bivalve

mactra veneriformis

sanbanse

tokyo bay

san-francisco bay

choromytilus-meridionalis

ruditapes-philippinarum

phytoplankton biomass

filtration-rate

energy budget

mussel beds

wadden sea

assimilation

nutrients

Abstract: To examine the nitrogen budget of the suspension feeding bivalve Mactra veneriformis in the Sanbanse, a shallow (<5 m) part of Tokyo Bay, Japan, field surveys and laboratory experiments were conducted in early summer, 1998. The Sanbanse area is one of the few remaining areas of intertidal wetland in Tokyo Bay and is an area of significant importance for migrating waders and as a clam fishery and for laver culture. Three infaunal suspension-feeding bivalves, Mactra veneriformis, M. chinensis and Ruditapes philippinarum, were found as the dominant species in terms of biomass.
Of these three species, Mactra veneriformis was dominant in the Funabashi area of the Sanbanse. In laboratory experiments, the filtration rate of M. veneriformis (525-918 mg of flesh dry weight), a representative size of the bivalve in the Funabashi area, was 0951 g(-1) flesh dry weight h(-1) corresponding to 408 mug N g(-1) flesh dry weight h(-1). The excretion rates of ammonia and faeces were 35.0 mug N g(-1) flesh dry weight h(-1) and 45.4 mug N g(-1) flesh dry weight h(-1), respectively, at 20 degreesC. Based on the nitrogen budget of M. veneriformis in the Funabashi area in early summer, the population excreted 8.6% of the filtered nitrogen as ammonia and egested 22.2% of the filtered nitrogen as faeces and pseudofaeces, and converted 69.2% as growth. The high growth ratio indicates that the M. veneriformis population efficiently transfers the pelagic primary production to higher trophic levels in the early summer. (C) 2002 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

Notes: Week 5: Benthic-Pelagic; 607HF

Times Cited:6

Cited References Count:35

Marine, Again marine mussels convert pelagic primary production into benthic secondary production.

URL: <Go to ISI>://000178785500010

Author Address: Hiwatari, T

Japan Sci & Technol Corp, 4-1-8 Hommachi, Kawaguchi, Saitama 3320012, Japan

Natl Inst Environm Studies, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 3050053, Japan

Language: English

Reference Type: Journal Article

Record Number: 197

Author: Bell, E. M.; Weithoff, G.

Year: 2003

Title: Benthic recruitment of zooplankton in an acidic lake

Journal: Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology

Volume: 285

Pages: 205-219

Date: Feb 12

Short Title: Benthic recruitment of zooplankton in an acidic lake

ISSN: 0022-0981

Accession Number: ISI:000181026600013

Keywords: benthic-pelagic coupling

heliozoa

mining lake

recruitment

rhizopod

rotifer

clyde-sea area

tidal flat community

microbial food webs

marine-sediments

trophic interactions

naked amebas

north-sea

heterotrophic nanoflagellate

bacterial production

spatial variations

Abstract: In recent years, most studies of the benthic microbial food web have either been descriptive or were restricted to the measurement of within sediment process rates. Little is known about benthic-pelagic coupling processes such as recruitment. We, therefore, developed an ex situ core incubation procedure to quantify the potential for microbial recruitment from the benthos to the pelagic in an acidic mining lake, Mining Lake 111 (ML 111; pH 2.6), in eastern Germany. Our data suggest that considerable zooplankton recruitment from the benthos takes place. Heliozoan and rhizopod recruitment in both summer and winter sediment cores was highest when they were incubated at 20 degreesC. Maximum heliozoan recruitment was 23 (+/-9 S.E.) individuals cm(-2) day(-1) (40% initial standing stock daily) in the winter 20 degreesC incubation. Maximum rhizopod recruitment was 6 (+/-2 S.E.) individuals cm(-2) day(-1) in the summer 20 degreesC incubation. Little or no recruitment was apparent for either taxa when winter cores were incubated at 5 degreesC, implying a temperature cue. Conversely, the rotifer, Cephalodella hoodi, exhibited a maximum recruitment of 6 (+/-2 S.E.) individuals cm(-2) day(-1) during the winter 5 degreesC incubation, representing 30% of initial standing stock daily, but little recruitment when incubated at 20 degreesC. Cephalodella may have responded to an increased winter benthic food supply; in situ winter Chl a concentrations in the benthos were 3.4 times higher than those in the summer. The importance of this was reinforced by the poor pelagic food supply available in ML 111. In situ, Heliozoa, rhizopods and Cephalodella were first observed in the epilimnion of ML 111 in spring or early summer, suggesting active or passive recruitment following lateral transport from littoral sediments. Benthic-pelagic coupling via recruitment is potentially important in understanding the pelagic food web in ML 111 and warrants further investigation in this and other aquatic environments. (C) 2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

Notes: Week 5: Benthic-Pelagic; 646GE

Times Cited:10

Cited References Count:60

Freshwater, Microbes coming out of the sediment! Cool! Cues for recruitment may include temperature.

URL: <Go to ISI>://000181026600013

Author Address: Bell, EM

Univ Potsdam, Inst Biochem & Biol, Dept Ecol & Ecosyst Modelling, Maulbeerallee 2, D-14469 Potsdam, Germany

Univ Potsdam, Inst Biochem & Biol, Dept Ecol & Ecosyst Modelling, D-14469 Potsdam, Germany

Language: English

Reference Type: Journal Article

Record Number: 203

Author: Brendonck, L.; De Meester, L.

Year: 2003

Title: Egg banks in freshwater zooplankton: evolutionary and ecological archives in the sediment

Journal: Hydrobiologia

Volume: 491

Issue: 1-3

Pages: 65-84

Date: Jan

Short Title: Egg banks in freshwater zooplankton: evolutionary and ecological archives in the sediment

ISSN: 0018-8158

Accession Number: ISI:000183771600006

Keywords: resting stages

egg banks

structure

ecological dynamics

evolutionary dynamics

historical reconstructions

temporally varying environments

branchipodopsis-wolfi crustacea

lake daphnia populations

cyclops-scutifer sars

rock pool populations

resting eggs

seed-bank

genetic-structure

anostracans branchiopoda

seasonal dynamics

Abstract: Many representatives of freshwater zooplankton produce at some stage in their life cycle resting stages. A variable portion of the eggs of the previous growing period will hatch at the next occasion while the remaining ones are added to a persistent egg bank, where they can remain viable for decades or longer. The importance of the study of resting eggs and egg banks in general for such different disciplines as taxonomy, ecological biogeography, paleolimnology, nature conservation, evolutionary ecology and community and population ecology is generally appreciated. The major current and expected future developments in this rapidly expanding field of research are presented here. The structure and dynamics of the egg bank are determined by the life history characteristics of the species (or local population), the hatching phenology of their resting stages, and the characteristics of the habitat. The horizontal distribution of dormant stages is generally patchy, with a greater density in the deeper and/or windward parts of a pond or lake. In sediment cores, most viable (responsive) eggs occur in the upper centimeters, although vertical variation related to the history of fish predation or water quality occurs. The accumulation of resting stages of different species, generations and genotypes with variable regeneration niches results in a mixed egg bank with greater potential biodiversity than the active community sampled at any one moment. Through the benthic-pelagic coupling, this dormant reservoir may have considerable impact on the evolutionary potential of the organisms, the ecological dynamics of the community and the distribution of species. Egg banks can be considered the archive of the local habitat, since the pattern of changes in species assemblage and genotypes from the past up to the present reflect changes due to natural or anthropogenic impact that can be used to reconstruct evolutionary processes or even to restore the local habitat. Overlooking the egg bank as an important component of zooplankton communities may lead to erroneous interpretations in the analysis of community and population genetic structure. This review integrates technical and scientific information needed in the study of the structure and function of egg banks in zooplankton with special focus on the fascinating latest developments in the field.

Notes: Week 5: Benthic-Pelagic; 694JN

Times Cited:16

Cited References Count:166

Freshwater, The sediment contributions of dormant stages of zooplankton has the potential to shift understanding in many fields of freshwater study.

URL: <Go to ISI>://000183771600006

Author Address: Brendonck, L

Katholieke Univ Leuven, Aquat Ecol Lab, Beriotstr 32, B-3000 Louvain, Belgium

Katholieke Univ Leuven, Aquat Ecol Lab, B-3000 Louvain, Belgium

Language: English

Reference Type: Journal Article

Record Number: 210

Author: Vadeboncoeur, Y.; Jeppesen, E.; Vander Zanden, M. J.; Schierup, H. H.; Christoffersen, K.; Lodge, D. M.

Year: 2003

Title: From Greenland to green lakes: Cultural eutrophication and the loss of benthic pathways in lakes

Journal: Limnology and Oceanography

Volume: 48

Issue: 4

Pages: 1408-1418

Date: Jul

Short Title: From Greenland to green lakes: Cultural eutrophication and the loss of benthic pathways in lakes

ISSN: 0024-3590

Accession Number: ISI:000184247900005

Keywords: stable-isotope analyses

oligotrophic lake

food webs

periphyton biomass

algal biomass

phytoplankton

productivity

ecosystems

phosphorus

nitrogen

Abstract: Benthic community responses to lake eutrophication are poorly understood relative to pelagic responses. We compared phytoplankton and periphyton productivity along a eutrophication gradient in Greenland, U.S., and Danish lakes. Phytoplankton productivity increased along the phosphorus gradient (total phosphorus [TP] = 2-430 mg m(-3)), but whole-lake benthic algal productivity decreased, substantially depressing increases in primary productivity at the whole-lake scale. In shallow, oligotrophic Greenland lakes, periphyton was responsible for 80-98% of primary production, whereas in Danish lakes with TP > 100 mg m(-3), phytoplankton were responsible for nearly 100% of primary production. Benthic contributions ranged from 5 to 80% depending on morphometry and littoral habitat composition in lakes with intermediate phosphor-us concentrations. Thus, eutrophication was characterized by a switch from benthic to pelagic dominance of primary productivity. Carbon stable isotope analysis showed that the I redistribution of primary production entailed a similar shift from periphyton to phytoplankton in the diets of zoobenthos. Benthic and pelagic habitats were energetically linked through food web interactions, but eutrophication eroded the benthic primary production pathway.

Notes: Week 5: Benthic-Pelagic; 702WN

Times Cited:31

Cited References Count:60

Freshwater, Most compelling part of this paper is the increase in the similarity of C13 signature of benthic and pelagic feeders as TP increases.

URL: <Go to ISI>://000184247900005

Author Address: Vadeboncoeur, Y

Iowa State Univ, 124 Sci 2, Ames, IA 50011 USA

Natl Environm Res Inst, DK-8600 Silkeborg, Denmark
Univ Wisconsin, Ctr Limnol, Madison, WI 53706 USA
Aarhus Univ, Dept Plant Ecol, DK-8240 Risskov, Denmark
Univ Copenhagen, DK-3400 Hillerod, Denmark
Univ Notre Dame, Dept Biol Sci, Notre Dame, IN 46556 USA

Language: English

Reference Type: Journal Article

Record Number: 216

Author: Lydeard, C.; Cowie, R. H.; Ponder, W. F.; Bogan, A. E.; Bouchet, P.; Clark, S. A.; Cummings, K. S.; Frest, T. J.; Gargominy, O.; Herbert, D. G.; Hershler, R.; Perez, K. E.; Roth, B.; Seddon, M.; Strong, E. E.; Thompson, F. G.

Year: 2004

Title: The global decline of nonmarine mollusks

Journal: Bioscience

Volume: 54

Issue: 4

Pages: 321-330

Date: Apr

Short Title: The global decline of nonmarine mollusks

ISSN: 0006-3568

Accession Number: ISI:000220755500010

Keywords: nonmarine mollusks

biodiversity

gastropods

endangered species

hotspots

pulmonate land snails

american-samoa

united-states

tree snails

biodiversity hotspots

conservation

island

river

extinction

gastropoda

Abstract: Invertebrate species represent more than 99% of animal diversity; however, they receive much less publicity and attract disproportionately minor research effort relative to vertebrates. Nonmarine mollusks (i.e., terrestrial and fresh water) are one of the most diverse and imperiled groups of animals, although not many people other than a few specialists who study the group seem to be aware of their plight. Nonmarine mollusks include a number of phylogenetically disparate lineages and species-rich assemblages that represent two molluscan classes, Bivalvia (clams and mussels) and Gastropoda (snails, slugs, and limpets). In this article we provide an overview of global nonmarine molluscan biodiversity and conservation status, including several case studies documenting the diversity and global decline of nonmarine mollusks. We conclude with a discussion of the roles that mollusks and malacologists should play in conservation, including research, conservation management strategies, and education and outreach.

Notes: Week 5: Benthic-Pelagic; 811EP

Times Cited:17

Cited References Count:83

Freshwater, Unionid mussels and other freshwater mollusks are declining very fast in N. America. Unclear how this loss/replacement by invasive mollusks is affecting N. America's ecosystems.

URL: <Go to ISI>://000220755500010

Author Address: Lydeard, C

Univ Alabama, Dept Biol Sci, Tuscaloosa, AL 35487 USA

Univ Alabama, Dept Biol Sci, Tuscaloosa, AL 35487 USA
Univ Hawaii, Ctr Conservat & Training, Honolulu, HI 96822 USA
Australian Museum, Div Invertrate Zool, Malacol Sect, Sydney, NSW 2010, Australia
N Carolina State Museum Nat Sci, Raleigh, NC 27607 USA
Museum Natl Hist Nat, F-75005 Paris, France
Illinois Nat Hist Survey, Champaign, IL 61820 USA
Deixis Consultants, Seattle, WA 98115 USA
Natal Museum, ZA-3200 Pietermaritzburg, South Africa
Smithsonian Inst, Museum Natl Hist Nat, Dept Invertebrate Zool, Washington, DC 20560 USA
Univ Calif Berkeley, Museum Paleontol, Berkeley, CA 94720 USA
Natl Museum Wales, Dept Biodivers & Syst Biol, Cardiff CF1 3NP, S Glam, Wales
Univ Minnesota, Bell Museum Nat Hist, Dept Fisheries Wildlife & Conservat Biol, St Paul, MN 55108 USA
Univ Florida, Florida Museum Nat Hist, Gainesville, FL 32611 USA

Language: English

Reference Type: Journal Article

Record Number: 198

Author: Gyllstrom, M.; Hansson, L. A.

Year: 2004

Title: Dormancy in freshwater zooplankton: Induction, termination and the importance of benthic-pelagic coupling

Journal: Aquatic Sciences

Volume: 66

Issue: 3

Pages: 274-295

Date: Aug

Short Title: Dormancy in freshwater zooplankton: Induction, termination and the importance of benthic-pelagic coupling

ISSN: 1015-1621

Accession Number: ISI:000223353000004

Keywords: diapause

limnology

dispersal

life history

ecology

evolution

daphnia-magna-straus

resting egg banks

predator-avoidance hypothesis

breeding-system variation

mictic female production

diel vertical migration

cyclops-scutifer sars

long-term diapause

life-cycle

sexual reproduction

Abstract: For a short-lived organism, such as a freshwater zooplankter, the ways of coping with years of local recruitment failure are either to disperse between habitats and recolonise or to disperse in time through diapause. Diapause is common among freshwater zooplankton and is generally seen as a way to escape periods of harsh environmental conditions. The egg-bank or pool of diapausing copepodites in lake sediments resulting from the production of diapausing stages has several implications for zooplankton ecology, genetics, and evolution which we outline in this review. The presence of a benthic dormant stage also creates a coupling between the benthic habitat and the pelagic, and we argue that zooplankton phenology is a result of selective forces in both habitats. The spatial distribution of diapausing eggs appears to be governed by random resuspension dynamics coupled with higher hatching rates in shallow waters. For diapausing copepodites, however, an active choice of where and how deep to enter the sediment may affect their distribution. In a reanalysis of published data, we found a size-dependent bathymetric distribution and vertical distribution in the sediment of diapausing cyclopoid copepodites. Our review of published laboratory studies showed that predictors of seasonal change such as photoperiod and temperature were the only type of cues used for the termination of diapause. We also found a relation between generation length and the type of cue used for diapause induction: copepods mainly used seasonal cues from the abiota, rotifers mainly used cues from the biotic environment, and cladocerans used a mix of both types. We describe patterns in emergence timing and contribution to population dynamics from studies using in situ estimation of emergence, and conclude that hatching from dormant stages may qualitatively and quantitatively affect zooplankton population dynamics and seasonal succession.

Notes: Week 5: Benthic-Pelagic; 846XO

Times Cited:4

Cited References Count:208

Freshwater, Gets at the cues for diapause and emergence for zooplankton eggs and copepodites. Interesting that copepodites have some active choice in substrate selection, whereas eggs do not.

URL: <Go to ISI>://000223353000004

Author Address: Gyllstrom, M

Dept Ecol Limnol, Ecol Bldg, SE-22362 Lund, Sweden

Dept Ecol Limnol, SE-22362 Lund, Sweden

Language: English

Reference Type: Journal Article

Record Number: 207

Author: Gyllstrom, M.

Year: 2004

Title: Induction and termination of diapause in a freshwater zooplankton community

Journal: Archiv Fur Hydrobiologie

Volume: 161

Issue: 1

Pages: 81-97

Date: Sep

Short Title: Induction and termination of diapause in a freshwater zooplankton community

ISSN: 0003-9136

Accession Number: ISI:000224201400005

Keywords: recruitment

cladocera

succession

benthic-pelagic coupling

algal recruitment

resting stages

field-test

egg banks

daphnia

dormancy

environments

emergence

patterns

lake

Abstract: I examined production of, and emergence from, diapausing eggs, together with planktonic dynamics of three cladoceran genera (Bosmina, Ceriodaphnia, and Daphnia) for 16 months in a shallow lake. In a complementary field experiment I manipulated environmental variables potentially important as cues for induction and termination of diapause. Ceriodaphnia and Daphnia, but not Bosmina, were dependent on emergence to initiate planktonic populations in spring. During the rest of the season, emergence was unimportant for population and community dynamics. The timing of diapausing-egg production differed between genera, but tended to coincide with peaks in abundance. No hatching was found in any of the experimental treatments, but diapausing-egg production was found in high nutrient treatments with no fish. Field study and experiment together imply that the types of environmental cues involved in diapause induction are different from the ones stimulating its termination. Seasonal cues such as photoperiod appear to govern the hatching of diapausing eggs. In comparison, the induction of diapausing-egg production seems less dependent on season and more on biotic factors.

Notes: Week 5: Benthic-Pelagic; 858OK

Times Cited:0

Cited References Count:49

Freshwater, Hatching of diapausing eggs controlled by seasonal cues, formation of diapausing eggs may depend on biotic factors.

URL: <Go to ISI>://000224201400005

Author Address: Gyllstrom, M

Lund Univ, Dept Ecol Limnol, Ecol Bldg, S-22362 Lund, Sweden

Lund Univ, Dept Ecol Limnol, S-22362 Lund, Sweden

Language: English

Reference Type: Journal Article

Record Number: 212

Author: Giles, H.; Pilditch, C. A.

Year: 2004

Title: Effects of diet on sinking rates and erosion thresholds of mussel Perna canaliculus biodeposits

Journal: Marine Ecology-Progress Series

Volume: 282

Pages: 205-219

Short Title: Effects of diet on sinking rates and erosion thresholds of mussel Perna canaliculus biodeposits

ISSN: 0171-8630

Accession Number: ISI:000225791900017

Keywords: faeces

pseudofaeces

dispersal

benthic-pelagic coupling

diet

erosion

sinking velocity

bivalve

fecal pellets

mytilus-edulis

new-zealand

benthic communities

suspension-feeders

aquatic ecosystems

marlborough sounds

marine-sediments

bivalve mollusks

atrina-zelandica

Abstract: Suspension-feeding bivalves produce biodeposits (faeces and pseudofaeces) that have much higher sinking velocities than their constituent particles. Consequently, they cause sedimentation and redistribution of material that might otherwise not be deposited, enhancing the benthic-pelagic coupling of nearshore ecosystems. We quantified the dispersal characteristics (sinking velocity and erosion threshold) of biodeposits produced by the mussel Perna canaliculus, a species with high natural abundance that is also intensively cultured in New Zealand. We examined biodeposits produced by mussels of a wide size range (27 to 114 mm shell length) fed 3 diets (natural [N], algae [A] and silt [S] dominated) in the laboratory. Larger mussels produced bigger biodeposits that sank more quickly, and highly significant relationships between biodeposit size (faecal pellet width and pseudofaeces area) and sinking velocity were derived for each diet (r(2) = 0.43 to 0.79). Biodeposit sinking velocities also varied significantly with diet. Mean sinking velocities of faecal pellets produced on the A diet (0.67 cm s(-1)) were approximately 4x lower than those of pellets produced on the N and S diets (2.46 to 2.71 cm s(-1) respectively). Pseudofaeces produced on the N and A diets settled 50 to 70 % slower than faeces produced on the same diet, but sinking velocities of S diet faeces and pseudofaeces were similar. In situ estimates of biodeposit sinking velocities measured in the Firth of Thames, New Zealand, were comparable to those produced on the N diet. Erosion thresholds were also affected by diet but not by mussel size. Ninety percent of faecal pellets produced on the A diet eroded at a bed shear velocity (u(*)) of 0.28 cm s(-1), half that required to erode the same percentage of faecal pellets produced on the N and S diets. Pseudofaeces generally eroded over a similar but wider range of u(*), and the differences between the 3 diets were less distinctive than for faecal pellets. These results emphasise that mussel biodeposit dispersal (and hence the flux to the benthos) depends on the available diet and mussel size and thus could differ significantly between locations, seasons and the size structure of the population.

Notes: Week 5: Benthic-Pelagic; 880LS

Times Cited:3

Cited References Count:76

Marine, Deposits by bivalves have higher sinking velocities than the constituent particles. However, diet and mussel size can affect flux of material to the benthos

URL: <Go to ISI>://000225791900017

Author Address: Giles, H

Univ Waikato, Dept Biol Sci, Private Bag 3105, Hamilton, New Zealand

Univ Waikato, Dept Biol Sci, Hamilton, New Zealand

Language: English

Reference Type: Journal Article

Record Number: 215

Author: Bologna, P. A. X.; Fetzer, M. L.; McDonnell, S.; Moody, E. M.

Year: 2005

Title: Assessing the potential benthic-pelagic coupling in episodic blue mussel (Mytilus edulis) settlement events within eelgrass (Zostera marina) communities

Journal: Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology

Volume: 316

Issue: 2

Pages: 117-131

Date: Mar 21

Short Title: Assessing the potential benthic-pelagic coupling in episodic blue mussel (Mytilus edulis) settlement events within eelgrass (Zostera marina) communities

ISSN: 0022-0981

Accession Number: ISI:000227931400001

Keywords: asterias fiorbesii

benthic-pelagic coupling

blue mussel

eelgrass

mytilus edulis

zostera marina

suspension-feeding bivalves

seagrass habitat

secondary production

growth

biodeposition

complexity

rates

predation

water

bay

Abstract: Coastal marine seagrass ecosystems are important nursery grounds for commercially and recreationally important species, and they serve as key settlement and recruitment sites for other species. We investigated several years (20012003) where episodic settlement events of blue mussels (Mytilus edulis) occurred in Bamegat Bay, NJ, USA. Population assessment indicated that blue mussels settled in eelgrass beds (Zostera marina) in late spring with peak densities exceeding 170,000 m(-2). Based on calculated filtration rates of M. edulis, we determined that for at least 53 days in 2001, the density and size distribution of M edulis were sufficient to filter the water column volume in excess of twice a day, with maximum calculated filtration rates exceeding 8 m(3) water m(-2) day(-1). While the settlement event in 2001 was very localized, in 2003, the settlement event was considerably more widespread throughout the bay, with maximum settling densities exceeding 175,000 individuals m(-2). Associated with these high densities, maximum calculated filtration rates exceeded 15 m(3) water m(-2) day(-1). This filtration potential may have impeded the localized development of a brown-tide (Aureococcus anophagefferens) bloom in 2001, which occurred in other regions of the bay, but the widespread settlement event seen in 2003 may have impeded the development of any brown-tide blooms in Barnegat Bay during that summer. The decline in mussel densities throughout the summer may be a result of elevated water temperatures in this back bay, but at one site, the high settlement of M. edulis was followed by a substantial migration (> 40 individuals m(-2)) of small sea stars (Asterias forbesii). In 200 1, A. forbesii was a significant factor in reducing M edulis density by the end of the summer at the Barnegat Inlet site and a community level assessment showed significant positive correlations between mussel aggregations and sea star densities (r=0.68-0.73, P < 0.001). At this same site in 2003, the sea stars were again present in high densities (26 m(-2)) and were a potential mechanism for mussel decline. In other regions of the bay, sea star densities are very low, but numerous other predatory species exist, including blue crabs (Callinectes sapidus), green crabs (Carcinus maemis), spider crabs (Libinia spp.), and several Xanthid crabs. Given the high mussel densities seen in this study and the considerable predation by sea stars and other benthic predators, the benthic-pelagic coupling which these mussels provide in this system contributes to the high secondary production in these grass beds. (c) 2004 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Notes: Week 5: Benthic-Pelagic; 910KY

Times Cited:0

Cited References Count:39

Marine, Mussels are important! Filter, bring pelagic production to the benthos, then are food for predators (e.g., sea stars)

URL: <Go to ISI>://000227931400001

Author Address: Bologna, PAX

Montclair State Univ, Dept Biol & Mol Biol, Montclair, NJ 07043 USA

Montclair State Univ, Dept Biol & Mol Biol, Montclair, NJ 07043 USA
Fairleigh Dickinson Univ, Dept Biol & Allied Hlth Sci, Madison, NJ 07940 USA

Language: English

Reference Type: Journal Article

Record Number: 204

Author: Verspagen, J. M. H.; Snelder, E. O. F. M.; Visser, P. M.; Johnk, K. D.; Ibelings, B. W.; Mur, L. R.; Huisman, J.

Year: 2005

Title: Benthic-pelagic coupling in the population dynamics of the harmful cyanobacterium Microcystis

Journal: Freshwater Biology

Volume: 50

Issue: 5

Pages: 854-867

Date: May

Short Title: Benthic-pelagic coupling in the population dynamics of the harmful cyanobacterium Microcystis

ISSN: 0046-5070

Accession Number: ISI:000228690300010

Keywords: harmful algae

microcystis

model

population dynamics

recruitment

sedimentation

kutz emend elenkin

blue-green-algae

gloeotrichia-echinulata

aeruginosa kutz

seasonal-variations

eutrophic lake

shallow lake

water column

recruitment

sediment

Abstract: 1. In eutrophic lakes, large amounts of the cyanobacterium Microcystis may overwinter in the sediment and re-inoculate the water column in spring.
2. We monitored changes in pelagic and benthic populations of Microcystis in Lake Volkerak, The Netherlands. In addition, sedimentation rates and the rate of recruitment from the sediment were measured using traps. These data were used to model the coupling between the benthic and pelagic populations and to calculate the contribution of overwintering benthic and pelagic populations to the magnitude of the pelagic summer bloom.
3. Changes in the benthic Microcystis population showed a time lag of 3-14 weeks compared with the pelagic population. This time lag increased with lake depth. The largest amount of benthic Microcystis was found in the deepest parts of the lake. These observations suggest horizontal transport of sedimented Microcystis from shallow to deep parts of the lake.
4. Recruitment from and sedimentation to the sediment occurred throughout the year, with highest recruitment and sedimentation rates during summer. Model simulations indicate that the absence of benthic recruitment would reduce the summer bloom by 50%.
5. In spring, the total pelagic population was three to six times smaller than the total benthic population. Yet, model simulations predict that the absence of this small overwintering pelagic population would reduce the summer bloom by more than 64%.
6. Reduction of the overwintering pelagic populations, for instance by flushing, may be a useful management strategy to suppress or at least delay summer blooms of Microcystis.

Notes: Week 5: Benthic-Pelagic; 920LL

Times Cited:1

Cited References Count:40

Freshwater, They set out traps facing surface and facing sediment. Using the data, they modeled spring and summer pelagic Microcystis abundances based on either benthic or pelagic source alone and found that benthic sources had to account for 40% of the spring/summer pelagic population!

URL: <Go to ISI>://000228690300010

Author Address: Verspagen, JMH

Univ Amsterdam, Inst Biodivers & Ecosyst Dynam, Nieuwe Achtergracht 127, NL-1018 WS Amsterdam, Netherlands

Univ Amsterdam, Inst Biodivers & Ecosyst Dynam, NL-1018 WS Amsterdam, Netherlands
Netherlands Inst Ecol NIOO KNAW, Ctr Limnol, Dept Microbial Ecol, Nieuwersluis, Netherlands
Netherlands Inst Ecol NIOO KNAW, Ctr Limnol, Dept Foodweb Studies, Nieuwersluis, Netherlands

Language: English

Reference Type: Journal Article

Record Number: 200

Author: Vander Zanden, M. J.; Essington, T. E.; Vadeboncoeur, Y.

Year: 2005

Title: Is pelagic top-down control in lakes augmented by benthic energy pathways?

Journal: Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences

Volume: 62

Issue: 6

Pages: 1422-1431

Date: Jun

Short Title: Is pelagic top-down control in lakes augmented by benthic energy pathways?

ISSN: 0706-652X

Accession Number: ISI:000230500400019

Keywords: structuring fish assemblages

trophic cascade hypothesis

fresh-water ecosystems

food-web dynamics

whole-lake

interaction strengths

community structure

species richness

largemouth bass

nutrient state

Abstract: Modern food web studies are typically conducted from a trophic dynamic perspective that focuses on combined roles of top-down and bottom-up forces in regulating food web structure. Recognition of spatial food web subsidies in diverse ecosystems highlights the importance of energy flow as a foundation for understanding trophic dynamics. Here, we consider how different energy flow configurations might affect trophic dynamics in north-temperate lakes. A literature review revealed that littoral piscivores exert top-down control on prey fishes. In contrast, analysis of littoral predator diets indicated extensive omnivory and heavy reliance on zoobenthic prey. We explored this uncoupling between trophic dynamics (piscivores regulate prey fish) and energy flow (zoobenthos in piscivore diets) using a biomass dynamic model. This model compared top-down impacts of a piscivore on prey fishes under two scenarios: consumption of prey fish only and consumption of prey fish plus zoobenthos. The model predicted that elimination of zoobenthivory leads to a 50% reduction in piscivore standing stock and concomitant 2.5-fold increase in prey fish abundance (i.e., zoobenthivory plays a key role in mediating pelagic top-down control). These results highlight the role of benthic-pelagic linkages in regulating trophic dynamics and underscore the value of whole-ecosystem approaches to the study of food webs.

Notes: Week 5: Benthic-Pelagic; 945KC

Times Cited:2

Cited References Count:89

Freshwater, use literature-based distributions in a simplified foodweb model and find that piscivores that eat benthos can become more abundant and exert stronger top down control on prey fish.

URL: <Go to ISI>://000230500400019

Author Address: Vander Zanden, MJ

Univ Wisconsin, Ctr Limnol, 680 N Pk St, Madison, WI 53706 USA

Univ Wisconsin, Ctr Limnol, Madison, WI 53706 USA
Univ Washington, Sch Aquat & Fishery Sci, Seattle, WA 98105 USA
Wright State Univ, Dept Biol Sci, Dayton, OH 45435 USA

Language: English

Reference Type: Journal Article

Record Number: 195

Author: Hargeby, A.; Blom, H.; Gunnar, I.; Andersson, G.

Year: 2005

Title: Increased growth and recruitment of piscivorous perch, Perca fluviatilis, during a transient phase of expanding submerged vegetation in a shallow lake

Journal: Freshwater Biology

Volume: 50

Issue: 12

Pages: 2053-2062

Date: Dec

Short Title: Increased growth and recruitment of piscivorous perch, Perca fluviatilis, during a transient phase of expanding submerged vegetation in a shallow lake

ISSN: 0046-5070

Accession Number: ISI:000233290000012

Keywords: benthic-pelagic coupling

growth

ontogenetic shift

perch

submerged macrophytes

trophic interactions

foraging efficiency

competition

habitat

delta-n-15

delta-c-13

diet

Abstract: 1. In this study, we examine how a 7-year period of expanding submerged stonewort (Chara spp.) vegetation during a shift from turbid to clear water in a shallow lake influenced individual growth and population size structure of perch (Perca fluviatilis). We expected that a shift from phytoplankton to macrophyte dominance and clear water would improve feeding conditions for perch during a critical benthivorous ontogenetic stage, and enhance the recruitment of piscivorous perch.
2. Growth analysis based on opercula showed that growth during the second year of life was significantly higher in years with abundant vegetation than in years with turbid water and sparse vegetation. Growth was not affected during the first, third and fourth year of life. Stable isotope analyses on opercula from 2-year-old perch showed that the increase in growth coincided with a change in carbon source in the diet. Stable nitrogen ratio did not change, indicating that the increased growth was not an effect of any change in trophic position.
3. Following the expansion of submerged vegetation, perch size range and abundance of piscivorous perch increased in central, unvegetated areas of the lake. In stands of stoneworts, however, mainly benthivorous perch were caught, and size range did not change with time.
4. Our findings provide empirical support for the notion that establishment of submerged vegetation may lead to increased recruitment of piscivorous perch, because of improved competitive conditions for perch during the benthivorous stage. This is likely to constitute a benthic-pelagic feedback coupling, in which submerged vegetation and clear water promote the recruitment of piscivorous perch, which, in turn, may increase water clarity through top-down effects in the pelagic.

Notes: Week 5: Benthic-Pelagic; 984GG

Times Cited:0

Cited References Count:39

Freshwater, Very cool! A small lake switched from turbid to clearwater. Growth rates in benthivorous phase of a perch species increased which they think led to an increase in the abundance of individuals in the piscivorous stage in the pelagic zone. They think that the switch in lake clarity and macrophyte abundance changed the outcome of interspecies competition and tipped the scales toward perch in the benthivorous stage vs. other benthivores. Some evidence for a more benthic diet from C13 isotope data but do not report a baseline so hard to say.

URL: <Go to ISI>://000233290000012

Author Address: Hargeby, A

Lund Univ, Dept Ecol, S-22362 Lund, Sweden

Lund Univ, Dept Ecol, S-22362 Lund, Sweden
Karlstad Univ, Dept Nat & Environm, Karlstad, Sweden

Language: English

Reference Type: Journal Article

Record Number: 218

Author: Blumenshine, S. C.; Vadeboncoeur, Y.; Lodge, D. M.; Cottingham, K. L.; Knight, S. E.

Year: 1997

Title: Benthic-pelagic links: responses of benthos to water-column nutrient enrichment

Journal: Journal of the North American Benthological Society

Volume: 16

Issue: 3

Pages: 466-479

Date: Sep

Short Title: Benthic-pelagic links: responses of benthos to water-column nutrient enrichment

ISSN: 0887-3593

Accession Number: ISI:A1997XW15000002

Keywords: nutrient enrichment

mesocosm

benthic-pelagic links

periphyton macroinvertebrates

chironomidae

community structure

oligotrophic lake

food availability

stream periphyton

subtropical lake

eutrophic lake

fresh-waters

arctic lake

phytoplankton

shallow

Abstract: Although the responses of pelagic algae and invertebrates to gradients of nutrient enrichment are well known, less is known about the responses of benthos to such gradients or how benthic and pelagic responses may interact. We performed a 9-wk experiment in 2000-L mesocosms in the field to test for the effect of water-column nutrient enrichment on phytoplankton, algae on sediments (epipelon) and hard surfaces (plastic strips), as well as pelagic and benthic primary consumers. The experimental design consisted of 4 nutrient enrichment rates (0, 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 mu g P L-1 d(-1), together with N to yield an N:P ratio of 20:1 by weight). Nutrient enrichment induced significant increases in chlorophyll a in phytoplankton and attached algae, but not epipelon. Zooplankton biomass was significantly higher in enriched mesocosms than in controls over the initial 4 wk of enrichment, but the effect was not sustained over the course of the experiment. Densities of sediment-dwelling, and hard-substrata-associated invertebrates were higher in enriched treatments relative to controls. Emergence of benthic insects also increased with enrichment. Size and species composition of benthic macroinvertebrates differed between enriched treatments and controls. Our results suggest that nutrients added to the water column were quickly converted into benthic biomass, likely reducing pelagic responses to enrichment.

Notes: Week 5: Benthic-Pelagic; Counter example to the Chandra paper. The benthos became more productive in a eutrophicication scenario. Likely due to a more moderate level of eutrophication.

URL: <Go to ISI>://A1997XW15000002

Author Address: Blumenshine, SC

Univ Notre Dame,Dept Biol Sci,Notre Dame,in 46556

Language: English

Reference Type: Journal Article

Record Number: 230

Author: Urban, N. R.; Monte, A. E.

Year: 2001

Title: Sulfur burial in and loss from the sediments of Little Rock Lake, Wisconsin

Journal: Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences

Volume: 58

Issue: 7

Pages: 1347-1355

Date: Jul

Short Title: Sulfur burial in and loss from the sediments of Little Rock Lake, Wisconsin

ISSN: 0706-652X

Accession Number: ISI:000169776600008

Keywords: alkalinity generation

isotopic composition

sulfate reduction

marine-sediments

early diagenesis

acidification

model

speciation

Abstract: Lake sediments often are regarded as accurate records of changes in climatic conditions, rates of atmospheric deposition of substances to the lake, or other processes occurring within lakes. In this study, the sedimentary record of sulfur was examined in Little Rock Lake, Wisconsin. This lake received experimental sulfate additions from 1985 through 1990, and a mass balance showed that 35% (425 kg) of experimental sulfur additions were buried in the sediments. Sediment cores collected before and after sulfur additions confirmed that burial of 180-360 kg of sulfur occurred during the 6 years of experimental sulfur additions. However, cores collected in 1992 and 1996 contained less sulfur than cores taken in 1990 and suggested that sulfur incorporation in sediments is not permanent. To examine seasonal sulfur loss from sediments, sulfur inventories in the top 4 cm of sediments were measured in multiple cores before and after fall overturn. At water depths greater than 5 m, surface sediments retrieved after fall overturn had significantly less sulfur than did those collected before overturn. The small seasonal release from the sediments (25 kg S in 1996) might be caused by organic matter decomposition or sulfide oxidation.

Notes: Week 5: Benthic-Pelagic; Discussion of rates and mechanism of sulfur burial in Little Rock Lake.

URL: <Go to ISI>://000169776600008

Author Address: Urban, NR

Michigan Technol Univ, Dept Civil & Environm Engn, Houghton, MI 49931 USA

Michigan Technol Univ, Dept Civil & Environm Engn, Houghton, MI 49931 USA

Language: English

Reference Type: Journal Article

Record Number: 228

Author: Sarker, M. J.; Yamamoto, T.; Hashimoto, T.; Ohmura, T.

Year: 2005

Title: Evaluation of benthic nutrient fluxes and their importance in the pelagic nutrient cycles in Suo Nada, Japan

Journal: Fisheries Science

Volume: 71

Issue: 3

Pages: 593-604

Date: Jun

Short Title: Evaluation of benthic nutrient fluxes and their importance in the pelagic nutrient cycles in Suo Nada, Japan

ISSN: 0919-9268

Accession Number: ISI:000230543700014

Keywords: benthic

flux

load

nutrient

pelagic

suo nada

coastal marine-sediments

sulfate reduction

limitation

phosphate

sea

variability

silicate

estuary

water

zone

Abstract: The benthic nutrient fluxes in Suo Nada, in the western part of Seto Inland Sea, Japan were estimated seasonally in 2002, and their contribution to the pelagic nutrient cycle was evaluated. The horizontal distributions of inorganic phosphorus (DIP), ammonia and dissolved silica (DSi) concentrations in the pore water of the surface (0-3 cm) sediments were high in the western part, indicating a eutrophic condition relative to the other parts. Seasonally, the highest nutrient concentration in the pore water was observed in summer, as reflected by the increasing decomposition rate of organic matter. Multiple regression analyses revealed significant positive effects of acid volatile sulfide (AVS) and temperature on the DIP flux and also significant positive effects of ignition loss (IL) along with these two parameters on the dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) flux. Temperature, IL and redox potential (Eh) were effective on DSi. The estimated DIP, DIN and DSi fluxes from the sediments were relatively high or equivalent to the total inputs from rains and rivers in annual average, with high values in summer of 2-3-fold higher than the other sources (rain plus rivers). Thus, it is concluded that the benthic nutrient fluxes play an important role in the pelagic nutrient cycle of the Suo Nada ecosystem.

Notes: Week 5: Benthic-Pelagic; Discussion of sediment fluxes over the sediment-water barrier. Rates and mechanism estimated for contributions to the pelagic.

URL: <Go to ISI>://000230543700014

Author Address: Yamamoto, T

Hiroshima Univ, Grad Sch Biosphere Sci, Hiroshima 7398528, Japan

Hiroshima Univ, Grad Sch Biosphere Sci, Hiroshima 7398528, Japan

Language: English

Reference Type: Journal Article

Record Number: 225

Author: MacIntyre, S.; Melack, J. M.

Year: 1995

Title: Vertical and horizontal transport in lakes: Linking littoral, benthic, and pelagic habitats

Journal: Journal of the North American Benthological Society

Volume: 14

Issue: 4

Pages: 599-615

Date: Dec

Short Title: Vertical and horizontal transport in lakes: Linking littoral, benthic, and pelagic habitats

ISSN: 0887-3593

Accession Number: ISI:A1995TL79700010

Keywords: differential heating and cooling

differential mixing turbulence

convective mixing

nutrient and gas flux

microstructure profiling

sediment resuspension

flocculation

phytoplankton

Abstract: Benthic, pelagic and littoral-habitats are linked by physical processes in lakes. Exchanges between littoral and pelagic regions or between sheltered embayments and open waters can occur when horizontal density differences are generated. The resulting flows have been observed in tropical, subtropical, and temperate lakes as a result of differences in rates of heating due to morphometry or variations in algal abundance and differences in the depths of wind mixing. Laboratory experiments show that such circulations can also occur under beds of floating vegetation These circulations may be significant for the movement of nutrients within lakes. Whereas mixing induced by wind is often invoked as a mechanism for vertical transport, the depth of penetration of wind-induced mixing may be suppressed if rates of heating are high when wind speeds are high. Consequently, if nocturnal heat losses are high, the convective motions induced by thermal instabilities may be more important than wind mixing for ventilation of deep water with its typically higher concentrations of nutrients and dissolved gases. Even when mixing in shallow waters is induced by wind and by shear instabilities in the diurnal thermocline, mixing may be incomplete when stratification induced by diurnal heating is strong; gradients in nutrient concentrations and in phytoplankton distributions may persist. Resuspension of living and non-living particles from the benthos can reseed phytoplankton to the upper layers and alter rates of nutrient supply or scavenging of pollutants. Resuspension tends to be higher in shallow waters; subsequent horizontal transports convey these materials to the pelagic zone. Assessing the time and space scales for physical, chemical and biological processes facilitates the design of studies to show the coupling of these processes.

Notes: Week 5: Benthic-Pelagic; Easy to read, tons of information about interzone linkages in lakes. Differential heating, vegetative heating, and wind cycling are discussed as horizontal transport methods.

URL: <Go to ISI>://A1995TL79700010

Author Address: MacIntyre, S

Univ Calif Santa Barbara,Inst Marine Sci,Santa Barbara,Ca 93106

Language: English

Reference Type: Journal Article

Record Number: 223

Author: Kelly, J. R.; Berounsky, V. M.; Nixon, S. W.; Oviatt, C. A.

Year: 1985

Title: Benthic-Pelagic Coupling and Nutrient Cycling across an Experimental Eutrophication Gradient

Journal: Marine Ecology-Progress Series

Volume: 26

Issue: 3

Pages: 207-219

Short Title: Benthic-Pelagic Coupling and Nutrient Cycling across an Experimental Eutrophication Gradient

ISSN: 0171-8630

Accession Number: ISI:A1985ATV3900001

Notes: Week 5: Benthic-Pelagic; Evidence of changes in the benthic-pelagic linkages in the presence of varied levels of eutrophication. Several interesting mechanisms proposed.

URL: <Go to ISI>://A1985ATV3900001

Author Address: Kelly, Jr

Cornell Univ,Ecosyst Res Ctr,Corson Hall,Ithaca,Ny 14853

Univ Rhode Isl,Grad Sch Oceanog,Narragansett,Ri 02882

Language: English

Reference Type: Journal Article

Record Number: 229

Author: Schenau, S. J.; Reichart, G. J.; De Lange, G. J.

Year: 2005

Title: Phosphorus burial as a function of paleoproductivity

Journal: Geochimica Et Cosmochimica Acta

Volume: 69

Issue: 4

Pages: 919-931

Date: Feb 15

Short Title: Phosphorus burial as a function of paleoproductivity

ISSN: 0016-7037

Accession Number: ISI:000227170500009

Keywords: northern arabian sea

oxygen minimum zone

continental-margin sediments

authigenic apatite formation

net primary production

water-column anoxia

marine-sediments

organic-matter

enhanced preservation

sequential extraction

Abstract: In this study the response of sedimentary phosphorus (P) burial to changes in primary productivity and bottom water oxygen concentrations during the Late Quaternary is investigated, using two sediment cores from the Arabian Sea, one recovered from the continental slope and the other from the deep basin. The average solid-phase P speciation in both cores is similar, authigenic and biogenic (fish debris) apatite make up the bulk of the P inventory (ca. 70%);whereas P adsorbed to iron oxides, organic P, and detrital apatite constitute minor fractions. Postdepositional redistribution has not significantly altered the downcore distribution of total solid.-phase P. Phosphorus burial efficiencies are generally lower during periods of increased paleoproductivity. This is caused by (a) partial decoupling of the P export flux, consisting primarily of particulate organic P, and the P burial flux, consisting primarily of biogenic and authigenic apatite; and (b) the lack of increased rates of authigenic CFA formation during periods of higher P deposition. In addition, fluctuations in bottom water oxygen concentrations may have affected P burial in continental slope sediments. The results of this study indicate that higher primary productivity induces more efficient P cycling. On time scales exceeding the oceanic P residence time, this process may induce higher surface water productivity, thus creating a positive feedback loop. In the Arabian Sea, this feedback mechanism may have contributed to changes in sea surface productivity on sub-Milankovitch time scales because P, regenerated on the continental slopes of the Oman and Somalian coastal upwelling zones, is reintroduced into the photic zone relatively fast. Copyright (C) 2005 Elsevier Ltd.

Notes: Week 5: Benthic-Pelagic; Examination of paleo P burial and cycling in a marine environment

URL: <Go to ISI>://000227170500009

Author Address: Reichart, GJ

Univ Utrecht, Fac Earth Sci, Dept Geochem, POB 80021, NL-3508 TA Utrecht, Netherlands

Univ Utrecht, Fac Earth Sci, Dept Geochem, NL-3508 TA Utrecht, Netherlands
Alfred Wegener Inst Polar & Marine Res, D-27570 Bremerhaven, Germany

Language: English

Reference Type: Journal Article

Record Number: 206

Author: Ackerman, J. D.; Loewen, M. R.; Hamblin, P. F.

Year: 2001

Title: Benthic-Pelagic coupling over a zebra mussel reef in western Lake Erie

Journal: Limnology and Oceanography

Volume: 46

Issue: 4

Pages: 892-904

Date: Jun

Short Title: Benthic-Pelagic coupling over a zebra mussel reef in western Lake Erie

ISSN: 0024-3590

Accession Number: ISI:000169214600014

Keywords: dreissena introduction 1983-1993

water-quality management

mytilus-edulis-l

boundary-layer

filtering impacts

bloom dynamics

pre-dreissena

saginaw bay

polymorpha

phytoplankton

Abstract: We conducted a field study including a series of cruises over an isolated offshore zebra mussel reef (7-11 m deep) in Western Lake Erie to examine the effect of zebra mussels (Dreissena spp.) on the water column. The horizontal currents over the reef were found to be primarily due to the hydraulic Bow and surface gravitational seiches. The turbulence generated by these currents was found to be too weak to fully mix the water column. Although seasonal stratification was not observed, solar heating during the day and intrusions of cold central basin water caused stable stratification of the water column 60% of the time. Results from the seston analysis taken at five depths showed a statistically significant mussel-feeding signature in chlorophyll a and organic seston concentrations measured within 2 m above the reef. Estimates of clearance rates based on field data were consistent with rates measured in a flow chamber using water from the site, which indicated that zebra mussels could remove up to 40% of the total seston. The detection of a zebra mussel-induced concentration boundary layer is due to: (1) reduced vertical mixing as a result of semidiurnal periodic stratification, (2) refiltration of bottom water in zebra mussel populations, and (3) in situ clearance rates that are lower than those observed in the laboratory. Thus, offshore zebra mussel colonies may have less of an effect on the water column than had been previously estimated by simple stirred reactor models, and the role of zebra mussels in the clarification of Lake Erie should be investigated further.

Notes: Week 5: Benthic-Pelagic; Freshwater, The impact of zebra mussel filtration can be limited by physical processes such as stratification and density gradients driven by concentration gradients that the mussels themselves create.

URL: <Go to ISI>://000169214600014

Author Address: Loewen, MR

Univ Alberta, Edmonton, AB T6G 2G7, Canada

Univ Alberta, Edmonton, AB T6G 2G7, Canada
Univ No British Columbia, Phys Ecol Lab, Prince George, BC V2N 4Z9, Canada
Natl Water Res Inst, Burlington, ON L7R 4A6, Canada

Language: English

Reference Type: Journal Article

Record Number: 222

Author: Grenz, C.; Cloern, J. E.; Hager, S. W.; Cole, B. E.

Year: 2000

Title: Dynamics of nutrient cycling and related benthic nutrient and oxygen fluxes during a spring phytoplankton bloom in South San Francisco Bay (USA)

Journal: Marine Ecology-Progress Series

Volume: 197

Pages: 67-80

Short Title: Dynamics of nutrient cycling and related benthic nutrient and oxygen fluxes during a spring phytoplankton bloom in South San Francisco Bay (USA)

ISSN: 0171-8630

Accession Number: ISI:000087620800006

Keywords: estuaries

benthic fluxes

nutrient cycling

pelagic-benthic coupling

san francisco bay

sediment-water interface

marine-sediments

ecological significance

north-sea

ecosystem metabolism

seasonal patterns

temporal dynamics

dissolution rates

carbon flow

time-scales

Abstract: Benthic oxygen uptake and nutrient releases of N, P and Si were measured weekly at 2 sites in South San Francisco Bay around the 1996 spring bloom. Exchanges across the sediment-water interface were estimated from whole, care incubations performed in the laboratory at in situ temperature and in dark. Fluxes changed significantly on a weekly time scale. Over a period of 15 wk the fluxes of dissolved inorganic N, P and Si ranged from -40 to +200, 0 to 13 and from 30 to 400 mu mol m(-2) h(-1) respectively. Sediment oxygen demand increased from 10 before to 64 mg O-2 m(-2) h(-1) just after the bloom period. During the bloom, nutrient flutes represented about 20, 16 and 9% of the Si, P and N requirements for primary production. Before and after the bloom period, Si fluxes contributed up to 30 and >100% of this requirement and P and N fluxes up to 15 and 50% respectively. Simple empirical models explain most of the spatial-temporal variability of benthic fluxes of Si, P and NH4 (but not NO3) from 3 predictor variables: sediment porosity, nutrient concentration in bottom waters and chlorophyll content of surficial sediments. These models show that algal blooms influence benthic-pelagic nutrient exchange through 2 processes: (1) depletion of nutrients from the water column (which enhances gradient-driven transports across the sediment-water interface) and (2) sedimentation of labile phytodetritus (which promotes remineralization in or on the surficial sediments). Rates and patterns of nutrient cycling were very different at the shallow and deep study sites, illustrating the challenge of extrapolating measurements of coupled algae-nutrient dynamics to whole ecosystems.

Notes: Week 5: Benthic-Pelagic; Good case study of the effects of benthic-pelagic linkages. This links biotic and abiotic effects and also discusses feedbacks between these two disparate components.

URL: <Go to ISI>://000087620800006

Author Address: Grenz, C

Univ Mediterrannee, CNRS UMR 6535, Rue de la Batterie des Lions, F-13007 Marseille, France

Univ Mediterrannee, CNRS UMR 6535, F-13007 Marseille, France
US Geol Survey, Menlo Park, CA 94025 USA

Language: English

Reference Type: Journal Article

Record Number: 226

Author: MillerWay, T.; Twilley, R. R.

Year: 1996

Title: Theory and operation of continuous flow systems for the study of benthic-pelagic coupling

Journal: Marine Ecology-Progress Series

Volume: 140

Issue: 1-3

Pages: 257-269

Date: Sep

Short Title: Theory and operation of continuous flow systems for the study of benthic-pelagic coupling

ISSN: 0171-8630

Accession Number: ISI:A1996VJ37700024

Keywords: benthic-pelagic coupling

methodology

experimental manipulation

chemostat

nutrient flux

sediment oxygen consumption

continuous flow

open system

sediment-water interface

nutrient regeneration

oxygen-consumption

exchange

fluxes

metabolism

lake

respiration

transport

phosphate

Abstract: Continuous flow systems have not been widely used in the study of benthic-pelagic coupling in marine systems. This paper discusses the theoretical and practical use of continuous flow systems for the study of benthic exchange processes and presents the results of experiments which compared continuous flow (open) and closed (batch) systems and investigated the sensitivity of exchange rates to residence times in a continuous flow system. Continuous flow systems minimize the problem of environmental dependency of benthic-pelagic exchange rates by maintaining initial experimental conditions throughout an incubation. However, the selection of a supply rate (i.e. residence time) is critical in their operation. Variable residence times delineate 3 patterns of sediment-water exchange: a Linear response which reflects an optimal supply rate, a feedback response which indicates deviation from initial experimental conditions (environmental dependency), and a washout response which results in an erroneous estimate of exchange. For either closed (batch) or continuous flow incubations, only Linear responses result in valid estimates of sediment-water column exchange. Sediment oxygen consumption and benthic fluxes of NH4, NO2, PO4 (1 station), and Si(OH)(4) (both stations) were significantly greater when measured using continuous flow methodology than when using closed (batch) incubations. Sediment oxygen consumption as well as fluxes of NO3+NO2 varied directly with supply rate, while fluxes of NH4 were not significantly different over the range of supply rates tested. Examinations of overlying water nutrient concentrations indicated that observed differences in benthic fluxes between the 2 methods and the varying sensitivities of nutrient flux to supply rate were a function of the residence time of the overlying water in the core. Rates were similar when both techniques resulted in Linear responses. Differences between techniques resulted when either feedback or washout responses were observed. The observed variable response among nutrients indicated that the kinetics of benthic regeneration differ among nutrients and implies that operation of continuous flow systems (i.e. residence time) should be optimized for the analyte under study. Open (continuous now) systems have many advantages for the determination of benthic-pelagic exchange rates. In a continuous flow system, initial experimental conditions are maintained throughout an incubation. This permits experiments of relatively long duration which allows increased statistical rigor and permits the direct study of cause-effect relationships through the use of experimental manipulations. The primary disadvantage of continuous flow systems lies in their labor-intensive operation.

Notes: Week 5: Benthic-Pelagic; Good detail on patterns of sediment-water exchange. Some preliminary models that can be used to estimate rates. Also a nice section on benthic consumption of oxygen absorbed from the pelagic.

URL: <Go to ISI>://A1996VJ37700024

Author Address: Louisiana State Univ,Dept Oceanog & Coastal Sci,Baton Rouge,La 70803
Univ Sw Louisiana,Dept Biol,Lafayette,La 70504

Language: English

Reference Type: Journal Article

Record Number: 224

Author: Lawrence, D.; Dagg, M. J.; Liu, H. B.; Cummings, S. R.; Ortner, P. B.; Kelble, C.

Year: 2004

Title: Wind events and benthic-pelagic coupling in a shallow subtropical bay in Florida

Journal: Marine Ecology-Progress Series

Volume: 266

Pages: 1-13

Short Title: Wind events and benthic-pelagic coupling in a shallow subtropical bay in Florida

ISSN: 0171-8630

Accession Number: ISI:000220134500001

Keywords: benthic-pelagic coupling

suspended sediments

nutrients

phytoplankon

microzooplankton grazing

mesozooplankton grazing

net heterotrophy

florida bay

inner-shelf lagoon

microbial food-web

sediment resuspension

plankton response

special emphasis

feeding rates

phytoplankton

coastal

nutrients

USA

Abstract: During the winter months (December to April), the SE United States is influenced by continental air masses from the north or northwest which pass at approximately 4 to 7 d intervals. These wind events can cause suspension of bottom sediments in Florida Bay. Over a 9 d period in March 2001, we examined the effects of a wind-mixing event on the pelagic system within the NW part of Florida Bay, where water depth is 2 to 3 m. This event caused significant suspension of bottom materials, large increases in NH4 and PO4, smaller increases in NO3+NO2 and Si(OH)(4), a decrease in microzooplankton abundance, and an increase in benthic copepods in the water column. As wind speeds declined, there was a rapid decline in PO4 concentration, gradual declines in suspended sediment, NH4 and Si(OH)(4), an increase in chlorophyll a (chl a) stock, an increase in phytoplankton growth and productivity, an increase in microzooplankton grazing rate, and a settling of the benthic harpacticoid community. No grazing response was apparent in the mesozooplankton community. The wind event clearly injected dissolved and particulate benthic materials into the water column, where they directly stimulated the bacterioplankton, phytoplankton and microzooplankton communities within 1 to 2 d after the event. The water column was strongly net heterotrophic at this time, suggesting a large input of dissolved organic matter from the bottom. Stimulation of the pelagic food web continued at least until we completed our study 6 d after the event. By the end of our study, the water column was net autotrophic.

Notes: Week 5: Benthic-Pelagic; How wind events affect nutrient transport in lakes. Resuspention, diffusion rates, and effects on microbial communities are the focus of this paper.

URL: <Go to ISI>://000220134500001

Author Address: Dagg, MJ

Louisiana Univ Marine Consortium, 8124 Highway 56, Chauvin, LA 70344 USA

Louisiana Univ Marine Consortium, Chauvin, LA 70344 USA
Atlantic Oceanog & Meteorol Lab, Miami, FL 33149 USA
Univ Miami, Rosenstiel Sch Marine & Atmospher Sci, Cooperat Inst Marine & Atmospher Studies, Miami, FL 33149 USA

Language: English

Reference Type: Journal Article

Record Number: 220

Author: Chandra, S.; Vander Zanden, M. J.; Heyvaert, A. C.; Richards, B. C.; Allen, B. C.; Goldman, C. R.

Year: 2005

Title: The effects of cultural eutrophication on the coupling between pelagic primary producers and benthic consumers

Journal: Limnology and Oceanography

Volume: 50

Issue: 5

Pages: 1368-1376

Date: Sep

Short Title: The effects of cultural eutrophication on the coupling between pelagic primary producers and benthic consumers

ISSN: 0024-3590

Accession Number: ISI:000231932800004

Keywords: long-term changes

food-web

lake-erken

california-nevada

organic-matter

fatty-acids

carbon

community

erie

ecosystems

Abstract: We investigated the effects of cultural eutrophication on the coupling between pelagic primary producers and benthic consumers in Lake Tahoe. Spatial and temporal changes in zoobenthos energetics were documented by measuring > 40 yr of change in pelagic primary production through C-14 incubations, reduction in clarity by Secchi and light measurements, and sedimentation rates. Effects on zoobenthic primary consumers (oligochaete and chironomid) and an obligate benthic secondary consumer (Catostomus tahoensis) were determined by comparing delta(13)C values of historical and contemporary samples. A model that considers primary production (benthic or pelagic) contributions and their respective delta(13)C signals was used to examine the factors contributing to zoobenthic energy shifts. Spatially, zoobenthos exhibited a strong positive relationship between lake depth and pelagic isotopic signals. For depths at which ambient 1% light levels have shifted with time (50-85 m), pelagic primary producer and zoobenthic consumer coupling was positive. Historically, zoobenthos from this depth zone obtained 27% of their energy from phytoplankton sources. After 43 yr of eutrophication, they obtained 62% from pelagic sources. A simple model indicated that increased pelagic production and resultant export of matter combined with the loss of benthic primary production contributed to the change in zoobenthos energetics. This change was passed on to higher consumers, with the benthic fish Tahoe sucker (Catostomus tahoensis) now deriving similar to 21% of its energy from pelagic primary production sources. This study demonstrates how lake eutrophication increases the coupling between pelagic and benthic habitats.

Notes: Week 5: Benthic-Pelagic; Increase in use of pelagic resources after sustained eutrophication. However, the interconnection of the benthic and pelagic is more complex after eutrophication. Result attributed to export of matter from benthos.

URL: <Go to ISI>://000231932800004

Author Address: Chandra, S

Univ Calif Davis, Tahoe Res Grp, Dept Environm Sci & Policy, Davis, CA 95617 USA

Univ Calif Davis, Tahoe Res Grp, Dept Environm Sci & Policy, Davis, CA 95617 USA

Language: English

Reference Type: Journal Article

Record Number: 202

Author: Graf, G.

Year: 1992

Title: Benthic-Pelagic Coupling - a Benthic View

Journal: Oceanography and Marine Biology

Volume: 30

Pages: 149-190

Short Title: Benthic-Pelagic Coupling - a Benthic View

ISSN: 0078-3218

Accession Number: ISI:A1992LT27600002

Keywords: deep-sea sediments

community oxygen-consumption

spring phytoplankton bloom

coastal marine-sediments

shallow-water station

organic-carbon flux

western kiel bight

conceptual-framework

north-atlantic

norwegian sea

Abstract: Benthic-pelagic coupling is described on a community level reviewing examples from Kiel Bight (Baltic Sea) and the Norwegian-Greenland Sea. An energy flow equation for marine sediments is developed, analogous to the one for animals, which includes processes such as biodeposition, sedimentation, as well as lateral advection, all types of bioturbation, and physical transport mechanisms through the sediment-water interface. The fast response and deep-reaching effects of sedimentation events, the budget problem, and the importance of lateral advection as well as resuspension for the understanding of a marine soft-bottom ecosystem are discussed.

Notes: Week 5: Benthic-Pelagic; Lt276

Times Cited:192

Cited References Count:126

Marine, Overview of benthic-pelagic coupling + a model.

URL: <Go to ISI>://A1992LT27600002

Author Address: Geomar,Marine Geosci Res Ctr,W-2300 Kiel 14,Germany

Language: English

Reference Type: Journal Article

Record Number: 217

Author: Williams, J. D.; Warren, M. L.; Cummings, K. S.; Harris, J. L.; Neves, R. J.

Year: 1993

Title: Conservation Status of Fresh-Water Mussels of the United-States and Canada

Journal: Fisheries

Volume: 18

Issue: 9

Pages: 6-22

Date: Sep

Short Title: Conservation Status of Fresh-Water Mussels of the United-States and Canada

ISSN: 0363-2415

Accession Number: ISI:A1993LV84200002

Abstract: The American Fisheries Society (AFS) herein provides a list of all native freshwater mussels (families Margaritiferidae and Unionidae) in the United States and Canada. This report also provides state and provincial distributions; a comprehensive review of the conservation status of all taxa; and references on biology, conservation, and distribution of freshwater mussels. The list includes 297 native freshwater mussels, of which 213 taxa (71.7%) are considered endangered, threatened, or of special concern. Twenty-one taxa (7.1%) are listed as endangered but possibly extinct, 77 (20.6%) as endangered but extant, 43 (14.5%) as threatened, 72 (24.2%) as of special concern, 14 (4.7%) as undetermined, and only 70 (23.6%) as currently stable. The primary reasons for the decline of freshwater mussels are habitat destruction from dams, channel modification, siltation, and the introduction of nonindigenous mollusks. The high numbers of imperiled freshwater mussels in the United States and Canada, which harbor the most diverse fauna in the world, portend a trajectory toward an extinction crisis that, if unchecked, will severely impoverish one of our richest components of aquatic biodiversity.

Notes: Week 5: Benthic-Pelagic; Lv842

Times Cited:222

Cited References Count:0

Freshwater, Mussels are biting the dust for a lot of reasons!

URL: <Go to ISI>://A1993LV84200002

Author Address: Williams, Jd

Us Fish & Wildlife Serv,Natl Fisheries Res Ctr,7920 Nw 71St St,Gainesville,Fl 32606

Language: English

Reference Type: Journal Article

Record Number: 227

Author: Porter, E. T.; Sanford, L. P.; Gust, G.; Porter, F. S.

Year: 2004

Title: Combined water-column mixing and benthic boundary-layer flow in mesocosms: key for realistic benthic-pelagic coupling studies

Journal: Marine Ecology-Progress Series

Volume: 271

Pages: 43-60

Short Title: Combined water-column mixing and benthic boundary-layer flow in mesocosms: key for realistic benthic-pelagic coupling studies

ISSN: 0171-8630

Accession Number: ISI:000221879800004

Keywords: benthic-pelagic coupling

flow

turbulence

shear velocity

mesocosm

experimental ecosystem resale

performance liquid-chromatography

clam mercenaria-mercenaria

mytilus-edulis-l

mass-transfer

microcosm experiments

sediment stability

particulate matter

limited relevance

ecosystem ecology

marine ecosystem

Abstract: We developed 2 scaled linked mesocosms that realistically mimicked both water-column mixing and benthic boundary-layer flow, enabling more realistic benthic-pelagic coupling experiments. The first was a 'large' 1000 l system linking a mesocosm with an annular flume; the second a 'small' 100 l system linking a mesocosm with a Gust microcosm. We compared bottom shear velocity, flow speeds, and internal mixing energies between linked and isolated mesocosms that were the same in volume and shape, and compared them to nature. In addition, we performed scaled 4 wk long comparative ecosystem experiments with oysters in the large and small mesocosms to determine if a realistically mimicked benthic boundary-layer flow and system shape could significantly affect ecosystem processes. We scaled all 4 systems to have the same realistic water-column turbulence levels and increased bottom shear velocity to moderate levels in the linked mesocosms. Bottom shear remained unrealistically low compared to nature in the isolated tanks. In addition, the water column and the sediment-water interface were more realistically connected in the linked than in the isolated mesocosms. The linked mesocosms had a similar scaling relationship of turbulence intensity and bottom shear velocity of 1.6, as found in nature. System shape and bottom shear significantly affected ecosystem properties through changes in light, microphytobenthos biomass growth and erosion, sediment inorganic nutrient fluxes, oyster growth, and water column nutrient dynamics. In this study we show that a commonly used system shape in ecosystem studies and unrealistically low bottom shear in mesocosms both produce significant artifacts in benthic-pelagic coupling studies. We also demonstrate improved systems without these artifacts. System shape, bottom shear, water-column turbulence levels, and their ratios should all be considered in designing mesocosms to mimic natural processes.

Notes: Week 5: Benthic-Pelagic; More sediment-water interface discussion. This one in mesocosms, has a nice section on the effects of morphometry on exchange rates.

URL: <Go to ISI>://000221879800004

Author Address: Porter, ET

Univ Maryland, Chesapeake Biol Lab, Ctr Environm Sci, 1 Williams St, Solomons, MD 20688 USA

Univ Maryland, Chesapeake Biol Lab, Ctr Environm Sci, Solomons, MD 20688 USA
Univ Maryland, Horn Point Lab, Ctr Environm Sci, Cambridge, MD 21613 USA
Tech Univ Hamburg, D-22305 Hamburg, Germany
NASA, Goddard Space Flight Ctr, Greenbelt, MD 20771 USA

Language: English

Reference Type: Journal Article

Record Number: 221

Author: Frechette, M.; Bourget, E.

Year: 1985

Title: Energy-Flow between the Pelagic and Benthic Zones - Factors Controlling Particulate Organic-Matter Available to an Intertidal Mussel Bed

Journal: Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences

Volume: 42

Issue: 6

Pages: 1158-1165

Short Title: Energy-Flow between the Pelagic and Benthic Zones - Factors Controlling Particulate Organic-Matter Available to an Intertidal Mussel Bed

ISSN: 0706-652X

Accession Number: ISI:A1985ALP7900012

Notes: Week 5: Benthic-Pelagic; The part of this paper concerning the presence of energy at sediment-water interfaces is interesting. It basically states that any energy at the interface will result in some type of useful nutrient exchange.

URL: <Go to ISI>://A1985ALP7900012

Author Address: Univ Laval,Giroq,Dept Biol,Ste Foy G1K 7P4,Quebec,Canada

Language: English

Reference Type: Journal Article

Record Number: 219

Author: Brenner, M.; Hodell, D. A.; Leyden, B. W.; Curtis, J. H.; Kenney, W. F.; Gu, B. H.; Newman, J. M.

Year: 2006

Title: Mechanisms for organic matter and phosphorus burial in sediments of a shallow, subtropical, macrophyte-dominated lake

Journal: Journal of Paleolimnology

Volume: 35

Issue: 1

Pages: 129-148

Date: Jan

Short Title: Mechanisms for organic matter and phosphorus burial in sediments of a shallow, subtropical, macrophyte-dominated lake

ISSN: 0921-2728

Accession Number: ISI:000233939300009

Keywords: macrophytes

nutrients

organic matter

phosphorus

sediment

shallow lakes

stable isotopes

submersed aquatic vegetation

florida

accumulation

USA

eutrophication

precipitation

carbon

rates

Abstract: We studied the role that submersed aquatic vegetation (SAV) plays in the sedimentation of organic matter (OM) and phosphorus (P) in Lake Panasoffkee, Florida (USA), a shallow, hard-water, macrophyte-dominated water body. Carbon/Nitrogen ratios (C/N) and stable isotope signatures (C-13 and N-15) in algae, higher plants, and surface sediments were measured to identify sources of OM to the lake mud. Pollen, plant macrofossils, and geochemistry in sediment cores indicated that primary productivity and SAV abundance in Lake Panasoffkee increased in the late 1800s, probably as a response to increased P loading from human settlement and forest clearance. SAV and associated periphyton served as temporary sinks for soluble P, maintaining relatively clear-water, low-nutrient conditions in the lake. P accumulation in Lake Panasoffkee sediments increased together with indicators for greater SAV presence. This suggests that SAV and associated epiphytes promote P burial and retention in sediments. Although it might be assumed that rooted submersed macrophytes are directly responsible for P uptake from water and transfer to sediments, C/N and stable carbon isotope results argue for the importance of other macrophyte growth forms, and perhaps epiphytic algae, in permanent OM and P sequestration. For instance, high rates of photosynthesis by epiphytes in hard-water systems consume CO2 and promote CaCO3 precipitation. Sloughing of accumulated carbonates from macrophyte leaves transfers epiphytes and associated P to the sediment. Our paleolimnological findings are relevant to restoration efforts in the Florida Everglades and support the claim that constructed SAV wetlands remove P from waters effectively.

Notes: Week 5: Benthic-Pelagic; Wonderful paper on burial. Mechanisms given for both loading, retained nutrients, and burial of organic matter and P in a shallow lake in Florida.

URL: <Go to ISI>://000233939300009

Author Address: Brenner, M

Univ Florida, Dept Geol Sci, Gainesville, FL 32611 USA

Univ Florida, Dept Geol Sci, Gainesville, FL 32611 USA
Univ Florida, LUECI, Gainesville, FL 32611 USA
Univ S Florida, Dept Geol Sci, Tampa, FL 33620 USA
S Florida Water Management Dist, Everglades Div, W Palm Beach, FL 33406 USA

Language: English

Reference Type: Journal Article

Record Number: 196

Author: Karatayev, A. Y.; Burlakova, L. E.; Padilla, D. K.

Year: 1997

Title: The effects of Dreissena polymorpha (Pallas) invasion on aquatic communities in eastern Europe

Journal: Journal of Shellfish Research

Volume: 16

Issue: 1

Pages: 187-203

Date: Jun

Short Title: The effects of Dreissena polymorpha (Pallas) invasion on aquatic communities in eastern Europe

ISSN: 0730-8000

Accession Number: ISI:A1997XM07200029

Keywords: zebra mussels

freshwater ecosystems

benthic-pelagic coupling

benthic communities

unionids

western lake erie

water-quality management

zebra mussel

unionid bivalves

filtration-rate

st clair

population

decline

infestation

mollusca

Abstract: Dreissena polymorpha has been invading fresh waterbodies of eastern and western Europe since the beginning of the 19th century and is still invading. A long history of monitoring and experimental studies conducted in the Former Soviet Union (FSU) has provided us with an understanding of the effects of zebra mussels on waterbodies they invade. However, this work has not been generally available. We review work conducted in the FSU and eastern Europe over the past 60 y on the community effects of this invading species. In freshwater areas, where Dreissena are the only bivalves that attach to hard substrates and have a planktonic larval stage, they can become enormously abundant and, within a short period of time, can obtain a biomass 10 times greater than that of all other native benthic invertebrates. When zebra mussels invade, benthic invertebrate communities change dramatically in terms of total biomass, species composition, and relative abundance of functional groups. Native filter feeders are outcompeted by D. polymorpha and decrease in abundance, while animals feeding on the sediments increase in abundance. Although D. polymorpha can cause a dramatic decline in the abundance of unionids, after initial peaks in zebra mussel abundance, D. polymorpha coexist with unionids. Dreissena are very effective filter feeders and shift materials from the pelagic to the benthos through their filter feeding and deposition of pseudofeces. When zebra mussels invade phytoplankton and zooplankton abundance decreases, the biomass of benthophage fish increases. and a greater percentage of the primary productivity is consumed by higher trophic levels than in systems without zebra mussels.

Notes: Week 5: Benthic-Pelagic; Xm072

Times Cited:55

Cited References Count:170

Freshwater, A review of the effects of the invasive zebra mussels in EUROPE. Have similar effects as they do in N. America, although some unionid coexistence may occur in Europe.

URL: <Go to ISI>://A1997XM07200029

Author Address: Karatayev, AY

Belarussian State Univ,Lakes Res Lab,4 Skoriny Ave,Minsk 220050,Byelarus

Univ Wisconsin,Dept Zool,Madison,Wi 53706

Language: English

Reference Type: Journal Article

Record Number: 132

Author: Thies, C.; Steffan-Dewenter, I.; Tscharntke, T.

Year: 2003

Title: Effects of landscape context on herbivory and parasitism at different spatial scales

Journal: Oikos

Volume: 101

Issue: 1

Pages: 18-25

Date: Apr

Short Title: Effects of landscape context on herbivory and parasitism at different spatial scales

Accession Number: ISI:000182106600003

Keywords: landscape context

Abstract: Local Community structure and interactions have been shown to depend partly oil landscape context. In this paper we tested the hypothesis that the spatial scale experienced by all organism depends on its trophic level. We analyzed plant-herbivore and herbivore-parasitoid interactions in 15 agricultural landscapes differing in structural complexity using the rape pollen beetle (Meligethes aeneus), an important pest on oilseed rape (Brassica napus). and its parasitoids. In the very center of each landscape a patch of potted rape plants was placed in a grassy field margin strip for standardized measurement. Percent non-crop area of landscapes was negatively related to plant damage caused by herbivory and positively to the herbivores' larval mortality resulting from parasitism. In a geographic scale analysis, we quantified the structure of the 15 landscapes for eight circular sectors ranging from 0.5 to 6 kill diameter. Correlations between parasitism and non-crop areas as well as between herbivory and non-crop area were strongest at a scale of 1.5 kill, thereby not supporting the view that higher trophic levels experience the world at a larger spatial scale. However, the predictive power of non-crop area changed only slightly for herbivory, but greatly with respect to parasitism as scales from 0.5 to 1.5 kin and from 1.5 to 6 kill diameter increased. Furthermore, the effect of non-crop area tended to be stronger in parasitism than herbivory suggesting a greater effect of changes in landscape context oil parasitoids. This is in Support of the general idea that higher trophic levels Should be more Susceptible to disturbance.

Notes: Week 6: Crop - Off-crop; A companion paper to the 1999 Science paper published by these offers, but offers some different details than that paper. This article is again representative of the landscape approach many have taken in trying to determine if non-crop habitats subsidize predators and parasitoids and their control of pests. The basic idea is: Sample your variables in landscapes with different amounts of "non-crop" area and see how your predictive power changes with the scale over which you calculate this variable.

URL: <Go to ISI>://000182106600003

Reference Type: Journal Article

Record Number: 129

Author: Landis, D. A.; Wratten, S. D.; Gurr, G. M.

Year: 2000

Title: Habitat management to conserve natural enemies of arthropod pests in agriculture

Journal: Annual Review of Entomology

Volume: 45

Pages: 175-201

Short Title: Habitat management to conserve natural enemies of arthropod pests in agriculture

Accession Number: ISI:000086173900008

Keywords: habitat management, review

Notes: Week 6: Crop - Off-crop; A comprehensive review of different ways of enhancing biological control of crop pests by creating habitats that provide resources that boost predator and parasitoid populations. A GREAT INTRO TO THIS LITERATURE, although it is now a few years old.

URL: <Go to ISI>://000086173900008

Reference Type: Journal Article

Record Number: 136

Author: Lundberg, J.; Moberg, F.

Year: 2003

Title: Mobile link organisms and ecosystem functioning: Implications for ecosystem resilience and management

Journal: Ecosystems

Volume: 6

Issue: 1

Pages: 87-98

Date: Jan

Short Title: Mobile link organisms and ecosystem functioning: Implications for ecosystem resilience and management

Accession Number: ISI:000181088800008

Keywords: review, disturbance

Abstract: Current natural resource management seldom takes the ecosystem functions performed by organisms that move between systems into consideration. Organisms that actively move in the landscape and connect habitats in space and time are here termed mobile links." They are essential components in the dynamics of ecosystem development and ecosystem resilience (that is, buffer capacity and opportunity for reorganization) that provide ecological memory (that is, sources for reorganization after disturbance). We investigated the effects of such mobile links on ecosystem functions in aquatic as well as terrestrial environments. We identify three main functional categories: resource, genetic, and process linkers and suggest that the diversity within functional groups of mobile links is a central component of ecosystem resilience. As the planet becomes increasingly dominated by humans, the magnitude, frequency, timing, spatial extent, rate, and quality of such organism-mediated linkages are being altered. We argue that global environmental change can lead to (a) the decline of essential links in functional groups providing pollination, seed dispersal, and pest control; (b) the linking of previously disconnected areas, for example, the spread of vector-borne diseases and invasive species; and (c) the potential for existing links to become carriers of toxic substances, such as persistent organic compounds. We conclude that knowledge of interspatial exchange via mobile links needs to be incorporated into management and policy-making decisions in order to maintain ecosystem resilience and hence secure the capacity of ecosystems to supply the goods and services essential to society.

Notes: Week 6: Crop - Off-crop; A good review of some of the ways in which movement of organisms across habitats is important in influencing the devlopment of ecosystems in the face of intense disturbances. This conceptual framework could be helpful for understanding the impact of organismal movement across habitats on c crops, which are fundamentally disturbed systems.

URL: <Go to ISI>://000181088800008

Reference Type: Journal Article

Record Number: 147

Author: Begum, M.; Gurr, G. M.; Wratten, S. D.; Hedberg, P. R.; Nicol, H. I.

Year: 2006

Title: Using selective food plants to maximize biological control of vineyard pests

Journal: Journal of Applied Ecology

Volume: 43

Issue: 3

Pages: 547-554

Date: Jun

Short Title: Using selective food plants to maximize biological control of vineyard pests

Accession Number: ISI:000237516600017

Keywords: habitat management

Abstract: 1. Habitat manipulation is important for enhancing biological control of arthropod pests, but identification of selective food plants that benefit only natural enemies is required in order to avoid inadvertently exacerbating pest damage. 2. Greenhouse experiments were conducted to identify potential ground-cover plant species that would improve performance of the egg parasitoid Trichogramma carverae when mass released in vineyards to control the leafroller pest Epiphyas postvittana. Further experiments determined which plants increased immature survival and adult longevity of E. postvittana and a field experiment investigated field enhancement of biological control. 3. Greenhouse survival of T. carverae was greater in the presence of flowering shoots of Lobularia maritima than with flowering shoots of either Brassica juncea or Coriandrum sativum, or with shoots of any species from which flowers had been removed or a control with no shoots. Similar experiments with Fagopyrum esculentum and Borage officinalis showed survival was higher in the presence of shoots with flowers than in without-flower and control treatments. 4. Daily fecundity of T. carverae was greater in the presence of flowering shoots of L. maritima than F. esculentum and with treatments without flowers. There was no significant enhancement of fecundity with Brassica juncea and Borage officinalis flowers. 5. Adult longevity of male and female E. postvittana was as long in the presence of Borage officinalis and F. esculentum flowers as when fed a honey-based artificial diet but longevity was significantly lower than in the artificial diet treatment when caged with C. sativum and L. maritima, irrespective of whether flowers were present or not. 6. Larval development of E. postvittana on intact potted plants was lower on C. sativum and L. maritima than on Brassica juncea, Borage officinalis, F. esculentum and Trifolium repens (a known host of E. postvittana). 7. In the first and second 48-h periods after release of T. carverae in a field experiment, parasitism was significantly higher in pooled treatments with flowers (C. sativum, F. esculentum and L. maritima) than in pooled treatments without flowers (conventional ground-cover or bare earth). 8. Lobularia maritima provided clear benefit to T. carverae but was not used by adult and larval E. postvittana. 9. Synthesis and applications. Lobularia maritima is recommended as the selective food plant best suited to this system and its use beneath vines offers the additional advantage of suppressing weeds, so avoiding the need for herbicide applications and mechanical control.

Notes: Week 6: Crop - Off-crop; A good, recent example of how biocontrol researchers evaluate the effectiveness of different habitat plantings at enhancing biocontrol of pests. In this case, flowers were planted in a vineyard to provide sugar resources to a parasitic wasp. The researchers evaluated the effects of different flowering plants on the performance of the wasp in the lab and finally on its rates of parasitism of caterpillars in the field. Also good because the lab experiments show how resource subsidies from plants can benefit carnivorous insects.

URL: <Go to ISI>://000237516600017

Reference Type: Journal Article

Record Number: 143

Author: Bianchi, Fjja; van der Werf, W.

Year: 2004

Title: Model evaluation of the function of prey in non-crop habitats for biological control by ladybeetles in agricultural landscapes

Journal: Ecological Modelling

Volume: 171

Issue: 1-2

Pages: 177-193

Date: Jan 1

Short Title: Model evaluation of the function of prey in non-crop habitats for biological control by ladybeetles in agricultural landscapes

Accession Number: ISI:000187863800010

Keywords: modelling

Abstract: The availability of alternative prey is considered to be an important factor for the conservation of predators in agro-ecosystems. However, only a limited number of studies have investigated the effect of prey availability in non-crop habitats on predator impact. We studied the potential of the generalist predator Coccinella septempunctata to control pest aphids in wheat fields in landscapes with varying levels of prey in non-crop habitats using a spatially explicit simulation model. Simulations indicate that C. septempunctata reproduction and the associated control of pest aphids is affected by both the availability of non-pest aphids in non-crop habitats and the infestation date of pest aphids in wheat fields. When the infestation of wheat by pest aphids takes place early in the season, prey availability of pest aphids alone is sufficient to allow C. septempunctata to attain its maximal reproduction. However, when the infestation by pest aphids is somewhat delayed, C. septempunctata becomes increasingly dependent on aphids in non-crop habitats. Scarcity of prey may prevent C. septempunctata from reproducing or initiate long distance migration. Therefore, prey availability in non-crop habitats may play a significant part in the conservation of ladybeetles and the related biological control in agro-ecosystems. (C) 2003 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Notes: Week 6: Crop - Off-crop; A modelling paper where researchers create a spatially explicit model testing the effect of availability of alternative prey in non-crop habitats and the time when aphids establish in crops on populations of predatory ladybugs. While results of these models may seem self-evident, they provide a nice way of conceptualizing how non-crop areas can be important.

URL: <Go to ISI>://000187863800010

Reference Type: Journal Article

Record Number: 145

Author: Hickman, J. M.; Wratten, S. D.

Year: 1996

Title: Use of Phacelia tanacetifolia strips to enhance biological control of aphids by hoverfly larvae in cereal fields

Journal: Journal of Economic Entomology

Volume: 89

Issue: 4

Pages: 832-840

Date: Aug

Short Title: Use of Phacelia tanacetifolia strips to enhance biological control of aphids by hoverfly larvae in cereal fields

Accession Number: ISI:A1996VA95000009

Keywords: habitat management

Abstract: Hoverflies (Diptera: Syrphidae) are potentially important in arable and horticultural crops as biological control agents. Many species lay their eggs near aphid colonies, and their larvae are aphidophagous. Adult hoverflies need nectar for energy and the protein from pollen for sexual maturation and egg development. Phacelia tanacetifolia Bentham (Hydrophyllaceae), a North American annual species that is a good source of pollen for syrphids, was drilled in the margins of 3 winter-wheat fields on a farm in North Hampshire, southern United Kingdom in 1992 and in different fields in 1993. Numbers of hoverflies in yellow water traps, oviposition rates, and aphid densities in these fields were compared with those in control fields. In 1992 in the fields bordered with P. tanacetifolia, significantly more hoverflies were captured in the traps but differences in oviposition or aphid numbers were not significantly different between treatments. This may have been because the wheat matured early so that it was less suitable for syrphid oviposition when gravid females were in the field. In 1993, differences between numbers of adults caught in experimental and control fields were not significantly different. However, significantly more eggs were found in fields with P. tanacetifolia than in control fields and significantly fewer aphids were present in these fields than in controls during the 4th wk of the experiment when many 3rd-instar syrphid larvae were present in the crop. Our results provide support for the hypothesis that a management strategy of providing flower borders for fields can result in more efficient biological control of aphids by syrphid larvae, thus reducing the reliance on insecticidal control.

Notes: Week 6: Crop - Off-crop; A nice example of how floral resources like pollen and nectar can enhance control of pests by providing energy to predators.

URL: <Go to ISI>://A1996VA95000009

Reference Type: Journal Article

Record Number: 141

Author: Tscharntke, T.; Brandl, R.

Year: 2004

Title: Plant-insect interactions in fragmented landscapes

Journal: Annual Review of Entomology

Volume: 49

Pages: 405-430

Short Title: Plant-insect interactions in fragmented landscapes

Accession Number: ISI:000188826400018

Keywords: landscape context, review, life history

Abstract: Population and community ecology need a large-scale perspective because local patterns (of biodiversity) and processes (trophic interactions) are influenced by the regional setting. The ratio of the foraging range and/or dispersal ability to the distance between landscape elements influences local population dynamics. The spatial scale experienced by a species may be linked to its trophic level and also to traits such as body size, resource specialization, rarity, and population size variability. Hence, communities are assemblages of species with different spatial strategies. Effects of habitat loss and habitat fragmentation on plant-herbivore, herbivore-enemy, as well as plant-pollinator interactions are contingent on species and landscape. Metapopulation theory provides a unifying frame to approach plant-insect systems across fragmented landscape, although the landscape context is often ignored. In some cases theory is far ahead of empirical research. We call for more population data on large spatial and temporal scales to better understand plant-insect populations across fragmented landscapes.

Notes: Week 6: Crop - Off-crop; A nice review of some of the main factors that may influence how local plant-insect interactions are influenced by landscape structure, and of some of the applicable theories. While it discusses "fragmentation"' effects on these interactions, the concepts are just as applicable when considering how the amount and configuration of subsidy providing habitat could influence insects in a given crop field.

URL: <Go to ISI>://000188826400018

Reference Type: Journal Article

Record Number: 133

Author: Bianchi, Fjja; Booij, C. J. H.; Tscharntke, T.

Year: 2006

Title: Sustainable pest regulation in agricultural landscapes: a review on landscape composition, biodiversity and natural pest control

Journal: Proceedings of the Royal Society B-Biological Sciences

Volume: 273

Issue: 1595

Pages: 1715-1727

Date: Jul 22

Short Title: Sustainable pest regulation in agricultural landscapes: a review on landscape composition, biodiversity and natural pest control

Accession Number: ISI:000238946100001

Keywords: landscape context, review

Abstract: Agricultural intensification has resulted in a simplification of agricultural landscapes by the expansion of agricultural land, enlargement of field size and removal of non-crop habitat. These changes are considered to be an important cause of the rapid decline in farmland biodiversity, with the remaining biodiversity concentrated in field edges and non-crop habitats. The simplification of landscape composition and the decline of biodiversity may affect the functioning of natural pest control because non-crop habitats provide requisites for a broad spectrum of natural enemies, and the exchange of natural enemies between crop and non-crop habitats is likely to be diminished in landscapes dominated by arable cropland. In this review, we test the hypothesis that natural pest control is enhanced in complex patchy landscapes with a high proportion of non-crop habitats as compared to simple large-scale landscapes with little associated non-crop habitat. In 74% and 45% of the studies reviewed, respectively, natural enemy populations were higher and pest pressure lower in complex landscapes versus simple landscapes. Landscape-driven pest suppression may result in lower crop injury, although this has rarely been documented. Enhanced natural enemy activity was associated with herbaceous habitats in 80% of the cases (e.g. fallows, field margins), and somewhat less often with wooded habitats (71%) and landscape patchiness (70%). The similar contributions of these landscape factors suggest that all are equally important in enhancing natural enemy populations. We conclude that diversified landscapes hold most potential for the conservation of biodiversity and sustaining the pest control function.

Notes: Week 6: Crop - Off-crop; A review of research done on the effect of landscape context on biological control within crops. Contains a good, brief synopsis of the major references/work done in this area.

URL: <Go to ISI>://000238946100001

Reference Type: Journal Article

Record Number: 137

Author: Wissinger, S. A.

Year: 1997

Title: Cyclic colonization in predictably ephemeral habitats: A template for biological control in annual crop systems

Journal: Biological Control

Volume: 10

Issue: 1

Pages: 4-15

Date: Sep

Short Title: Cyclic colonization in predictably ephemeral habitats: A template for biological control in annual crop systems

Accession Number: ISI:A1997XU96100002

Keywords: review, life history

Abstract: Biological control strategies that mere developed for orchards and forests have had Limited success in controling pests in annual crop systems (ACSs). In this paper I will argue that an accurate characterization of the habitat template of ACSs will be a key feature for developing new strategies of biological control for held crops. I argue that ACSs are ''predictably ephemeral'' habitats that present a selective environment that is different from that commonly envisioned for disturbed or early successional habitats. By drawing on examples from natural ecosystems that are predictably ephemeral, I characterize the types of life cycles and life-history traits that are common in insects that thrive in these types of environments. ''Fugitive'' or ''colonizing'' species that evolve in unpredictably disturbed environments usually allocate resources to numerous dormant or vagile propagules at the expense of parental survival. In contrast, many insects that exploit predictably ephemeral habitats respond to disturbance by dispersing to permanent refugia where they delay reproduction, overwinter, and then recolonize the following year. I refer to this strategy as ''cyclic colonization'' and document its ubiquity in natural and agroecosystems. Cyclic colonizers typically exhibit between-generation developmental flexibility in life-history traits. In many species, ''establishment generations'' have small or no wings, are behaviorally sedentary, grow rapidly, reproduce at an early age, and have high fecundities. In contrast, ''over-wintering generations'' are well adapted for dispersal to and from permanent habitats (long wings, behavioral tendency for flight, reproductively immature) and for winter survival. Cyclic colonizers are not, necessarily ''r-selected,'' but rather have generations that alternate between relatively r- and K-selected life-history traits. Cyclic colonization explicitly relies on spatial heterogeneity, and therefore, effective biological control strategies in ACSs must include a landscape ethic that provides an abundance of permanent habitats that can act as reservoirs for indigenous and introduced enemies. The development of an optimal agricultural landscape for biological control in ACSs will require a metapopulation approach that focuses on annual cycles of colonization between permanent refugia and a patchwork of crop fields. Finally, given the ubiquity of cyclic colonization in ACSs, it seems that effective biological control will depend on an increased information base about the seasonal cycles, dispersal behavior, and overwintering ecology of indigenous and introduced natural enemies. (C) 1997 Academic Press.

Notes: Week 6: Crop - Off-crop; An interesting article by an aquatic biologist. He argues that organisms with a life history allowing them to cyclically move between other habitats and ephemeral habitats will be best suited to agricultural systems. Thus, any biocontrol efforts should target organisms with such life histories. Organisms adapted to more stable habitats will not do well in ag systems.

URL: <Go to ISI>://A1997XU96100002

Reference Type: Journal Article

Record Number: 139

Author: Langellotto, G. A.; Denno, R. F.

Year: 2004

Title: Responses of invertebrate natural enemies to complex-structured habitats: a meta-analytical synthesis

Journal: Oecologia

Volume: 139

Issue: 1

Pages: 1-10

Date: Mar

Short Title: Responses of invertebrate natural enemies to complex-structured habitats: a meta-analytical synthesis

Accession Number: ISI:000220097200001

Keywords: review

Abstract: The structural complexity of habitats has been espoused as an important factor influencing natural-enemy abundance and food-web dynamics in invertebrate-based communities, but a rigorous synthesis of published studies has not heretofore been conducted. We performed a meta-analytical synthesis of the density response of natural enemies (invertebrate predators and parasitoids) to experimental increases and decreases in the structural complexity of their habitats using data from 43 published studies, reporting 62 independent taxa. Studies varied in structural complexity at two spatial scales (habitat and within-plant architecture) and comprised a diverse array of natural-enemy taxa (natural-enemy assemblage at large, the entire spider assemblage, hunting spiders, web-building spiders, mites, hemipterans, coccinellid beetles, carabid beetles, ants, and parasitoids). For all taxa combined, increasing habitat structure resulted in a large and significant increase in natural enemy abundance. Similarly, decreasing habitat structure significantly diminished natural enemy abundance. Separate meta-analyses at two spatial scales (habitat and within-plant architecture) found that increasing habitat complexity resulted in significant increases in abundance. In particular, manipulating levels of detritus at the habitat spatial scale had the strongest effect on natural enemy abundance. In general, most guilds of natural enemies were significantly affected when the structural complexity of the habitat was altered. Seven of nine natural enemy guilds were more abundant under conditions of increased habitat complexity, with hunting spiders and web-building spiders showing the strongest response followed by hemipterans, mites, and parasitoids. Spiders in particular were negatively affected when habitat structure was simplified. The mechanisms underlying the accumulation of natural enemies in complex-structured habitats are poorly known. However, refuge from intraguild predation, more effective prey capture, and access to alternative resources (alternative prey, pollen, or nectar), are possible candidates. Our analysis was unable to confirm that predators aggregate in complex-structured habitats because prey (mostly herbivores) are more abundant there. The results of this meta-analysis support the view that basal resources mediate top-down impacts on herbivores, and provide encouragement that manipulations of habitat complexity can be made in agroecosystems that will enhance the effectiveness of the natural enemy complex for more effective pest suppression.

Notes: Week 6: Crop - Off-crop; An interesting meta-analysis of the literature showing that increased structural complexity can result in increases in natural enemy abundance in agroecosystems. It suggests that either increasing the structural complexity within crops or adding complex habitats to agrolandscapes could enhance predation on pests. Also interesting as it posits that refuge from intraguild predation could be a key benefit of complex habitats, which is a different sort of subsidy than we've been talking about (non-trophic in a sense).

URL: <Go to ISI>://000220097200001

Reference Type: Journal Article

Record Number: 153

Author: Santelmann, M. V.; White, D.; Freemark, K.; Nassauer, J. I.; Eilers, J. M.; Vache, K. B.; Danielson, B. J.; Corry, R. C.; Clark, M. E.; Polasky, S.; Cruse, R. M.; Sifneos, J.; Rustigian, H.; Coiner, C.; Wu, J.; Debinski, D.

Year: 2004

Title: Assessing alternative futures for agriculture in Iowa, USA

Journal: Landscape Ecology

Volume: 19

Issue: 4

Pages: 357-374

Short Title: Assessing alternative futures for agriculture in Iowa, USA

Accession Number: ISI:000221879000002

Keywords: landscape context

Abstract: The contributions of current agricultural practices to environmental degradation and the social problems facing agricultural regions are well known. However, landscape-scale alternatives to current trends have not been fully explored nor their potential impacts quantified. To address this research need, our interdisciplinary team designed three alternative future scenarios for two watersheds in Iowa, USA, and used spatially-explicit models to evaluate the potential consequences of changes in farmland management. This paper summarizes and integrates the results of this interdisciplinary research project into an assessment of the designed alternatives intended to improve our understanding of landscape ecology in agricultural ecosystems and to inform agricultural policy. Scenario futures were digitized into a Geographic Information System (GIS), visualized with maps and simulated images, and evaluated for multiple endpoints to assess impacts of land use change on water quality, social and economic goals, and native flora and fauna. The Biodiversity scenario, targeting restoration of indigenous biodiversity, ranked higher than the current landscape for all endpoints (biodiversity, water quality, farmer preference, and profitability). The Biodiversity scenario ranked higher than the Production scenario (which focused on profitable agricultural production) in all endpoints but profitability, for which the two scenarios scored similarly, and also ranked higher than the Water Quality scenario in all endpoints except water quality. The Water Quality scenario, which targeted improvement in water quality, ranked highest of all landscapes in potential water quality and higher than the current landscape and the Production scenario in all but profitability. Our results indicate that innovative agricultural practices targeting environmental improvements may be acceptable to farmers and could substantially reduce the environmental impacts of agriculture in this region.

Notes: Week 6: Crop - Off-crop; Interesting article in that the authors actually tried to predict what a landscape would look like in the future given management for different ecosystem services.

URL: <Go to ISI>://000221879000002

Reference Type: Journal Article

Record Number: 130

Author: Lee, J. C.; Menalled, F. B.; Landis, D. A.

Year: 2001

Title: Refuge habitats modify impact of insecticide disturbance on carabid beetle communities

Journal: Journal of Applied Ecology

Volume: 38

Issue: 2

Pages: 472-483

Date: Apr

Short Title: Refuge habitats modify impact of insecticide disturbance on carabid beetle communities

Accession Number: ISI:000168691500020

Keywords: habitat management

Abstract: 1. Carabid beetles are polyphagous predators that can act as biological control agents of insect pests and weeds. While current agricultural practices often create a harsh environment, habitat management such as the establishment of within-field refuges has been proposed to enhance carabid beetle abundance and impact. We examined the joint effects of refuge habitats and insecticide application on carabid activity density(parameter of population density and relative activity) and species composition in a cornfield. 2. Our 2-year study comprised four treatments: (i) -refuge/-insecticide; (ii) +refuge/ -insecticide; (iii) -refuge/+insecticide; (iv) +refuge/+insecticide. Refuge strips consisted of grasses, legumes and perennial flowering plants. '-Refuge' strips were planted with corn and not treated with insecticide. 3. Before planting and insecticide application, carabid activity density in the crop areas was similar across all treatments. Insecticide application immediately reduced carabid activity density and altered community composition in the crop area. 4. Refuge strips had significantly higher activity density of beetles than -refuge strips before planting and during the summer. 5. During summer, as new carabids emerged and insecticide toxicity declined, the presence of refuge strips influenced carabids in the adjacent crop area. Carabid activity density within crop areas previously treated with insecticide was significantly higher when adjacent to refuge strips. Also, carabid communities within insecticide-treated crop areas were affected by the presence or absence of a refuge strip. 6. The presence of refuge strips did not consistently augment carabid numbers in crop areas where insecticide was not applied. One explanation may be that insecticides decreased the quality of crop habitat to carabids by depletion of prey and direct mortality. However, subsequent rebounds in prey density and the absence of competing predators may make these areas relatively more attractive than unperturbed crop habitats to carabid colonization from refuges. 7. This study demonstrates that refuges may buffer the negative consequences of insecticide application on carabids in adjacent fields. Diversifying agro-ecosystems with refuge habitats may be a viable strategy for maintaining carabid populations in disturbed agricultural landscapes to keep pests below outbreak levels.

Notes: Week 6: Crop - Off-crop; One of the best empirical examples of how natural areas serve as refuges where insects can surivive in-crop disturbances, and how these areas then serve as foci for recolonization of crops.

URL: <Go to ISI>://000168691500020

Reference Type: Journal Article

Record Number: 135

Author: Thies, C.; Tscharntke, T.

Year: 1999

Title: Landscape structure and biological control in agroecosystems

Journal: Science

Volume: 285

Issue: 5429

Pages: 893-895

Date: Aug 6

Short Title: Landscape structure and biological control in agroecosystems

Accession Number: ISI:000081860900050

Keywords: landscape context

Abstract: Biological pest control has primarily relied on local improvements in populations of natural enemies, but landscape structure may also be important. This is shown here with experiments at different spatial scales using the rape pollen beetle (Meligethes aeneus), an important pest on oilseed rape (Brassica napus). The presence of old field margin strips along rape fields was associated with increased mortality of pollen beetles resulting from parasitism and adjacent, Large, old fallow habitats had an even greater effect. In structurally complex Landscapes, parasitism was higher and crop damage was lower than in simple Landscapes with a high percentage of agricultural use.

Notes: Week 6: Crop - Off-crop; One of the seminal articles in this field that presented a research template used by many others (sample insects in different landscapes, correlate response variable of choice to the amount of natural area at different distances from crop fields). One of the first to demonstrate strong effects of landscape context on biological control within crops. Correlated the amount of non-cropland in the surrounding landscape to parasitism of rapeseed beetles by parasitic wasps. Parasitism increased as the proportion of the surrounding landscape composed of natural area increased. Herbivory by the parasitized pest decreased at the same time. Also, strength of correlation was scale dependent.

URL: <Go to ISI>://000081860900050

Reference Type: Journal Article

Record Number: 146

Author: Menalled, F. D.; Marino, P. C.; Gage, S. H.; Landis, D. A.

Year: 1999

Title: Does agricultural landscape structure affect parasitism and parasitoid diversity?

Journal: Ecological Applications

Volume: 9

Issue: 2

Pages: 634-641

Date: May

Short Title: Does agricultural landscape structure affect parasitism and parasitoid diversity?

Accession Number: ISI:000081250200028

Keywords: landscape context

Abstract: This study evaluates whether previous observations of a higher percentage of parasitism and parasitoid diversity in a complex agricultural landscape, relative to a simple landscape, represent a general phenomenon. Rates of parasitism and parasitoid diversity of the armyworm (Pseudaletia unipuncta) were assessed in three replicate (Onondaga, Ingham, and Benton) regions in southern Michigan. Within each region, a simple landscape (primarily cropland) and a complex landscape (cropland intermixed with mid and late successional noncrop habitats) were identified through analysis of aerial photographs. In each landscape, three maize fields were selected, and second to fourth instar P. unipuncta were released into three replicate plots of maize plants. Larvae were recovered after 6 d and reared in the laboratory to record parasitoid emergence. A principal component analysis conducted on landscape variables indicated that simple and complex landscapes were true replicates. Extra-field vegetation was similar among the three simple landscapes but differed among complex sites. Parasitoid species diversity differed among regions, with six species recovered in Onondaga and two species from both Benton and Ingham. Rates of parasitism were only partially consistent with previous experimental results. In Ingham, results were similar to those found previously in this region; rates of parasitism and parasitoid diversity were higher in the complex landscape. However, in Onondaga and Benton, no difference in rates of parasitism or parasitoid diversity were found. Thus, the hypothesis that landscape complexity increases parasitoid diversity and rates of parasitism was not supported. Possible reasons for the observed differences in rates of parasitism among regions are discussed.

Notes: Week 6: Crop - Off-crop; Probably the first research done in North America on the effect of landscape structure on pest control in crops. Showed that parasitism of a lepidopteran pest was greater in landscapes with a mix of natural/ag habitats in one area of Michigan, but not in another. Interestingly, they attributed this to the presence of cherry trees in forested landscapes in one region which may be used by the wasps.

URL: <Go to ISI>://000081250200028

Reference Type: Journal Article

Record Number: 142

Author: Bianchi, Fjja; Van Der Werf, W.

Year: 2003

Title: The effect of the area and configuration of hibernation sites on the control of aphids by Coccinella septempunctata (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) in agricultural landscapes: A simulation study

Journal: Environmental Entomology

Volume: 32

Issue: 6

Pages: 1290-1304

Date: Dec

Short Title: The effect of the area and configuration of hibernation sites on the control of aphids by Coccinella septempunctata (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) in agricultural landscapes: A simulation study

Accession Number: ISI:000188412000002

Keywords: modelling

Abstract: The lady beetle Coccinella septempunctata L. is an important predator of aphids in arable crops, but depends on noncrop landscape elements, such as hedgerows, for hibernation. We studied the effect of the shape, area, and fragmentation of noncrop landscape elements on the control of aphids by C. septempunctata using a spatially explicit simulation model. The model is based on a description of the phenology and population dynamics of aphids and C. septempunctata, as well as the predation dynamics and dispersal characteristics of C. septempunctata. The study compares biocontrol in 12 landscapes consisting of field crops and hedgerows that differ in the shape, proportion (1, 4, 9, and 16%), and fragmentation of the hedgerow elements (hedgerow area divided into 1, 4, or 16 elements) in the landscape. Linear hedgerow elements provided better control than square elements in 3 of the 12 simulated landscapes and resulted in similar levels of control in the other nine landscapes. The total area of hedgerow habitat was the key factor for the control of aphid populations. Landscapes with 9% and 16% noncrop habitat had large enough local populations of C. septempunctata to control aphid infestations, whereas landscapes with only 1% or 4% of hibernation area had no potential for improved aphid control. In landscapes with sufficient noncrop habitat, the best control was achieved when small hedgerow elements were evenly distributed over the landscape.

Notes: Week 6: Crop - Off-crop; Researchers created agricultural landscapes with various amounts of and arrangements of hedgerows, which are overwintering sites for ladybugs, and quantified impacts of the ladybugs on pest populations.

URL: <Go to ISI>://000188412000002

Reference Type: Journal Article

Record Number: 134

Author: Tscharntke, T.; Rand, T. A.; Bianchi, Fjja

Year: 2005

Title: The landscape context of trophic interactions: insect spillover across the crop-noncrop interface

Journal: Annales Zoologici Fennici

Volume: 42

Issue: 4

Pages: 421-432

Date: Aug 29

Short Title: The landscape context of trophic interactions: insect spillover across the crop-noncrop interface

Accession Number: ISI:000232236200011

Keywords: review

Abstract: Landscape structure influences local diversity and ecosystem processes, including cross-habitat fluxes of organisms coupling the dynamics of different habitats. The flow of organisms across system boundaries is known to occur between different natural habitats as well as across the crop-noncrop interface. Several studies show how field boundaries can enhance predator populations invading arable crops and controlling pest populations. However, generalist arthropods may also spill over from land-use systems to natural areas (mainly grassland) modifying interactions therein. A view of land-use systems as sources and natural habitats as sinks is consistent with the idea that the direction of the organisms' fluxes is from high to low productivity systems, while noncrop habitats are important sources for recolonization of arable fields after they are cleared for harvest. From the perspective of landscape management, enhancement of population exchanges between crop and noncrop areas may include beneficial as well as unwelcome interactions.

Notes: Week 6: Crop - Off-crop; Synthesis of ideas about flow of organisms between crop and non-crop habitats in the landscape, interesting because it is one of the few papers in this topic area that draw on the work of Polis and the allochthonous resource literature. Also interesting because it suggests that crop habitats may have a much larger impact on natural areas than vice versa due to their high productivity.

URL: <Go to ISI>://000232236200011

Reference Type: Journal Article

Record Number: 140

Author: Thomas, M. B.; Wratten, S. D.; Sotherton, N. W.

Year: 1991

Title: Creation of Island Habitats in Farmland to Manipulate Populations of Beneficial Arthropods - Predator Densities and Emigration

Journal: Journal of Applied Ecology

Volume: 28

Issue: 3

Pages: 906-917

Date: Dec

Short Title: Creation of Island Habitats in Farmland to Manipulate Populations of Beneficial Arthropods - Predator Densities and Emigration

Accession Number: ISI:A1991HA12300011

Keywords: habitat management

Abstract: (1) Grass-sown raised earth banks were created as 'islands' in the centres of two cereal fields to provide improved overwintering conditions for invertebrate predators. They recreated those aspects of existing field boundaries which had previously been shown to favour predator overwintering. (2) During the first year of establishment, the new habitats provided overwintering refuge sites for many species of Araneae. Carabidae and Staphylinidae. Ground-zone searches produced total polyphagous predator densities of up to 150 m-2. (3) During the second year, grass establishment increased still further and destructive sampling revealed predator numbers exceeding 1500 m-2 in some grass treatments. (4) Vacuum-net samples taken during the second spring after establishment, showed that the overwintering populations of two predator species in the new habitats influenced dispersal patterns into the crop. (5) Prospects for the long-term enhancement of predator populations via field scale manipulations of farmland habitats are discussed.

Notes: Week 6: Crop - Off-crop; The beetle banks! Beetle banks are strips of grass sown in the middle of cultivated fields that provide overwintering grounds for predatory beetles, and also have a very catchy name. This is definitely the most cited example of habitat management to improve biological control of pests, and is also one of the few instances where research results have actually been put into practice by farmers. Shows data suggesting that beetle banks served as sources of predators that colonized crops in the spring. The Collins paper is a good companion read, and there are many other papers by the first author on various aspects of beetle banks and predator beetle ecology in agroecosystems.

URL: <Go to ISI>://A1991HA12300011

Reference Type: Journal Article

Record Number: 151

Author: Lys, J. A.; Nentwig, W.

Year: 1992

Title: Augmentation of Beneficial Arthropods by Strip-Management.4. Surface-Activity, Movements and Activity Density of Abundant Carabid Beetles in a Cereal Field

Journal: Oecologia

Volume: 92

Issue: 3

Pages: 373-382

Date: Dec

Short Title: Augmentation of Beneficial Arthropods by Strip-Management.4. Surface-Activity, Movements and Activity Density of Abundant Carabid Beetles in a Cereal Field

Accession Number: ISI:A1992KC35700009

Keywords: habitat management

Abstract: The effect of strip-management on surface activity, movements and activity density of abundant carabid beetles during two vegetation periods in a cereal field was investigated using mark-recapture techniques. Significantly higher recapture rates, indicating higher activity, were found in the strip-managed area than in the control area, especially in Poecilus cupreus and also in Carabus granulatus and Pterostichus melanarius. Several observations led to the conclusion that this higher activity is generally due to a prolongation of the reproductive period in the strip-managed area. Significantly higher activity densities were found for P. cupreus, Pterostichus anthracinus, C. granulatus and Pt. melanarius in the strip-managed area than in a bordering control area. P. cupreus is greatly attracted to the strips during its migrations, as can be deduced from the high percentage of movements that contact the strips. Also, significantly more marked individuals moved from the control to the strip-managed area than vice versa. Pt. melanarius and Pt. anthracinus show less preference for the strips in their movements than P. cupreus. However, significantly more individuals of Pt. melanarius also moved from the control to the strip-managed area. C. granulatus, on the other hand, kept mainly to the cereal areas. After harvest only Pterostichus niger and Harpalus rufipes distinctly preferred the strips. The generally marked degree of attraction exercised by strip-management on carabid beetles is discussed.

Notes: Week 6: Crop - Off-crop; These researchers created a seed mix to enhance biological control based on extensive testing. This, and the other papers by Lys, are very comprehensive in their treatment of the effects of these created non-crop areas on predatory beetles within crops. They also conducted their research at a large scale: They compared predator populations in whole fields with and without habitat strips. While this cut down on reps, it also meant they were looking at the appropriate scale of response for the predators. Many other studies in this area have taken a small plot approach and found no significant effects on biocontrol. This is likely because predators are so mobile that no response will be observed at this scale.

URL: <Go to ISI>://A1992KC35700009

Reference Type: Journal Article

Record Number: 149

Author: Lys, J. A.; Nentwig, W.

Year: 1994

Title: Improvement of the Overwintering Sites for Carabidae, Staphylinidae and Araneae by Strip-Management in a Cereal Field

Journal: Pedobiologia

Volume: 38

Issue: 3

Pages: 238-242

Date: May

Short Title: Improvement of the Overwintering Sites for Carabidae, Staphylinidae and Araneae by Strip-Management in a Cereal Field

Accession Number: ISI:A1994NM82800004

Abstract: The overwintering densities of Carabidae, Staphylinidae and Araneae were analysed in a cereal field divided up by experimentally introduced weed strips. Within the weed strips significantly denser overwintering populations of a more diverse fauna were found in all three predatory groups when compared to the cereal stands in between. In the cereal stands the proportion of larvae was significantly higher in the two Coleoptera families when compared to the weed strips. The special arrangement of strip-management offers more suitable overwintering sites for polyphagous arthropods and therefore increases the predatory potential within arable field.

Notes: Week 6: Crop - Off-crop; These researchers created a seed mix to enhance biological control based on extensive testing. This, and the other papers by Lys, are very comprehensive in their treatment of the effects of these created non-crop areas on predatory beetles within crops. They also conducted their research at a large scale: They compared predator populations in whole fields with and without habitat strips. While this cut down on reps, it also meant they were looking at the appropriate scale of response for the predators. Many other studies in this area have taken a small plot approach and found no significant effects on biocontrol. This is likely because predators are so mobile that no response will be observed at this scale.

URL: <Go to ISI>://A1994NM82800004

Reference Type: Journal Article

Record Number: 148

Author: Lys, J. A.; Zimmermann, M.; Nentwig, W.

Year: 1994

Title: Increase in Activity Density and Species Number of Carabid Beetles in Cereals as a Result of Strip-Management

Journal: Entomologia Experimentalis Et Applicata

Volume: 73

Issue: 1

Pages: 1-9

Date: Oct

Short Title: Increase in Activity Density and Species Number of Carabid Beetles in Cereals as a Result of Strip-Management

Accession Number: ISI:A1994PQ76700001

Keywords: habitat management

Abstract: In 1990 and 1991, we monitored the abundance of a carabid community in a 8 ha winter cereal field. The field was subdivided by five 1.5 m wide weed-strips leaving 12, 24 and 36 m between the strips. In 1990 significantly higher activity densities and number of species were found in the strips. In 1991, however, both number of species and activity densities of ground beetles in the weed-strips and the cereal parts in between were similar. In 1991, activity density in cereal parts between weed-strips was significantly higher than in a bordering control area. Most of the activity densities of all 23 abundant species were significantly higher in the strip-managed area than in the control area. Furthermore, the number of species in the strip-managed area was higher. In addition, most sampling dates (1990 and 1991) revealed a significant negative regression between activity density and distance from the first strip, i.e. width of the cereal parts between the strips. Strip-management seems to be a way to increase ground beetle densities considerably by providing better food supplies and more suitable overwintering sites.

Notes: Week 6: Crop - Off-crop; These researchers created a seed mix to enhance biological control based on extensive testing. This, and the other three papers by Lys, are very comprehensive in their treatment of the effects of these created non-crop areas on predatory beetles within crops. They also conducted their research at a large scale: They compared predator populations in whole fields with and without habitat strips. While this cut down on reps, it also meant they were looking at the appropriate scale of response for the predators. Many other studies in this area have taken a small plot approach and found no significant effects on biocontrol. This is likely because predators are so mobile that no response will be observed at this scale.

URL: <Go to ISI>://A1994PQ76700001

Reference Type: Journal Article

Record Number: 150

Author: Zangger, A.; Lys, J. A.; Nentwig, W.

Year: 1994

Title: Increasing the Availability of Food and the Reproduction of Poecilus-Cupreus in a Cereal Field by Strip-Management

Journal: Entomologia Experimentalis Et Applicata

Volume: 71

Issue: 2

Pages: 111-120

Date: May

Short Title: Increasing the Availability of Food and the Reproduction of Poecilus-Cupreus in a Cereal Field by Strip-Management

Accession Number: ISI:A1994NL55400003

Keywords: habitat management

Abstract: In a 8 ha field the availability of food and the reproduction of the most abundant carabid beetle Poecilus cupreus L. (Carabidae, Coleoptera) was compared between a strip-managed area (cereal area subdivided by strips of weeds and wild flowering herbs) and a conventionally treated cereal area. Data on phenology, biometry, quantity of the gut content and egg production were collected during the main reproduction period (April-July). Females were found to be significantly larger and heavier in the strip-managed area than in the control area. The higher weight (corrected for size) indicated better feeding conditions in the strip-managed area, which was confirmed by having better filled crops. The state of egg development and the numbers of eggs in the ovaries indicated a prolongation of the reproduction period in the strip-managed area, whereas females caught in the cereal area contained significantly fewer ripe eggs. The results of egg-laying tests in the laboratory showed the same trend but did not confirm any significant differences because of a high rate of individual variation. All measurements from females point to a higher availability of food in the strip-managed area and to an enhanced reproductive potential at this site. For males, on the other hand, the results did not reveal such a uniform trend.

Notes: Week 6: Crop - Off-crop; These researchers created a seed mix to enhance biological control based on extensive testing. This, and the other three papers by Lys, are very comprehensive in their treatment of the effects of these created non-crop areas on predatory beetles within crops. They also conducted their research at a large scale: They compared predator populations in whole fields with and without habitat strips. While this cut down on reps, it also meant they were looking at the appropriate scale of response for the predators. Many other studies in this area have taken a small plot approach and found no significant effects on biocontrol. This is likely because predators are so mobile that no response will be observed at this scale.

URL: <Go to ISI>://A1994NL55400003

Reference Type: Journal Article

Record Number: 152

Author: Bishop, L; Riechert, S E

Year: 1990

Title: Spider colonization of agroecosystems: mode and source

Journal: Environmental Entomology

Volume: 19

Issue: 6

Pages: 1738-1745

Short Title: Spider colonization of agroecosystems: mode and source

Keywords: life history

Abstract: The means by which spiders arrive in newly cultivated fields were investigated in east Tennessee (USA) study plots through collections of cursorial and aerial immigrants into a garden system, through experimental manipulations of garden plots to distinguish between aerial and cursorial immigrants, and through censuses of the spider faunas of garden plots and of neighboring habitats in various stages of succession. The familial compositions of the aerial dispersers and cursorial dispersers differed significantly. Further, the majority of the spiders entering the garden plots arrived via ballooning (passive dispersal on air currents). Mark-recapture experiment results indicate that bordering habitats can contribute spiders if these are physiognomically similar. However, apprxeq 50% of the spider species found in our garden plots were not found in nearby "natural habitats." This represents a minimum estimate of the contribution of long-distance immigration. These data indicate that spider immigration into agricultural systems is not dependent on a neighboring reservoir (natural habitat).

Notes: Week 6: Crop - Off-crop; This paper provides evidence that long-distance dispersers can contribute significant numbers of individuals to newly available habitats like gardens. In particular, spiders can travel long distances on air current via ballooning. This dispersal capability creates the potential for "long-distance" cross habitat linkages to occur when considering spider populations.

Reference Type: Journal Article

Record Number: 138

Author: Collins, K. L.; Boatman, N. D.; Wilcox, A.; Holland, J. M.; Chaney, K.

Year: 2002

Title: Influence of beetle banks on cereal, aphid predation in winter wheat

Journal: Agriculture Ecosystems & Environment

Volume: 93

Issue: 1-3

Pages: 337-350

Date: Dec

Short Title: Influence of beetle banks on cereal, aphid predation in winter wheat

Accession Number: ISI:000179350600025

Keywords: habitat management

Abstract: An experiment was conducted to investigate whether polyphagous predators dispersing from a within field overwintering refuge ('beetle bank') could reduce cereal aphid numbers in an adjacent crop of winter wheat. To assess the impact of predators enidgrating from the beetle bank on populations of Sitobion avenae in the crop, polyphagous predator densities were manipulated using exclusion barriers placed at set distances away from the beetle bank. Results from the pitfall trap data indicated that the exclusion barriers were effective in significantly reducing the number of 'boundary' Carabidae, 'open-field' Carabidae, Staphylinidae, Linyphiidae and Lycosidae in the enclosed areas compared to the control areas by 56, 31, 46, 24 and 57%, respectively. Aphid numbers were significantly greater in the enclosures, where they were 34% higher compared to the control areas during the aphid peak. The impact of polyphagous predation decreased with increasing distance away from the beetle bank and the distribution of polyphagous predators in relation to the beetle bank varied over time. The results are discussed in terms of the peak activity periods of the different predatory groups and the consequences for integrated crop management (ICM). (C) 2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

Notes: Week 6: Crop - Off-crop; This paper was generated by a group of researchers in England who created "Beetle Banks" to enhance populations of carabid ground beetles in cereal crops. This is probably one of the most famous examples of managing off-crop habitats to enhance biocontrol. Beetles overwinter there and then move into crops in the spring. This paper showed data suggesting that these beetles impact populations of cereal aphids. Thus, off crop subsidies in the form of overwintering habitat appear to enhance predation on this pest.

URL: <Go to ISI>://000179350600025

Reference Type: Journal Article

Record Number: 144

Author: Medley, K. E.; Okey, B. W.; Barrett, G. W.; Lucas, M. F.; Renwick, W. H.

Year: 1995

Title: Landscape Change with Agricultural Intensification in a Rural Watershed, Southwestern Ohio, USA

Journal: Landscape Ecology

Volume: 10

Issue: 3

Pages: 161-176

Date: Jun

Short Title: Landscape Change with Agricultural Intensification in a Rural Watershed, Southwestern Ohio, USA

Accession Number: ISI:A1995RF27500004

Keywords: landscape context

Abstract: Specialized cash grain production, emergent in the midwestern United States during the post-WWII era, typifies the Upper Four Mile Creek watershed in southwestern Ohio. This style of agriculture intensifies cropland use, with consequent increases in soil erosion and stream sedimentation - a serious problem in the lower reservoir, Acton Lake. Agricultural statistics and aerial photographs compiled between 1934 and 1984 were used to quantify agricultural dynamics and landscape change in the watershed, including land-use apportionment, diversity, and the structural configuration of forest, woodland, and old-field/brushland patches and corridors. A questionnaire sent to all land owners in the basin documented farm-level characteristics and factors that influence management decisions. Crop diversity (H') in Preble County, Ohio decreased from 1.42 in 1934 to 1.17 in 1982, as corn and soybeans dominated the landscape mosaic. Yields rose, but net profits were reduced by declining prices per bushel and increases in fertilizer and petroleum-based subsidies. Landuse diversity in the county also declined (H' = 1.37 in 1934 tot 0.80 in 1982) in response to cropland expansion, whereas forest land in the watershed increased from 1605 to 2603 ha. Fragmentation declined and the landscape became polarized after 1956, with a concentration of agricultural patches in the upper watershed and forest-patch coalescence in stream gullies and state park land in the lower watershed. The questionnaire (similar to 29% return) further supported, at the farm-level, observed regional trends toward expansion (farm coalescence and lease contracts) and specialization (conversion toward corn and soybeans). The most important factors influencing farm size and management were better equipment and family traditions. Thus, cultural and technological factors that operate at the farm-level, coupled with meso-scale variation in the physical conditions of a catchment basin, tend to influence landscape-level patterns more than regional socioeconomics and governmental policies.

Notes: Week 6: Crop - Off-crop; While this article doesn't deal with insects, it provides a great snapshot of how agricultural landscapes have changed due to farmer practices. The resulting concentration of agriculture and giant size of fields has resulted in agricultural landscapes with little natural area. Interestingly, this does not mean that natural areas are not present, just that they are no longer interspersed with farm fields.

URL: <Go to ISI>://A1995RF27500004

Reference Type: Journal Article

Record Number: 131

Author: Ryall, K. L.; Fahrig, L.

Year: 2006

Title: Response of predators to loss and fragmentation of prey habitat: A review of theory

Journal: Ecology

Volume: 87

Issue: 5

Pages: 1086-1093

Date: May

Short Title: Response of predators to loss and fragmentation of prey habitat: A review of theory

Accession Number: ISI:000237552400002

Keywords: life history, landscape context, review

Abstract: Despite extensive empirical research and previous reviews, no clear patterns regarding the effects of habitat loss and fragmentation on predator-prey interactions have emerged. We suggest that this is because empirical researchers do not design their studies to test specific hypotheses arising from the theoretical literature. In fact, theoretical work is almost completely ignored by empirical researchers, perhaps because it may be inaccessible to them. The purpose of this paper is to review theoretical work on the effects of habitat loss and fragmentation on predator-prey interactions. We provide a summary of clear, testable theoretical predictions for empirical researchers. To test one or more of these predictions, an empiricist will need certain information on the predator and prey species of interest. This includes: (1) whether the predator is a specialist on one prey species or feeds on many kinds of prey (omnivore and generalist); (2) whether the predator is restricted to the same habitat type as the focal prey (specialist), can use a variety of habitats but has higher survival in the prey habitat (omnivore), or lives primarily outside of the focal prey's habitat (generalist); (3) whether prey-only patches have lower prey extinction rates than predator-prey patches; and (4) whether the prey emigrate at higher rates from predator prey patches than from prey-only patches. Empiricists also need to be clear on whether they are testing a prediction about habitat loss or habitat fragmentation and need to conduct empirical studies at spatial scales appropriate for testing the theoretical prediction(s). We Suggest that appropriate use of the theoretical predictions in future empirical research will resolve the apparent inconsistencies in the empirical literature on this topic.

Notes: Week 6: Crop - Off-crop; While this paper discusses "fragmentation"' effects on these predators, the concepts are just as applicable when considering how the amount and configuration of subsidy providing habitat could influence insects in a given crop field. One way off-crop habitats may affect agricultural systems is by providing alternative prey (subsidies) for consumers that can then move into crops and control pests. This paper calls for us to move beyond simple documentation of such patterns and to look for generalities among predators that will respond in certain ways to availability of prey at a broad, landscape scale.

URL: <Go to ISI>://000237552400002

Reference Type: Journal Article

Record Number: 172

Author: Ballinger, A.; Lake, P. S.

Year: 2006

Title: Energy and nutrient fluxes from rivers and streams into terrestrial food webs

Journal: Marine And Freshwater Research

Volume: 57

Issue: 1

Pages: 15-28

Short Title: Energy and nutrient fluxes from rivers and streams into terrestrial food webs

Accession Number: ISI:000234700500002

Label: 3

Keywords: Adult aquatic insects

stable-isotope analysis

tallgrass prairie

stream

south-eastern australia

tracing carbon pathways

sonoran

desert stream

oregon coast range

community structure

bat activity

stoneflies plecoptera

Abstract: Ecologists long have been aware that there is flux of energy and nutrients from riverine systems to the surrounding terrestrial landscape and vice versa. Riparian ecotones are diverse and ecologically important. Consequently, there is substantial literature examining faunal-mediated transfers of energy and nutrients from rivers into terrestrial food webs. A wide variety of taxa has been shown to utilise riparian resources, from species specialised for existence at the aquatic-terrestrial interface to opportunistic predators and scavengers. Outputs from rivers may be influenced by productivity gradients, channel geometry and the condition of the exchange surface. Until recently, consideration of faunal-transferred, allochthonous inputs has been peripheral to other research questions. The development of general models of inter-habitat transfers, together with advances in technology, has placed questions about the ecological importance of riverine outputs squarely on the research agenda. Researchers now are investigating how aquatic subsidies influence food-web dynamics at landscape scales. However, ecologists continue to largely ignore subsidisation of terrestrial food webs by energy and nutrients from floodwaters in lowland river floodplain systems. The dearth of information about the benefits of flooding to terrestrial consumers appears to have resulted in underestimation of the gross ecological impacts of river regulation.

Notes: Week 7: Stream to Land; A good review paper of the work that has been done on the transfer of aquatic energy sources to riparian habitats. It stresses the need for future study of the faunal-mediated transfers of floodwater PP to terrestrial food webs as an important piece of the overarching pie of knowledge.

URL: <Go to ISI>://000234700500002

Reference Type: Journal Article

Record Number: 167

Author: Gregory, S. V.; Swanson, F. J.; McKee, W. A.; Cummins, K. W.

Year: 1991

Title: An Ecosystem Perspective Of Riparian Zones

Journal: Bioscience

Volume: 41

Issue: 8

Pages: 540-551

Date: Sep

Short Title: An Ecosystem Perspective Of Riparian Zones

Accession Number: ISI:A1991GD09700010

Label: 2

Keywords: River continuum concept

stream ecosystems

cutthroat trout

macroinvertebrate communities

united-states

habitat

oregon

forest

metabolism

ecology

Notes: Week 7: Stream to Land; Gives a good definition of a riparian as the zone of influence over a stream. Also offers a good outline of the general mechanisms of nutrient transfer from land to stream.

URL: <Go to ISI>://A1991GD09700010

Reference Type: Journal Article

Record Number: 169

Author: Iwata, T.; Nakano, S.; Murakami, M.

Year: 2003

Title: Stream meanders increase insectivorous bird abundance in riparian deciduous forests

Journal: Ecography

Volume: 26

Issue: 3

Pages: 325-337

Date: Jun

Short Title: Stream meanders increase insectivorous bird abundance in riparian deciduous forests

Accession Number: ISI:000183344700007

Label: 6

Keywords: Food webs

aquatic insects

habitat selection

landscape

dynamics

communities

scale

terrestrial

ecosystems

vegetation

Abstract: Adult aquatic insects emerging from streams are a fundamental resource sustaining riparian bird communities in broad-leaved deciduous forests. We investigated how stream geomorphology affects the aquatic insect flux and insectivorous bird abundance in 26 riparian-forest plots during spring season in northern Japan. Lateral dispersal of emergent aquatic insects into the riparian forest exponentially decreased with distance from the stream. Similar to aquatic insect distribution, flycatchers and gleaners concentrated their foraging attacks around the stream channel, preying intensively upon emergent aquatic insects. In contrast, bark probers consumed fewer emergent aquatic insects. The abundance of flycatchers and gleaners was closely related to stream geomorphology, whereas that of bark probers was associated with snag density in the study plots. A path analysis showed that the study plots with longer stream channels had greater aquatic insect abundance. This can be interpreted as a consequence of the increased amount of both stream edge and stream surface, where emergent aquatic insects readily penetrate. The increased flux of aquatic insects by stream meanders elevated gleaner abundance in the study plots. In addition, their abundance was directly affected by stream length per se. On the other hand, flycatcher abundance was only directly affected by stream length. Flycatchers, which mainly consumed emergent aquatic insects in the air, may have increased in response to the increase in suitable foraging sites (i.e., open spaces adjacent to perches) accompanying longer stream channels. Although the causal links affecting bird abundance differed among guilds, meandering streams apparently support abundant insectivorous birds in riparian forests. Therefore, to conserve riparian bird communities, it will be necessary to maintain the functions of stream geomorphology that affect the magnitude of energy transfer across the forest-stream interface.

Notes: Week 7: Stream to Land; Looks as the effects of emerging aquatic inverts have on insectivorous bird abundance. Measured average lateral invertebrate dispersal from stream as well as the effects stream geomorphology had on emergence and therefore insectivorous bird abundance.

URL: <Go to ISI>://000183344700007

Reference Type: Journal Article

Record Number: 163

Author: Paetzold, A.; Schubert, C. J.; Tockner, K.

Year: 2005

Title: Aquatic terrestrial linkages along a braided-river: Riparian arthropods feeding on aquatic insects

Journal: Ecosystems

Volume: 8

Issue: 7

Pages: 748-759

Date: Nov

Short Title: Aquatic terrestrial linkages along a braided-river: Riparian arthropods feeding on aquatic insects

Accession Number: ISI:000233326500002

Keywords: boundary

Carabidae

food web

Formicidae

Lycosidae

riparian

stable

isotopes

Staphylinidae

subsidy

stable carbon isotopes

food webs

tagliamento river

fiume

tagliamento

pacific salmon

desert stream

alpine river

energy-flow

ecosystem

dynamics

Abstract: Rivers can provide important sources of energy for riparian biota. Stable isotope analysis (delta(13)C, delta(15)N) together with linear mixing models, were used to quantify the importance of aquatic insects as a food source for a riparian arthropod assemblage inhabiting the shore of the braided Tagliamento River (NE Italy). Proportional aquatic prey contributions to riparian arthropod diets differed considerable among taxa. Carabid beetles of the genus Bembidion and Nebria picicornis fed entirely on aquatic insects. Aquatic insects made up 80% of the diet of the dominant staphylinid beetle Paederidus rubrothoracicus. The diets of the dominant lycosid spiders Arctosa cinerea and Pardosa wagleri consisted of 56 and 48% aquatic insects, respectively. In contrast, the ant Manica rubida fed mainly on terrestrial sources. The proportion of aquatic insects in the diet of lycosid spiders changed seasonally, being related to the seasonal abundance of lycosid spiders along the stream edge. The degree of spatial and seasonal aggregation of riparian arthropods at the river edge coincided with their proportional use of aquatic subsidies. The results suggest that predation by riparian arthropods is a quantitatively important process in the transfer of aquatic secondary production to the riparian food web.

Notes: Week 7: Stream to Land; Provides quantitative estimates of consumption of aquatic invertebrates by terrestrial consumers.

URL: <Go to ISI>://000233326500002

Reference Type: Journal Article

Record Number: 173

Author: Paetzold, A.; Bernet, J. F.; Tockner, K.

Year: 2006

Title: Consumer-specific responses to riverine subsidy pulses in a riparian arthropod assemblage

Journal: Freshwater Biology

Volume: 51

Issue: 6

Pages: 1103-1115

Date: Jun

Short Title: Consumer-specific responses to riverine subsidy pulses in a riparian arthropod assemblage

Accession Number: ISI:000237692800010

Label: 13

Keywords: allochthonous input

aquatic-terrestrial linkages

braided river

insect emergence

surface drift

Terrestrial food webs

aquatic insects

tagliamento river

desert

stream

dynamics

communities

predation

beetles

prey

invertebrates

Abstract: 1. Aquatic resource fluxes from streams can provide significant subsidies for riparian consumers. Because aquatic resource fluxes can be highly variable in space and time, the subsidy efficiency (i.e. transfer to the recipient food web) is controlled by the short-term aggregative response of riparian consumers. 2. Field manipulations of stream-derived invertebrate prey subsidies were used to examine specific aggregative responses of ground-dwelling arthropods to riverine subsidy pulses in a braided-river (Tagliamento River, NE Italy). Subsidy manipulation comprised short-term reductions of natural stream-derived subsidies and increased subsidies of stream-derived invertebrate prey during four seasons. 3. We hypothesised that specific aggregative responses of riparian arthropods depend on their specialisation on aquatic insects which was inferred from stable isotope analysis. Natural riverine subsidy sources including aquatic insect emergence and surface-drifting organisms were quantified. 4. Arthropods responded significantly with a reduction in abundance by 51%, at reduced subsidies and an increase by 110% at increased subsidies, when averaged over all seasons. Different arthropod taxa responded differently to subsidy manipulations in relation to their specialisation on aquatic subsidies: ground beetles with a diet consisting predominantly of aquatic insects responded only to subsidy reductions, indicating that their local abundance was not limited by natural stream-derived subsidies; lycosid spiders with a partly aquatic diet showed no significant response; and ants, although relying on a terrestrial diet, responded positively to added stream-derived invertebrate prey, indicating that stranding of surface-drifting terrestrial invertebrates represented an important subsidy pathway. 5. Ground beetles and lycosid spiders were seasonally separated in their use of aquatic subsidies. Results indicate that the life-history characteristics of riparian consumers can control the subsidy efficiency for the recipient community. By the effective uptake of pulsed riverine-derived subsidies, riparian arthropods can enhance the transfer of riverine food sources to the riparian food web.

Notes: Week 7: Stream to Land; Shows a terrestrial invertebrate abundance difference between experimental depletion and subsidization of aquatic emergents. overall gives an example of how terrestrial invertebrates bring aquatic energy into the terrestrial food web.

URL: <Go to ISI>://000237692800010

Reference Type: Journal Article

Record Number: 168

Author: Bastow, J. L.; Sabo, J. L.; Finlay, J. C.; Power, M. E.

Year: 2002

Title: A basal aquatic-terrestrial trophic link in rivers: algal subsidies via shore-dwelling grasshoppers

Journal: Oecologia

Volume: 131

Issue: 2

Pages: 261-268

Date: Apr

Short Title: A basal aquatic-terrestrial trophic link in rivers: algal subsidies via shore-dwelling grasshoppers

Accession Number: ISI:000175509700012

Label: 4

Keywords: subsidy

river-watershed exchange

tetrigidae

pygmy grasshopper

riparian

Carbon-isotope ratios

food webs

stable isotopes

energy-flow

stream

ecosystem

marine

invertebrates

metabolism

absence

Abstract: Rivers provide important resources for riparian consumers, especially in and or seasonally and biomes. Pygmy grasshoppers (Paratettix aztecus and R mexicanus: Tetrigidae) graze river algae stranded along shorelines of the South Fork Eel River in northern California (39degrees44'N, 123degrees39'W) as the river recedes during the summer drought. Densities of tetrigids during the mid to late summer were highest (1 individual/m(2) in July) within 1 m of the river margin, and declined to near zero at 4 m from the margin, especially during peak temperatures in the afternoon. These observations suggested that the distribution of tetrigids was determined by the availability of algae, water, or both. We manipulated the presence/absence of water and beached algae (Cladophora glomerata) in a 2x2 factorial design. All treatments were positioned 2 m upslope from the river's edge (about 30 cm above the water table), where the cobble bar was naturally dry and devoid of algae and densities of tetrigids were lower than at the river margin (0.4 individuals/m(2) in July). Tetrigids responded only to the wet Cladophora treatment, which had 30x higher densities than other treatments. Stable isotopic signatures (delta(13)C) of tetrigids (-19.7parts per thousand) collected from the same cobble bars were more similar to those of epilithic algae (-20.4parts per thousand) than terrestrial plants (-28.2parts per thousand), and higher than those of acridid grasshoppers (-27.9parts per thousand) from the same habitats. Mixing models suggest that 88-100% of the C in tetrigid grasshoppers at our study site is derived from riverine algae. A preliminary analysis suggests that tetrigids ingested sufficient quantities of algae to easily meet their energetic demands during the summer. This study supports the idea that algae, produced in stream systems. can determine the distribution and relative abundance of a common terrestrial scavenger and provide an additional pathway for energy exchange between rivers and riparian food webs.

Notes: Week 7: Stream to Land; shows an interesting link between terrestrial invertebrates and aquatic PP. In general, a middle man is used to transfer the energy produced from aquatic PP such as an invertebrate of sorts before enting the terrestrial food web, but this paper shows a direct link of aquatic PP to terrestrial food web.

URL: <Go to ISI>://000175509700012

Reference Type: Journal Article

Record Number: 157

Author: Peterjohn, William T.; Correll, David L.

Year: 1984

Title: Nutrient dynamics in an agricultural watershed: Observations on the role of a riparian forest

Journal: Ecology

Volume: 65

Issue: 5

Pages: 1466-1475

Date: Oct.

Short Title: Nutrient dynamics in an agricultural watershed: Observations on the role of a riparian forest

Keywords: carbon, cropland, diffuse source pollution, groundwater, mass balance, nitrogen, nutrient cycling, phosphorus, riparian forest, surface runoff, watershed

Abstract: Nutrient (C, N, and P) concentration changes were measured in surface runoff and shallow groundwater as they moved through a small agricultural (cropland) watershed located in Maryland. During the study period (March 1981 to March 1982), dramatic changes in water-borne nutrient loads occurred in the riparian forest of the watershed. From surface runoff waters that had transited @?50 m of riparian forest, an estimated 4.1 Mg of particulates, 11 kg of particulate organic-N, 0.83 kg of ammonium-N, 2.7 kg of nitrate-N and 3.0 kg of total particulate-P per ha of riparian forest were removed during the study year. In addition, an estimated removal of 45 kg@?ha^-^1@?yr^-^1 of nitrate N occurred in subsurface flow as it moved through the riparian zone. Nutrient uptake rates for the cropland are riparian forest were estimated. These systems were then compared with respect to their pathways of nutrient flow and ability to retain nutrients. The cropland appeared to retain fewer nutrients than the riparian forest and is thought to incur the majority of its nutrient losses in harvested crop. The dominant pathway of total-N loss from the riparian forest seemed to be subsurface flux. Total phosphorus loss from the riparian forest appeared almost evenly divided between surface and subsurface losses. Nutrient removals in the riparian forest and thought to be of ecological significance to receiving waters and indicate that coupling natural systems and managed habitats within a watershed may reduce diffuse-source pollution.

Notes: Week 7: Stream to Land; This classic paper showed how riparian forest buffers change concentrations of nutrients in runoff and subsurface flow from an agricultural field. It is often cited as evidence that planted riparian buffer strips can and should be used to mitigate the negative effects of agriculture on streams.

URL: http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0012-9658%28198410%2965%3A5%3C1466%3ANDIAAW%3E2.0.CO%3B2-A

Reference Type: Journal Article

Record Number: 154

Author: Hynes, H. B. N.

Year: 1975

Title: The stream and its valley

Journal: Verhandlungen Internationale Vereinigung Limnologie

Volume: 19

Issue: 1

Pages: 1-15

Short Title: The stream and its valley

Notes: Week 7: Stream to Land; This is a classic paper that was one of the first to acknowledge that streams are strongly influenced by their watersheds. Often cited as the earliest, though this may not be entirely true.

Reference Type: Journal Article

Record Number: 158

Author: Baxter, C. V.; Fausch, K. D.; Saunders, W. C.

Year: 2005

Title: Tangled webs: reciprocal flows of invertebrate prey link streams and riparian zones

Journal: Freshwater Biology

Volume: 50

Issue: 2

Pages: 201-220

Date: Feb

Short Title: Tangled webs: reciprocal flows of invertebrate prey link streams and riparian zones

Accession Number: ISI:000226930700001

Keywords: allochthonous inputs

aquatic insects

emergence

food webs

resource

subsidies

riparian

ecology

stream ecology

terrestrial insects

tallgrass prairie stream

adult aquatic insects

foraging mode shift

trout salmo-trutta

alder alnus-rubra

forest food webs

terrestrial

invertebrates

desert stream

riverine landscapes

southeastern alaska

Abstract: 1. Streams and their adjacent riparian zones are closely linked by reciprocal flows of invertebrate prey. We review characteristics of these prey subsidies and their strong direct and indirect effects on consumers and recipient food webs. 2. Fluxes of terrestrial invertebrates to streams can provide up to half the annual energy budget for drift-feeding fishes such as salmonids, despite the fact that input occurs principally in summer. Inputs appear highest from closed-canopy riparian zones with deciduous vegetation and vary markedly with invertebrate phenology and weather. Two field experiments that manipulated this prey subsidy showed that it affected both foraging and local abundance of stream fishes. 3. Emergence of adult insects from streams can constitute a substantial export of benthic production to riparian consumers such as birds, bats, lizards, and spiders, and contributes 25-100 % of the energy or carbon to such species. Emergence typically peaks in early summer in the temperate zone, but also provides a low-level flux from autumn to spring in ice-free streams. This flux varies with in-stream productivity, and declines exponentially with distance from the stream edge. Some predators aggregate near streams and forage on these prey during periods of peak emergence, whereas others rely on the lower subsidy from autumn through spring when terrestrial prey are scarce. Several field experiments that manipulated this subsidy showed that it affected the short-term behaviour, growth, and abundance of terrestrial consumers. 4. Reciprocal prey subsidies also have important indirect effects on both stream and riparian food webs. Theory predicts that allochthonous prey should increase density of subsidised predators, thereby increasing predation on in situ prey and causing a negative indirect effect via apparent competition. However, short-term experiments have produced either positive or negative indirect effects. These contrasting results may be due to characteristics of the subsidies and individual consumers, but could also result from differences in experimental designs. 5. New study approaches are needed to better determine the direct and indirect effects of reciprocal prey subsidies. Experiments coupled with comparative research will be required to measure their effects on individual consumer fitness and population demographics. Future work should investigate whether reciprocal prey fluxes stabilise linked stream-riparian ecosystems, explore how landscape context affects the magnitude and importance of subsidies, and determine how impacts of human disturbance can propagate between streams and riparian zones via these trophic linkages. Study of thesereciprocal connections is helping to define a more holistic perspective of catchments, and has the potential to shape new directions for ecology in general.

Notes: Week 7: Stream to Land; This is a good review paper on the topic of invertebrate-based energy flow between streams and their riparian zones. It also identifies some key questions that future work should address.

URL: <Go to ISI>://000226930700001

Reference Type: Journal Article

Record Number: 155

Author: Vannote, R. L.; Minshall, G. W.; Cummins, K. W.; Sedell, J. R.; Cushing, C. E.

Year: 1980

Title: River continuum concept

Journal: Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences

Volume: 37

Issue: 1

Pages: 130-137

Short Title: River continuum concept

Accession Number: ISI:A1980JG86300017

Notes: Week 7: Stream to Land; This paper developed a conceptual framework that describes systematic changes in attributes of rivers along a continuum of size, from headwaters to mouth. One of its main tenets is that allochthony decreases in a downstream direction as the perimeter/area ratio of channels decreases, thereby reducing leaf litter input per area, and as more sunlight can reach the river to fuel authochthonous production.

URL: <Go to ISI>://A1980JG86300017

Reference Type: Journal Article

Record Number: 271

Author: Helfield, J. M.; Naiman, R. J.

Year: 2006

Title: Keystone interactions: Salmon and bear in riparian forests of alaska

Journal: Ecosystems

Volume: 9

Issue: 2

Pages: 167-180

Date: Mar

Short Title: Keystone interactions: Salmon and bear in riparian forests of alaska

Accession Number: ISI:000236424100002

Keywords: salmon

bear

riparian forest

marine-derived nutrients

nitrogen

keystone species

Oncorhynchus-kisutch carcasses

elements transported upstream

coastal

british-columbia

spawning pacific salmon

juvenile coho salmon

brown

bears

sockeye-salmon

nitrogen-fixation

ursus-arctos

floodplain

succession

Abstract: The term "keystone species" is used to describe organisms that exert a disproportionately important influence on the ecosystems in which they live. Analogous concepts such as "keystone mutualism" and "mobile links" illustrate how, in many cases, the interactions of two or more species produce an effect greater than that of any one species individually. Because of their role in transporting nutrients from the ocean to river and riparian ecosystems, Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.) and brown bear (Ursus arctos) have been described as keystone species and mobile links, although few data are available to quantify the importance of this interaction relative to other nutrient vectors. Application of a mass balance model to data from a southwestern Alaskan stream suggests that nitrogen (N) influx to the riparian forest is significantly increased in the presence of both salmon and bear, but not by either species individually. The interactions of salmon and bear may provide up to 24% of riparian N budgets, but this percentage varies in time and space according to variations in salmon escapement, channel morphology and watershed vegetation characteristics, suggesting interdependence and functional redundancy among N sources. These findings illustrate the complexity of interspecific interactions, the importance of linkages across ecosystem boundaries and the necessity of examining the processes and interactions that shape ecological communities, rather than their specific component parts.

Notes: Week 8: Marine-Land; Times Cited: 0

Nutrient subsidy requires both salmon (source of nutrients) and bears (vector).

URL: <Go to ISI>://000236424100002

Reference Type: Journal Article

Record Number: 166

Author: Takimoto, G.; Iwata, T.; Murakami, M.

Year: 2002

Title: Seasonal subsidy stabilizes food web dynamics: Balance in a heterogeneous landscape

Journal: Ecological Research

Volume: 17

Issue: 4

Pages: 433-439

Date: Jul

Short Title: Seasonal subsidy stabilizes food web dynamics: Balance in a heterogeneous landscape

Accession Number: ISI:000176300000002

Keywords: allochthonous inputs

mathematical models

persistence

seasonality

temporal heterogeneity

terrestrial invertebrates

secondary production

allochthonous input

stream

islands

marine

chain

communities

ecology

models

Abstract: Resource subsidies from external habitats can substantially affect the food web dynamics of local habitats. In this paper, we explore a mathematical model that is tailored for a stream food web, studied by Nakano and colleagues, in which consumers, in situ prey and subsidies all show seasonal fluctuation. The model reveals that the food web dynamics are stabilized if subsidies increase in summer when in situ productivity is low. Consumer dynamics are stabilized because subsidies complement seasonal resource deficiency. In situ prey dynamics are stabilized because subsidies indirectly balance the predation pressure by consumers, with seasonal change in prey carrying capacity. In summer when prey carrying capacity is low, seasonally abundant subsidies indirectly decrease predation pressure, whereas in winter, with high prey carrying capacity, scarce subsidies increase the predation pressure. Our results suggest that temporal productivity differences between spatially linked habitats are important to promote the stability of food web dynamics in a landscape context.

Notes: Week 7: Stream to Land; This paper models the effects of in situ prey-subsidy synchrony on the stability of subsidized food webs. It suggests that asynchronous prey dynamics contribute to food web stability.

URL: <Go to ISI>://000176300000002

Reference Type: Journal Article

Record Number: 162

Author: Murakami, M.; Nakano, S.

Year: 2002

Title: Indirect effect of aquatic insect emergence on a terrestrial insect population through predation by birds

Journal: Ecology Letters

Volume: 5

Issue: 3

Pages: 333-337

Date: May

Short Title: Indirect effect of aquatic insect emergence on a terrestrial insect population through predation by birds

Accession Number: ISI:000175476200005

Keywords: aquatic insect emergence

forest bird

forest-stream ecotone

leaf

roller

Lepidoptera

food-web

apparent competition

forest

stream

communities

dynamics

Abstract: A manipulative field experiment was performed to determine the effect of birds, subsidized by aquatic insect emergence, on the insect herbivores in a riparian deciduous forest. Insectivorous birds were observed more frequently in the riparian forest than in upland forest away from the stream, utilizing both herbivorous insects feeding on the riparian vegetation and aquatic insects emerging from the stream as their prey. Field experiments revealed that the insect herbivore population in the riparian forest was more depressed by bird predation than that in the upland forest. This suggests that allochthonous prey input to the in situ prey population was responsible for a modification in the interaction between birds and herbivorous insects, resulting in a heterogeneous food web structure in the forest.

Notes: Week 7: Stream to Land; This paper provides empirical evidence in support of Polis et al.'s (1997) apparent competition theory where the allochthonous prey supply is donor-controlled, allowing it to subsidize the consumer to the point where it reduces or eliminates the local prey.

URL: <Go to ISI>://000175476200005

Reference Type: Journal Article

Record Number: 164

Author: Woodward, G.; Hildrew, A. G.

Year: 2002

Title: Food web structure in riverine landscapes

Journal: Freshwater Biology

Volume: 47

Issue: 4

Pages: 777-798

Date: Apr

Short Title: Food web structure in riverine landscapes

Accession Number: ISI:000175099300017

Abstract: 1. Most research on freshwater (and other) food webs has focused on apparently discrete communities, in well-defined habitats at small spatial and temporal scales, whereas in reality food webs are embedded in complex landscapes, such as river corridors. Food web linkages across such landscapes may be crucial for ecological pattern and process, however. Here, we consider the importance of large scale influences upon lotic food webs across the three spatial dimensions and through time. 2. We assess the roles of biotic factors (e.g. predation, competition) and physical habitat features (e.g. geology, land-use, habitat fragmentation) in moulding food web structure at the landscape scale. As examples, external subsidies to lotic communities of nutrients, detritus and prey vary along the river corridor, and food web links are made and broken across the land-water interface with the rise and fall of the flood. 3. We identify several avenues of potentially fruitful research, particularly the need to quantify energy flow and population dynamics. Stoichiometric analysis of changes in C: N: P nutrient ratios over large spatial gradients (e.g. from river source to mouth, in forested versus agricultural catchments), offers a novel method of uniting energy flow and population dynamics to provide a more holistic view of riverine food webs from a landscape perspective. Macroecological approaches can be used to examine large-scale patterns in riverine food webs (e.g. trophic rank and species-area relationships). New multivariate statistical techniques can be used to examine community responses to environmental gradients and to assign traits to individual species (e.g. body-size, functional feeding group), to unravel the organisation and trophic structure of riverine food webs.

Notes: Week 7: Stream to Land; This paper suggests that variation in riverine food webs may be partially explained by landscape attributes such as land use, landscape position (e.g., stream order). It provides some hypotheses on how food web stability should vary along gradients of several landscape attributes.

URL: <Go to ISI>://000175099300017

Reference Type: Journal Article

Record Number: 160

Author: Nakano, S.; Murakami, M.

Year: 2001

Title: Reciprocal subsidies: Dynamic interdependence between terrestrial and aquatic food webs

Journal: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America

Volume: 98

Issue: 1

Pages: 166-170

Date: Jan 2

Short Title: Reciprocal subsidies: Dynamic interdependence between terrestrial and aquatic food webs

Accession Number: ISI:000166222600034

Keywords: forest-stream ecotone

allochthonous prey flux

stream

invertebrates

insects

ecology

shift

river

Abstract: Mutual trophic interactions between contiguous habitats have remained poorly understood despite their potential significance for community maintenance in ecological landscapes. In a deciduous forest and stream ecotone. aquatic insect emergence peaked around spring, when terrestrial invertebrate biomass was low. In contrast, terrestrial invertebrate input to the stream occurred primarily during summer, when aquatic invertebrate biomass was nearly at its lowest. Such reciprocal, across-habitat prey flux alternately subsidized both forest birds and stream fishes, accounting for 25.6% and 44.0% of the annual total energy budget of the bird and fish assemblages, respectively. Seasonal contrasts between allochthonous prey supply and in situ prey biomass determine the importance of reciprocal subsidies.

Notes: Week 7: Stream to Land; This paper summarizes Nakano et al.'s work on Honorai stream on Hokkaido. It suggests that as a rule, asynchronous reciprocal subsidies are likely to be more important than synchronous ones.

URL: <Go to ISI>://000166222600034

Reference Type: Journal Article

Record Number: 165

Author: Sabo, J. L.; Power, M. E.

Year: 2002

Title: River-watershed exchange: Effects of riverine subsidies on riparian lizards and their terrestrial prey

Journal: Ecology

Volume: 83

Issue: 7

Pages: 1860-1869

Date: Jul

Short Title: River-watershed exchange: Effects of riverine subsidies on riparian lizards and their terrestrial prey

Accession Number: ISI:000176718100007

Keywords: Arctosa sp.

functional response

ground spieler

lizard

predation

riparian

river

river-watershed exchange

Sceloporus occidentalis

subsidy

watershed

benthic-pelagic links

food-web

apparent competition

secondary

production

aquatic insects

stream

communities

marine

islands

invertebrates

Abstract: Resource subsidies from external habitats can enhance the performance or population density of local consumers, altering their effects on in situ prey. Indirect effects of subsidies may be either positive or negative depending on the behavior of the shared consumer. Here we document strong links between riverine insects, riparian lizards (Sceloporus occidentalis), and terrestrial invertebrates. We hypothesized that aquatic insects subsidize riparian lizard populations leading to higher growth rates of these lizards in near-river habitats, and that subsidies exert short-term positive effects on terrestrial resources as a result of diet shifts by lizards to aquatic insects. To test these hypotheses, we used 2 m high fences, or "subsidy shields," to experimentally reduce aquatic insect flux to large (91 m 2) enclosures of lizards. Subsidy shields reduced aquatic insect flux by 55-65%. Growth rates of lizards were 7X higher in subsidized (no-shield) enclosures during the early summer but were not significantly different later in the summer, when ambient fluxes of aquatic insects dropped to 20% of their early season levels. Within the watershed, lizard growth rates (in mass) were positively correlated with the numerical abundance of aquatic insects. Thus, lizard growth rates tracked both seasonal and spatial availability of riverine insect subsidies during our experiment. Subsidies also had indirect effects on the ground-dwelling, terrestrial prey of lizards. Declines of diurnal terrestrial invertebrates Were significantly higher in shield than no-shield enclosures, and the most common ground spider (Arctosa sp. [Lycosidae]) disappeared completely from shield enclosures by the end of the experiment. Declines in terrestrial invertebrate abundance did not differ between no-shield enclosures and lizard exclosures. These data suggest that riverine insects subsidize riparian Sceloporus and, in the short term, reduce their predation on terrestrial arthropods.

Notes: Week 7: Stream to Land; This study demonstrated that terrestrial consumers (lizards) rely on aquatic insect emergence to support a substantial portion of their growth. This connection differs from most other stream-land subsidy literature in that it examined energetic effects a relatively non-mobile consumer rather than examining aggregation responses by highly mobile consumers such as birds.

URL: <Go to ISI>://000176718100007

Reference Type: Journal Article

Record Number: 171

Author: Cloe, W. W.; Garman, G. C.

Year: 1996

Title: The energetic importance of terrestrial arthropod inputs to three warm-water streams

Journal: Freshwater Biology

Volume: 36

Issue: 1

Pages: 105-114

Date: Aug

Short Title: The energetic importance of terrestrial arthropod inputs to three warm-water streams

Accession Number: ISI:A1996VB54100010

Label: 17

Keywords: River

fish

ecosystems

productivity

carbon

growth

Abstract: 1. Inputs of terrestrial arthropods (number and mass m(-2) d(-1)) from riparian corridors to three streams representing different orders were highly variable among seasons and sites, with significantly greater (P < 0.05) inputs at the headwater stream during summer months, compared with other sites and seasons. 2. No significant differences in estimates of stream retention of terrestrial arthropods (number and mass m(-2) d(-1)) were observed among sites; however, retention of terrestrial arthropods at all sites was significantly greater during summer months, compared with other periods. 3. The gravimetric proportion of terrestrial arthropods present in the stomachs of redbreast sunfish (Lepomis auritus) and bluegill (L. macrochirus) was equivalent among sites. However, estimates of the dietary importance of terrestrial arthropods at all study sites were significantly greater in the summer compared with other seasons. 4. Estimates of the potential annual energetic contribution (kJ m(-2) d(-1)) of terrestrial arthropod inputs to the stream system were comparable with published rates of total annual production of aquatic macroinvertebrates in other Virginia headwater streams. 5. Results of this study supported the hypothesis that terrestrial arthropods represented an important energetic subsidy to stream fish during periods of low aquatic macroinvertebrate availability, and suggest that this component of allochthonous input is a potentially significant, but poorly understood energetic linkage between riparian landscapes and stream ecosystems.

Notes: Week 7: Stream to Land; This study gave estimates of the number of terrestrial invertebrates that entered the stream per meter squared as well as biomass of terrestrial invertebrates that entered the stream per meter squared. Its overall results support the hypothesis that terrestrial invertebrate subsidies are an important energetic subsidy to fish.

URL: <Go to ISI>://A1996VB54100010

Reference Type: Journal Article

Record Number: 159

Author: Jackson, J. K.; Fisher, S. G.

Year: 1986

Title: Secondary production, emergence, and export of aquatic insects of a Sonoran Desert stream

Journal: Ecology

Volume: 67

Issue: 3

Pages: 629-638

Date: Jun

Short Title: Secondary production, emergence, and export of aquatic insects of a Sonoran Desert stream

Accession Number: ISI:A1986C459800005

Notes: Week 7: Stream to Land; This study produced quantitative estimates of insect production, emergence and export from a desert stream. The authors found that most insect biomass is exported to the terrestrial ecosystem, presumably subsidizing terrestrial food webs.

URL: <Go to ISI>://A1986C459800005

Reference Type: Journal Article

Record Number: 161

Author: Nakano, S.; Miyasaka, H.; Kuhara, N.

Year: 1999

Title: Terrestrial-aquatic linkages: riparian arthropod inputs alter trophic cascades in a stream food web

Journal: Ecology

Volume: 80

Pages: 2435-2441

Short Title: Terrestrial-aquatic linkages: riparian arthropod inputs alter trophic cascades in a stream food web

Notes: Week 7: Stream to Land; This study showed that reducing inputs of allochthonous prey to a stream causes a shift in predation pressure to in situ aquatic invertebrates, thereby reducing their numbers, which subsequently caused an increase in periphyton biomass.

Reference Type: Journal Article

Record Number: 156

Author: Fisher, S. G.; Likens, G. E.

Year: 1973

Title: Energy flow in Bear Brook, New Hampshire - Integrative approach to stream ecosystem metabolism

Journal: Ecological Monographs

Volume: 43

Issue: 4

Pages: 421-439

Short Title: Energy flow in Bear Brook, New Hampshire - Integrative approach to stream ecosystem metabolism

Accession Number: ISI:A1973R579100001

Notes: Week 7: Stream to Land; This study summarizes the pioneering work done on Bear Brook in the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest. It includes a comprehensive energy budget for the stream, and shows that energy inputs are almost entirely allochthonous. This conclusion became a paradigm for headwater streams in general, although it does not apply perfectly to stream in settings with different geology, physiography, or vegetation.

URL: <Go to ISI>://A1973R579100001

Reference Type: Journal Article

Record Number: 255

Author: Christie, K. S.; Reimchen, T. E.

Year: 2005

Title: Post-reproductive Pacific salmon, Oncorhynchus spp., as a major nutrient source for large aggregations of gulls, Larus spp

Journal: Canadian Field-Naturalist

Volume: 119

Issue: 2

Pages: 202-207

Date: Apr-Jun

Short Title: Post-reproductive Pacific salmon, Oncorhynchus spp., as a major nutrient source for large aggregations of gulls, Larus spp

Accession Number: ISI:000238507900008

Keywords: gulls

Larus

nutrients

Oncorhynchus

salmon

spawning

consumption

eggs

carcasses

British Columbia

British-columbia

clupea-pallasi

predation

seabirds

birds

migration

northwest

nitrogen

islands

forest

Abstract: On the Pacific coast of North America, the most abundant vertebrate visitors to estuaries and rivers during salmon migration are gulls, yet the utilization of salmon nutrients by these scavengers, and subsequent ecological impacts are not well documented. On two forested watersheds on the central coast of British Columbia, we tracked gull abundance during the spawning period for two consecutive years, and estimated consumption of post-reproductive salmon carcasses and eggs, as well as guano production. At Clatse River, gulls (Larus glaucescens, L. argentatus, L. thayerii, L. californicus, L. canus, L philadelphia) consumed 13-26% of total salmon carcass biomass and 29-36% of all salmon eggs deposited in the system. At Neekas River, gulls consumed 11-19% of salmon carcass biomass and 7-18% of total salmon eggs. Local guano production over the 60-day period ranged from 600 kg to 1190 kg at Clatse and from 1200 kg to 2100 kg at Neekas River, and was distributed to marine, estuarine, freshwater and riparian habitats. The large aggregations of gulls and subsequent nutrient cycling observed on our study watersheds may represent a once widespread phenomenon that is now largely reduced due to recent declines in salmon populations.

Notes: Week 8: Marine-Land; Times Cited: 0

Guano and salmon.

URL: <Go to ISI>://000238507900008

Reference Type: Journal Article

Record Number: 254

Author: Hocking, M. D.; Reimchen, T. E.

Year: 2006

Title: Consumption and distribution of salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.) nutrients and energy by terrestrial flies

Journal: Canadian Journal Of Fisheries And Aquatic Sciences

Volume: 63

Issue: 9

Pages: 2076-2086

Date: Sep

Short Title: Consumption and distribution of salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.) nutrients and energy by terrestrial flies

Accession Number: ISI:000241162300015

Keywords: Coastal british-columbia

spawning pacific salmon

brown bears

stream

ecosystem

carbon isotopes

sockeye-salmon

carrion

size

carcasses

dynamics

Abstract: Anadromous Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchits spp.) subsidize terrestrial food webs with their nutrients and carcasses, a process driven largely by selective foraging by bears (Ursus spp.). We quantify wildlife transfer of salmon carcasses to riparian zones on two watersheds in coastal British Columbia and estimate total terrestrial fly production from remnant carcasses. Large-bodied chum salmon (Oncorhynchus keta) were transferred into the forest at a greater rate than were pink salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha) (chum salmon mass = 6089-11 031 kg, 16%-48% of salmon run; pink salmon mass = 2266-2808 kg, 4%-6% of salmon run). Blow flies (genus Calliphoro) and other Diptera dominated colonization (> 90% of salmon carcasses). Between the two watersheds, 196 and 265 g of Calliphora larvae per metre of spawning length (4 and 7 million larvae for whole watersheds) were generated from salmon carcass transfer. Stable isotope analysis of delta N-15 and delta C-13 of spring-emerging adult Calliphora revealed that > 80% of individuals had salmon-based signatures. Flies are a dominant consumer and vector of salmon nutrients in terrestrial habitats and supplement the diet of at least 16 vertebrate and 22 invertebrate species. Anticipated further declines of salmon in the North Pacific can be expected to further erode the complex associations coupling marine and terrestrial ecosystems.

Notes: Week 8: Marine-Land; Times Cited: 0

Salmon is critical for flies.

URL: <Go to ISI>://000241162300015

Reference Type: Journal Article

Record Number: 256

Author: Hocking, M. D.; Ring, R. A.; Reimchen, T. E.

Year: 2006

Title: Burying beetle Nicrophorus investigator reproduction on Pacific salmon carcasses

Journal: Ecological Entomology

Volume: 31

Issue: 1

Pages: 5-12

Date: Feb

Short Title: Burying beetle Nicrophorus investigator reproduction on Pacific salmon carcasses

Accession Number: ISI:000236666900002

Keywords: burying beetles

communal breeding

diet

marine-derived nutrients

Nicrophorus investigator

salmon carcasses

stable isotopes

Coastal british-columbia

body-size

population

coleoptera

silphidae

competition

vegetation

dynamics

ecology

Abstract: 1. In many undisturbed watersheds along the Pacific Rim, anadromous salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.) provide a predictable source of carrion to the riparian zone, largely due to horizontal transfer of salmon carcasses by bears (Ursus spp.) and other vertebrates. 2. Burying beetles are important members of the north-temperate carrion fauna, and may utilise salmon carcasses and remnants for breeding. In this study, isotopic and observational data are reported that demonstrate previously unrecognised Nicrophorus investigator (Zetterstedt) reproduction on large salmon carcasses from five watersheds in coastal British Columbia. 3. Stable isotope signatures (delta N-15 and delta C-13) of adult beetles collected in autumn indicate a diet of salmon origin in all but one individual from all watersheds, suggesting that this beetle-salmon association is widespread. Comparison of autumn isotope signatures to individuals collected randomly in summer suggests that isotope signatures represent the larval carrion source from the previous autumn rather than immediate adult diet. 4. In a survey of N. investigator use of salmon carcasses from two watersheds, 35 broods were observed on chum and pink salmon carcasses, including 16 natural brood complexes containing over 100 larvae, and five ranging from 250 to 750 larvae. 5. Overall, north-coastal populations of N. investigator breed on the rich and reliable salmon resource and may exhibit a system of communal breeding on these carcasses. This is most relevant when the dramatic reduction in salmon spawning biomass over the last century is considered.

Notes: Week 8: Marine-Land; Times Cited: 1

URL: <Go to ISI>://000236666900002

Reference Type: Journal Article

Record Number: 241

Author: Markwell, T. J.; Daugherty, C. H.

Year: 2003

Title: Variability in delta N-15, delta C-13 and Kjeldahl nitrogen of soils from islands with and without seabirds in the Marlborough Sounds, New Zealand

Journal: New Zealand Journal Of Ecology

Volume: 27

Issue: 1

Pages: 25-30

Short Title: Variability in delta N-15, delta C-13 and Kjeldahl nitrogen of soils from islands with and without seabirds in the Marlborough Sounds, New Zealand

Accession Number: ISI:000182899600003

Keywords: islands

seabirds

soils

stable isotope ratios

total Kjeldahl nitrogen

Terrestrial food webs

stephens-island

stable isotopes

marine

carbon

communities

california

ecosystems

antarctica

abundance

Abstract: Nutrients brought to land by seabirds may provide important subsidies to terrestrial ecosystems. We measured the total Kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN) and carbon and nitrogen isotope ratios of soils from islands with and without seabirds in the Marlborough Sounds, New Zealand, to investigate one means by which seabirds may influence island ecosystem function. Isotope analysis revealed a seabird influence in island soils on the seabird-inhabited islands. However, significant differences in TKN were not related to seabird presence or absence. Preexisting differences between the islands and high productivity even in the absence of seabirds were concluded to be the reasons for the lack of measurable seabird influence on nitrogen levels.

Notes: Week 8: Marine-Land; Times Cited: 1

URL: <Go to ISI>://000182899600003

Reference Type: Journal Article

Record Number: 270

Author: Orr, M.; Zimmer, M.; Jelinski, D. E.; Mews, M.

Year: 2005

Title: Wrack deposition on different beach types: Spatial and temporal variation in the pattern of subsidy

Journal: Ecology

Volume: 86

Issue: 6

Pages: 1496-1507

Date: Jun

Short Title: Wrack deposition on different beach types: Spatial and temporal variation in the pattern of subsidy

Accession Number: ISI:000229723700014

Keywords: British Columbia coastal area

intertidal

kelp

marine-terrestrial

ecotone

phytodetritus, seagrass

seaweed

spatial subsidy

subtidal

macroalgae

tidal currents

wave exposure

wrack deposition

Eelgrass zostera-marina

terrestrial food webs

organic-matter

pacific

salmon

feeding preferences

nitrogen resources

wave-exposure

kelp

detritus

south-africa

fresh-water

Abstract: The onshore deposition of macroalgal and macrophyte wrack provides a potentially significant marine subsidy to intertidal and supratidal herbivore and decomposer communities. Based on the study of daily input loads to beaches, we estimated summer wrack deposition of up to 140 Mg (dry mass)/km shoreline in Barkley Sound, British Columbia. However, input rates were highly variable depending on beach type, nearshore hydrodynamics, and buoyancy characteristics of the wrack. Cobble beaches retained similar to 10 times and 30 times more wrack than did gravel and sand beaches, respectively. Cobble and gravel beaches also differed in species composition of new (fresh) wrack input, with Macrocystis integr folia being characteristic for the former and Nereocystis luetkeana for the latter, which we attribute to buoyancy characteristics of the floating debris. On sand beaches, Phyllospadix spp. and Enteromorpha spp. were the dominant wrack species. Species composition of freshly deposited wrack also depended on wave exposure, but predictability based on the species pool within a beach's catchment was restricted. Drift lines of aging wrack differed from freshly deposited wrack in species composition, probably due to wrack decomposition that results in fluxes of nutrients and energy between the adjacent marine and terrestrial habitats. We hold that the characteristics of a given beach, e.g., substratum and wave exposure, and their effects on wrack input, will have important ecological and biogeochemical implications for the marine-terrestrial ecotone.

Notes: Week 8: Marine-Land; Times Cited: 1

URL: <Go to ISI>://000229723700014

Reference Type: Journal Article

Record Number: 232

Author: Scheuerell, M. D.; Levin, P. S.; Zabel, R. W.; Williams, J. G.; Sanderson, B. L.

Year: 2005

Title: A new perspective on the importance of marine-derived nutrients to threatened stocks of Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.)

Journal: Canadian Journal Of Fisheries And Aquatic Sciences

Volume: 62

Issue: 5

Pages: 961-964

Date: May

Short Title: A new perspective on the importance of marine-derived nutrients to threatened stocks of Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.)

Accession Number: ISI:000229594600001

Keywords: Fresh-water ecosystems

carcasses

Abstract: Considerable research has highlighted the important role of anadromous salmon in importing marine-derived nutrients to freshwater and riparian ecosystems. These subsidies are thought to support diverse food webs and increase the growth and survival of juvenile salmon during their freshwater residency. Quite recently, however, salmon smolts have been identified as important exporters of nutrients from freshwater ecosystems. Using a mass-balance approach, we examined the phosphorus-transport dynamics by spring/summer Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) in the Snake River basin and estimated that net phosphorus transport into the basin over the past 40 years was < 2% of historical levels. Furthermore, a nonlinear relationship existed between nutrient import by adults and subsequent export by smolts, such that smolts exported proportionally more phosphorus as spawner abundance decreased. In 12% of years, smolts exported more than adults imported, resulting in a net loss of phosphorus from the ecosystem. This loss of marine subsidies may have caused a state shift in the productivity of the freshwater ecosystem, resulting in strong density-dependent survival observed in juvenile salmon. These results suggest that conserving this threatened stock of salmon requires the need to explicitly address the important role of marine-derived nutrients and energy in sustaining salmon populations.

Notes: Week 8: Marine-Land; Times Cited: 1

Great paper showing that as salmon runs decline, the subsidy can reverse, i.e. " smolts exported more than adults imported"

URL: <Go to ISI>://000229594600001

Reference Type: Journal Article

Record Number: 258

Author: Wilkinson, C. E.; Hocking, M. D.; Reimchen, T. E.

Year: 2005

Title: Uptake of salmon-derived nitrogen by mosses and liverworts in coastal British Columbia

Journal: Oikos

Volume: 108

Issue: 1

Pages: 85-98

Date: Jan

Short Title: Uptake of salmon-derived nitrogen by mosses and liverworts in coastal British Columbia

Accession Number: ISI:000225578700008

Keywords: Elements transported upstream

black spruce ecosystems

n-15

natural-abundance

pacific salmon

southeastern alaska

stable-isotopes

terrestrial vegetation

hylocomium-splendens

delta-c-13 evidence

plant-communities

Abstract: Throughout forested watersheds bordering the North Pacific, anadromous salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.) are transferred into coastal forests by numerous predators and scavengers with remnants providing an important nutrient subsidy to riparian zones. The contribution of these nutrients to mosses and liverworts, which are the dominant ground cover of coastal forests, has not been investigated. We examine here delta(15)N isotope signatures and foliar percent N of eight moss and liverwort species, as well as moss and liverwort community structure, in multiple habitat blocks that vary in access to salmon nutrients from two watersheds on the central coast of British Columbia. For the most common moss Rhytidiadelphus loreus, we also examine delta(15)N values and foliar percent N among salmon carcass micro-sites and along wildlife trails. Overall, delta(15)N signatures ranged from 2parts per thousand to 7parts per thousand higher below the falls near the salmon stream than above the small falls that are impassable to salmon, or at the adjacent control watershed that had no salmon. Among micro-sites, delta(15)N and %N values were highest near bony carcass remnants from transfer during previous years and high adjacent to wildlife trails indicating spatial heterogeneity in the salmon nutrient pools of these forests. Species richness and prevalence of nitrogen-rich soil indicators were also highest in forests adjacent to the salmon stream. These data suggest an important contribution of salmon-derived nutrients to the non-vascular plants of the riparian zone of old-growth forests throughout the Pacific Rim.

Notes: Week 8: Marine-Land; Times Cited: 1

Salmon even matter to these poorly understood non-vascular plants.

URL: <Go to ISI>://000225578700008

Reference Type: Journal Article

Record Number: 240

Author: Stapp, P.; Polis, G. A.

Year: 2003

Title: Influence of pulsed resources and marine subsidies on insular rodent populations

Journal: Oikos

Volume: 102

Issue: 1

Pages: 111-123

Date: Jul

Short Title: Influence of pulsed resources and marine subsidies on insular rodent populations

Accession Number: ISI:000183694000012

Keywords: Of-california islands

el-nino

southern-oscillation

baja-california

small mammals

body size

food webs

desert

productivity

dynamics

Abstract: Inputs of marine resources contribute to high consumer densities on small, barren islands in the and Gulf of California, Mexico. Episodes of rainfall associated with El Nino Southern Oscillation (ENSO) events, however, stimulate plant growth and seed production and replenish soil detritus and seed banks. We studied the effects of marine inputs and pulsed ENSO resources on rodent populations on islands before, during and after the strong 1997-1998 ENSO event. Stable isotope analysis was used to determine rodent diets. During dry years, P. maniculatus consumed marine prey near shore and on small islands, and were much more abundant in these areas than farther inland and on larger islands. Captures were particularly concentrated near shore on three islands inhabited by Chaetodipus rudinoris, a granivore that was numerous in inland areas. Following the ENSO, Peromyscus maniculatus increased in abundance by 408%, compared to only 160% for C. rudinoris, and new individuals invaded inland areas. P. maniculatus populations declined sharply the following year, however, whereas C. rudinoris populations remained relatively stable. In response to ENSO conditions, P. maniculatus ate more seeds on islands with C. rudinoris than on islands without C. rudinoris. P. maniculatus also increased less markedly and declined more quickly in abundance where C. rudinoris was present. We speculate that P. maniculatus is capable of rapid numerical response to resource pulses but depends on marine foods during dry years. C. rudinoris is restricted to islands with sufficient seed resources, but maintains stable populations by exploiting low-density seeds and caching seeds from wet years. On islands with both species, C. rudinoris restricts P. maniculatus to near-shore areas via interference, but spillover consumption of seeds by subsidized P. maniculatus may limit the response of C. rudinoris to ENSO resources. Combined with differences in life history and dispersal abilities, these ecological factors help explain the distinct biogeographic distributions of these rodents on Gulf islands.

Notes: Week 8: Marine-Land; Times Cited: 3

URL: <Go to ISI>://000183694000012

Reference Type: Journal Article

Record Number: 257

Author: Meehan, E. P.; Seminet-Reneau, E. E.; Quinn, T. P.

Year: 2005

Title: Bear predation on Pacific salmon facilitates colonization of carcasses by fly maggots

Journal: American Midland Naturalist

Volume: 153

Issue: 1

Pages: 142-151

Date: Jan

Short Title: Bear predation on Pacific salmon facilitates colonization of carcasses by fly maggots

Accession Number: ISI:000226247900015

Keywords: Elements transported upstream

adult sockeye-salmon

ursus-arctos

brown bears

southeastern alaska

delta-c-13 evidence

oncorhynchus-nerka

delta-n-15

density

water

Abstract: The carcasses of Pacific salmon can be an important food resource for aquatic and terrestrial organisms, depending oil whcic the carcasses are located. We hypothesized that the availability of sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) carcasses to ovipositing flies (Family: Calliphoridae) would lie facilitated by brown bears (Ursus arctos) moving salmon from the water to terrestrial environments. We further hypothesized that the proportion of carcasses ill terrestrial environments (hence accessible to flies) would vary among streams as a function of stream size. In three small southwestern Alaska streams during 2 y, flies oviposited oil about half of the carcasses ill terrestrial habitats (44% off-hose oil gravel, 54% ill glass and 57% in the forest). Only 28% of the partially submergcd carcasses and 0.5% of the fully submerged carcasses were colonized. The proportion of carcasses deposited outside file stream was strongly and positively influenced by the level of bear predation and negatively affected by stream complexity (in deeper more complex streams more carcasses remained ill the water). Based oil data from the past 12 y oil sockeye salmon abundance and predation by bears (averaging about 40% of the salmon). we estimated that oil average 204, 551 and 839 carcasses were colorlized per km annually ill the three streams (12 to 24% of the total number of carcasses). In these sites, where salmon are aburdant and highly available to bears, a large fraction of the tissue is riot consumed and so is available to flies. Fly maggots, numbering up to 50,000 per carcass, cart consume virtually art entire salmon within 5 cl. Thus bears as consumers and transporters of carcasses facilitate the scavenging of carcasses by maggots, increasing the transfer marine-derived nutrients from aquatic to riparian habitats.

Notes: Week 8: Marine-Land; Times Cited: 3

Again, bears are a critical link in making salmon-derived nutrients available to other species.

URL: <Go to ISI>://000226247900015

Reference Type: Journal Article

Record Number: 231

Author: Maron, J. L.; Estes, J. A.; Croll, D. A.; Danner, E. M.; Elmendorf, S. C.; Buckelew, S. L.

Year: 2006

Title: An introduced predator alters Aleutian Island plant communities by thwarting nutrient subsidies

Journal: Ecological Monographs

Volume: 76

Issue: 1

Pages: 3-24

Date: Feb

Short Title: An introduced predator alters Aleutian Island plant communities by thwarting nutrient subsidies

Accession Number: ISI:000236562100002

Keywords: Aleutian Islands

fertilization experiments

food web subsidy

indirect

effects

introduced foxes

trophic cascade

Gulf-of-california

complex terrestrial community

food-web complexity

top-down

trophic cascades

bottom-up

sea otters

mediterranean

islands

allochthonous input

species composition

Abstract: The ramifying effects of top predators on food webs traditionally have been studied within the framework of trophic cascades. Trophic cascades are compelling because they embody powerful indirect effects of predators on primary production. Although less studied, indirect effects of predators may occur via routes that are not exclusively trophic. We quantified how the introduction of foxes onto the Aleutian Islands transformed plant communities by reducing abundant seabird populations, thereby disrupting nutrient subsidies vectored by seabirds from sea to land. We compared soil and plant fertility, plant biomass and community composition, and stable isotopes of nitrogen in soil, plants, and other organisms on nine fox-infested and nine historically fox-free islands across the Aleutians. Additionally, we experimentally augmented nutrients on a fox-infested island to test whether differences in plant productivity and composition between fox-infested and fox-free islands could have arisen from differences in nutrient inputs between island types. Islands with historical fox infestations had soils low in phosphorus and nitrogen and plants low in tissue nitrogen. Soils, plants, slugs, flies, spiders, and bird droppings on these islands had low delta N-15 values indicating that these organisms obtained nitrogen from internally derived sources. In contrast, soils, plants, and higher trophic level organisms on fox-free islands had elevated delta N-15 signatures indicating that they utilized nutrients derived from the marine environment. Furthermore, soil phosphorus (but not nitrogen) and plant tissue nitrogen were higher on fox-free than fox-infested islands. Nutrient subsidized fox-free islands supported lush, high biomass plant communities dominated by graminoids. Fox-infested islands were less graminoid dominated and had higher cover and biomass of low-lying forbs and dwarf shrubs. While delta N-15 profiles of soils and plants and graminoid biomass varied with island size and distance from shore, after accounting for these effects differences between fox-infested and fox-free islands still existed. Fertilization over four years caused a 24-fold increase in graminoid biomass and a shift toward a more graminoid dominated plant community typical of fox-free islands. These results indicate that apex predators can influence plant productivity and composition through complex interaction web pathways involving both top-down forcing and bottom-up nutrient exchanges across systems.

Notes: Week 8: Marine-Land; Times Cited: 3

Great paper showing interaction between introduced species (fox) and nutrient subsidies.

URL: <Go to ISI>://000236562100002

Reference Type: Journal Article

Record Number: 239

Author: Carlton, J. T.; Hodder, J.

Year: 2003

Title: Maritime mammals: terrestrial mammals as consumers in marine intertidal communities

Journal: Marine Ecology-Progress Series

Volume: 256

Pages: 271-286

Short Title: Maritime mammals: terrestrial mammals as consumers in marine intertidal communities

Accession Number: ISI:000184808900023

Keywords: intertidal predators

intertidal prey

invasions

mammal predation

intertidal communities

subsidies

Foxes alopex-lagopus

mink mustela-vison

arctic foxes

stable-isotopes

norway rats

food webs

rattus-norvegicus

new-zealand

island

diet

Abstract: The phenomenon of terrestrial mammals as predators in marine intertidal communities, and thus as agents of energy transfer from sea to land, is poorly understood. We review here the evidence for terrestrial mammals intentionally entering the ocean shore at low tide in order to prey on living marine invertebrates, fish, algae, and seagrasses. We introduce the term 'maritime mammals', defined as coastal mammalian predators that utilize living intertidal energy resources and transfer these resources to the land. We document 135 records of predation among 45 species of terrestrial mammals in 8 orders feeding in marine intertidal zones. Most predation events are by carnivores (59%, mostly by raccoon, mink, black bear, and Arctic fox), followed by rodents (20%) and artiodactyls (14%). Maritime mammals occur on all continental coastlines of the world except Antarctica. Most records are from the Eastern North Pacific Ocean, with 21 species of maritime mammals. Twelve maritime mammal species occur in the Western North Atlantic Ocean, and 8 maritime mammals are known for the Eastern South Pacific Ocean. These 3 regions account for 42% of the diversity of maritime mammals. A total of 228 different prey taxa are known to be consumed, representing 12 phyla of marine organisms; 2/3 of these taxa are bivalve and gastropod mollusks, crabs, and fish. Introduced populations of 17 species of mammals have been recorded as maritime predators; 15 of these are recorded on islands where endemic mammals were absent or rare. Maritime mammals are widespread globally, with often repeated cases of predation being observed for the same species. We suggest that predation by maritime mammals is a rarely studied, rather than rare, phenomenon, and maritime mammals are thus a largely overlooked guild of intertidal predators. Quantitative field observations (using techniques such as infrared night vision, radiotelemetry, and stable isotope analysis) and experimental studies (using exclosures, or by taking advantage of the removal of insular introduced mammal populations) are required. The importance of intertidal resources in supplying energy to terrestrial populations of many species of mammals world wide may have been underappreciated.

Notes: Week 8: Marine-Land; Times Cited: 3

Interesting review of terrestrial mammals foraging in the intertidal. Reminds me of being awakened in the night by crab-eating macaques that came out of the forest to forage on intertidal critters in Thailand. The term "maritime mammals" doesn't seem to have taken off.

URL: <Go to ISI>://000184808900023

Reference Type: Journal Article

Record Number: 236

Author: Barrett, K.; Wait, D. A.; Anderson, W. B.

Year: 2003

Title: Small island biogeography in the Gulf of California: lizards, the subsidized island biogeography hypothesis, and the small island effect

Journal: Journal Of Biogeography

Volume: 30

Issue: 10

Pages: 1575-1581

Date: Oct

Short Title: Small island biogeography in the Gulf of California: lizards, the subsidized island biogeography hypothesis, and the small island effect

Accession Number: ISI:000185535800008

Keywords: lizards

spatial subsidies

small island effect

species-area curve

species richness

subsidized island biogeography

Species-area relationship

terrestrial food webs

allochthonous input

asymptote

abundance

seabirds

density

marine

land

Abstract: Aim We used insular lizard communities to test the predictions of two hypotheses that attempt to explain patterns of species richness on small islands. We first address the subsidized island biogeography (SIB) hypothesis, which predicts that spatial subsidies may cause insular species richness to deviate from species - area predictions, especially on small islands. Next, we examine the small island effect (SIE), which suggests small islands may not fit the traditional log-linear species - area curve. Location Islands with arthropodivorous lizard communities throughout the Gulf of California. Methods To evaluate the SIB hypothesis, we first identified subsidized and unsubsidized islands based on surrogate measures of allochthonous productivity (i.e. island size and bird presence). Subsequently, we created species - area curves from previously published lizard species richness and island area data. We used the residuals and slopes from these analyses to compare species richness on subsidized and unsubsidized islands. To test for an SIE, we used breakpoint regression to model the relationship between lizard species richness and island area. We compared results from this model to results from the loglinear regression model. Results Subsidized islands had a lower slope than unsubsidized islands, and the difference between these groups was significant when small islands were defined as < 1 km(2). In addition to comparing slopes, we tested for differences in the magnitude of the residuals (from the species - area regression of all islands) for subsidized vs. unsubsidized islands. We found no significant patterns in the residual values for small vs. large islands, or between islands with and without seabirds. The SIE was found to be a slightly better predictor of lizard species richness than the traditional log-linear model. Main conclusions Predictions of the SIB hypothesis were partially supported by the data. The absence of a significant SIE may be a result of spatial subsidies as explained by the SIB hypothesis and data presented here. We conclude by suggesting potential scenarios to test for interactions between these two small island hypotheses. Future studies considering factors affecting species richness should examine the possible role of spatial subsidies, an SIE, or a synergistic effect of the two in data sets with small islands.

Notes: Week 8: Marine-Land; Times Cited: 3

One addition to the SIE debate. Found only minor SIE, a result they try to explain by marine subsidies.

URL: <Go to ISI>://000185535800008

Reference Type: Journal Article

Record Number: 233

Author: Barrett, K.; Anderson, W. B.; Wait, D. A.; Grismer, L. L.; Polis, G. A.; Rose, M. D.

Year: 2005

Title: Marine subsidies alter the diet and abundance of insular and coastal lizard populations

Journal: Oikos

Volume: 109

Issue: 1

Pages: 145-153

Date: Apr

Short Title: Marine subsidies alter the diet and abundance of insular and coastal lizard populations

Accession Number: ISI:000227174800015

Keywords: Gulf-of-california

stable-isotopes reveal

terrestrial food webs

allochthonous input

organic-matter

islands

nitrogen

carbon

dynamics

flow

Abstract: We evaluated the impact of marine materials on the diet and abundance of arthropodivorous lizards inhabiting islands and the coast of the Gulf of California. Here, marine materials are brought onto land by seabirds and by tidal action, and both subsidy pathways cause arthropod abundance to increase. We evaluated Uta stansburiana (side-blotched lizard) diets in three habitats defined by having: (1) no marine subsidies available, (2) only seabird-derived subsidies, and (3) only tidal-derived subsidies. Stable isotope data indicated that lizard diets are subsidized indirectly by seabird and tidal activity. For example, in coastal areas we determined that 40% of a lizard's diet contains arthropods that have consumed algae. Such subsidies may explain why we found that lizards in coastal areas occupy a significantly higher trophic position than lizards in unsubsidized areas. We analyzed eight years of survey data on all arthropodivorous lizards to determine if diet subsidies result in increased lizard abundance. We found that lizards were more abundant in coastal areas than they were in inland habitats, and that they were more abundant on islands with seabirds than on islands without seabird populations. This study provides insight into the importance and effect of marine-derived nutrients from multiple sources on vertebrate consumers inhabiting islands and coastal areas.

Notes: Week 8: Marine-Land; Times Cited: 3

Standard Polis et al. stuff, but with lizards rather than arthropods.

URL: <Go to ISI>://000227174800015

Reference Type: Book Section

Record Number: 237

Author: Colombini, I.; Chelazzi, L.

Year: 2003

Title: Influence of marine allochthonous input on sandy beach communities

Book Title: Oceanography And Marine Biology, Vol 41

Volume: 41

Pages: 115-159

Series Title: Oceanography And Marine Biology

Short Title: Influence of marine allochthonous input on sandy beach communities

Accession Number: ISI:000185182700003

Keywords: Flies coelopa-frigida

nassarius-festivus powys

antarctic south

georgia

terrestrial food webs

ligia-dilatata brandt

seaweed fly

coelopa

salt-marsh

kelp-bed

delaware bay

western-australia

Abstract: This review provides an overview of the importance of beach accumulations of macrophytes and other organic beach-cast material on the ecology of sandy beach ecosystems. It describes the composition of these allochthonous subsidies, their abundance on beaches in relation to seasonal, lunar, tidal and spatial trends, their decomposition and utilisation by bacterial, meio- and macrofaunal communities. The paper then analyses the community structure and the species succession in both macrophyte wrack and carrion and reports the most important findings on individual wrack-inhabiting species (amphipods, isopods, dipterans). Other aspects, such as feeding and microclimatic preferences of certain species and their interactions in wracks, are also discussed. Links to vertebrate species and other secondary consumers that exploit beach-cast macrophytes and carrion as trophic resource are considered, and the importance of wrack in recycling nutrients to nearshore coastal ecosystems is stressed. The beneficial and detrimental effects of organic beach-cast material on both plants and animals of beach and nearshore communities and on the geomorphology of coastal beach-dune systems are pointed out. Another section is dedicated to human use of beach-cast macrophytes through harvesting of economically important species and of other stranded material through its exploitation for traditional reasons. The effects of harvesting on local faunal communities and on the stability of the dunes is discussed. A final section of the paper includes the positive and negative effects of man-made debris on sandy-beach ecosystems and briefly reviews the major findings.

Notes: Week 8: Marine-Land; Times Cited: 4

URL: <Go to ISI>://000185182700003

Reference Type: Journal Article

Record Number: 276

Author: Gende, S. M.; Willson, M. F.

Year: 2001

Title: Passerine densities in riparian forests of southeast Alaska: Potential effects of anadromous spawning salmon

Journal: Condor

Volume: 103

Issue: 3

Pages: 624-629

Date: Aug

Short Title: Passerine densities in riparian forests of southeast Alaska: Potential effects of anadromous spawning salmon

Accession Number: ISI:000170390200023

Keywords: chironomids

forest passerines

Oncorhynchus

riparian

salmon

Adult aquatic insects

bird communities

pacific salmon

stream

productivity

northern forests

coho salmon

carcasses

abundance

usa

nutrients

Abstract: Spawning salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.) greatly influence many biotic processes in both the aquatic and terrestrial components of riparian systems, possibly including the community of breeding birds. In southeastern Alaska in 1996-1997, the riparian forests bordering salmon streams supported, on average, higher densities, but not diversity, of forest passerines compared to non-salmon streams. The presence of salmon in the fall increases the abundance of terrestrial and aquatic invertebrates and possibly enhances food resources to riparian birds in the spring.

Notes: Week 8: Marine-Land; Times Cited: 5

Echos of salmon nutrients at higher trophic levels.

URL: <Go to ISI>://000170390200023

Reference Type: Journal Article

Record Number: 238

Author: Farina, J. M.; Salazar, S.; Wallem, K. P.; Witman, J. D.; Ellis, J. C.

Year: 2003

Title: Nutrient exchanges between marine and terrestrial ecosystems: the case of the Galapagos sea lion Zalophus wollebaecki

Journal: Journal Of Animal Ecology

Volume: 72

Issue: 5

Pages: 873-887

Date: Sep

Short Title: Nutrient exchanges between marine and terrestrial ecosystems: the case of the Galapagos sea lion Zalophus wollebaecki

Accession Number: ISI:000185063900018

Keywords: Cryptocarpus

isotopic enrichment

sea lion

Sesuvium

soil ammonia and

nitrate

topography

Multiple source pools

food-web stability

seabird rookeries

species

richness

isotope ratios

new-zealand

nitrogen

islands

colonies

vegetation

Abstract: 1. The movement of materials and organisms between ecosystems is a common process in nature. 2. In the present study we investigate the hypothesis that the transport of nutrients by low-mobility species and their effect on terrestrial ecosystems depends on habitat topography. Specifically, we hypothesized that the influence of a marine organism with low mobility on terrestrial environments would be spatially restricted. 3. To address this hypothesis we analysed the distribution (both geographical and local scales) of Galapagos sea lion colonies, and quantified the spatial extent of their influence on terrestrial ecosystems (soil and plants). 4. Our results showed that the influence of Z. wollebaecki on Galapagos terrestrial habitats is restricted to shorelines with low elevations, but that it is it is geographically ubiquitous across the Archipelago. 5. Our study demonstrated that Z. wollebaecki is an effective vector for the transport of marine nutrients to terrestrial ecosystems. Transported nutrients occur in high concentrations in the soils and are used by shoreline plants. These effects are spatially restricted to the areas where seals occur and the most parsimonious explanatory variable for these patterns is the islands' topography (or elevation).

Notes: Week 8: Marine-Land; Times Cited: 5

Shows limited transport of marine nutrients by sea lions.

URL: <Go to ISI>://000185063900018

Reference Type: Journal Article

Record Number: 234

Author: Dugan, J. E.; Hubbard, D. M.; McCrary, M. D.; Pierson, M. O.

Year: 2003

Title: The response of macrofauna communities and shorebirds to macrophyte wrack subsidies on exposed sandy beaches of southern California

Journal: Estuarine Coastal And Shelf Science

Volume: 58

Pages: 25-40

Date: Oct 10

Short Title: The response of macrofauna communities and shorebirds to macrophyte wrack subsidies on exposed sandy beaches of southern California

Accession Number: ISI:000186659300004

Keywords: species richness

abundance

biomass

beach grooming

bottom-up

effects

black-bellied plover (Pluvialis squatarola)

western snowy

plover (Charadrius alexandrinus nivosus)

Emerita-analoga stimpson

terrestrial food webs

bottom-up

orchestoidea-corniculata

intertidal communities

life-history

tide

range

top-down

kelp

populations

Abstract: To investigate the influence of marine macrophyte wrack subsidies on community structure, relationships between community attributes, including species richness, abundance, and biomass of macrofauna and abundance of shorebirds, and a variety of factors, including the standing crop of wrack and beach morphodynamics, were examined on 15 exposed sandy beaches on the southern California coast. The beaches sampled were primarily modally intermediate morphodynamic types, and three were groomed regularly. Species richness, abundance, and biomass of the macrofauna were high compared to values reported for similar beach types in other regions and were not predicted by morphodynamics or other physical factors. Overall species richness and abundance, and the species richness, abundance, and biomass of wrack-associated fauna and selected taxa were significantly correlated with the standing crop of macrophyte wrack. Wrack-associated macrofauna, such as amphipods, isopods, and insects, made up an average of >37% of the species on ungroomed beaches and comprised 25% or more of the total abundance on half of those beaches. The abundance of two shorebird species, plovers that forage using visual cues, was positively correlated with the standing crop of wrack and with the abundance of wrack-associated invertebrates. Significant differences in community structure, including depressed species richness, abundance, and biomass of macrofauna, especially for wrack-associated taxa, were associated with beach grooming and provided strong evidence for the bottom-up effects of wrack subsidies. Grooming also reduced the prey available to vertebrate predators, such as shorebirds. Substantial ecological effects of the large-scale disturbance and removal of organic material, food resources, and habitat are associated with beach grooming. These results suggest that macrophyte wrack subsidies strongly influence macrofaunal community structure, higher trophic levels, and ecological processes on exposed sandy beaches. The supply of macrophyte wrack should be considered as a factor in ecological studies of exposed sandy beaches, particularly where macrophyte production is high. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

Notes: Week 8: Marine-Land; Times Cited: 6

Suppl. S

URL: <Go to ISI>://000186659300004

Reference Type: Journal Article

Record Number: 273

Author: Drake, D. C.; Naiman, R. J.; Helfield, J. M.

Year: 2002

Title: Reconstructing salmon abundance in rivers: An initial dendrochronological evaluation

Journal: Ecology

Volume: 83

Issue: 11

Pages: 2971-2977

Date: Nov

Short Title: Reconstructing salmon abundance in rivers: An initial dendrochronological evaluation

Accession Number: ISI:000179624600004

Keywords: dendrochronology

fertilization

marine-derived nutrients

nutrient

cycling

Onchorynchus spp.

Pacific Decadal Oscillation, PDO

Picea

glauca

Picea sitchensis

riparian forest

salmon

Sitka spruce

white

spruce

Pacific salmon

stream productivity

southeastern alaska

stable

isotopes

nitrogen

carcasses

impacts

growth

forest

diets

Abstract: persistent, difficult questions including: how large and variable were these populations before European settlement? Here, we examine the feasibility of reconstructing salmon abundance using links between marine nutrients carried upstream by Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.) and growth of dominant riparian trees in two Alaskan systems. We employ standard dendrochronology methods and regression models to quantify relationships between annual tree-ring growth, salmon escapement, and the climate pattern that affects oceanic production of Northeast Pacific salmon stocks, the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO). We find that known, annual salmon escapement is significantly related to tree-ring growth at two sites in the Pacific coastal rainforest (PCRF) (r(2) = 0.23, P < 0.05 at each site), but not at two sites in the boreal forest. We then use relationships established at PCRF sites to reconstruct preliminary salmon spawning abundances to 1820 A.D. The PDO was not correlated with local 19-yr salmon escapement records and could not be used in reconstructions. Reconstructions compare favorably to southeastern Alaska fisheries catch data from 1924 to 1994 (Pearson correlation = 0.301 [P = 0.02] and 0.401 [P < 0.01]). This study demonstrates the promise and utility of dendrochronology for reconstructing salmon returns to streams.

Notes: Week 8: Marine-Land; Times Cited: 7

Interesting use of tree-ring growth, not stable isotopes, to reconstruct historical salmon runs. Relationships aren't that strong, however.

URL: <Go to ISI>://000179624600004

Reference Type: Journal Article

Record Number: 244

Author: Garcia, L. V.; Maranon, T.; Ojeda, F.; Clemente, L.; Redondo, R.

Year: 2002

Title: Seagull influence on soil properties, chenopod shrub distribution, and leaf nutrient status in semi-arid Mediterranean islands

Journal: Oikos

Volume: 98

Issue: 1

Pages: 75-86

Date: Jul

Short Title: Seagull influence on soil properties, chenopod shrub distribution, and leaf nutrient status in semi-arid Mediterranean islands

Accession Number: ISI:000177271600008

Keywords: Stable isotopes

colonies

plants

vegetation

ratios

gulls

nitrogen

water

sites

asia

Abstract: Concentration of seagulls in the Chafarinas Islands (three semi-arid North African islets) induces profound changes in soil properties including eutrophication, salinization, acidification and nutrient imbalances. Soils of heavily seabird-affected sites have significantly higher soluble K and NO3 levels (> 20-fold), Zn and Fe availability (> 5-fold), water-retention capacity (> 40% increase) and N-15 enrichment, compared with control sites. These seabird-induced soil changes are paralleled by (i) different patterns of abundance of the two main chenopod shrubs: Suaeda vera abundance is higher (> 30-fold) in seabird-affected sites while Salsola oppositifolia largely dominates in low-affected areas. No differences were found for Atriplex halimus. The abundance of the first two species may be largely explained by changes in soil soluble K-to-available Ca ratio whose value depends of the interaction between seabird products and soil constituents; (ii) significant increases in leaf N, P and Zn levels, and in all K ratios, paralelled by a decrease in Ca, in Salsola; but only by increased K/Na and P/Ca ratios in Suaeda leaves. These changes were significantly correlated to changes in species abundances; (iii) an increase of delta(15)N, paralleled by a decrease in delta(13)C values, in Salsola leaves but not in Suaeda. Conjoint analysis of the seabird-related changes in soil properties, species abundance, leaf composition and differential response to the seabird-induced fertilization/severity gradient of the two main chenopod shrub species, has led us to propose an explanatory hypothesis of seagull-soil-shrub relationships. According to this, the seagull-induced soil changes, mediated by processes of (in)tolerance-facilitation, play a main role in determining the abundance and the leaf nutrient status of the studied chenopod shrubs, which have contrasting physiological adaptations.

Notes: Week 8: Marine-Land; Times Cited: 8

URL: <Go to ISI>://000177271600008

Reference Type: Journal Article

Record Number: 261

Author: Zhang, Y. X.; Negishi, J. N.; Richardson, J. S.; Kolodziejczyk, R.

Year: 2003

Title: Impacts of marine-derived nutrients on stream ecosystem functioning

Journal: Proceedings Of The Royal Society Of London Series B-Biological Sciences

Volume: 270

Issue: 1529

Pages: 2117-2123

Date: Oct 22

Short Title: Impacts of marine-derived nutrients on stream ecosystem functioning

Accession Number: ISI:000186067000005

Keywords: consumer-resource dynamics

salmon

red alder

detritivores

functional

feeding groups

streams

Salmon oncorhynchus-kisutch

coho salmon

food webs

southeastern

alaska

pacific salmon

fresh-water

carcasses

productivity

terrestrial

macroinvertebrates

Abstract: Energy and nutrient subsidies transported across ecosystem boundaries are increasingly appreciated as key drivers of consumer-resource dynamics. As purveyors of pulsed marine-derived nutrients (MDN), spawning salmon are one such cross-ecosystem subsidy to freshwaters connected to the north Pacific. We examined how salmon carcasses influenced detrital processing in an oligotrophic stream. Experimental manipulations of MDN inputs revealed that salmon carcasses indirectly reduced detrital processing in streams through temporarily decoupling the detrital resource-consumer relationship, in which detrital consumers shifted their diet to the high-nutrient resource, i.e. salmon carcasses. The average decomposition rate of alder leaves with salmon carcass addition was significantly lower than that without the carcass, which was associated with lower abundance and biomass of detritivorous Trichoptera on the carcass-treated leaves. There were generally larger in size Trichopteran detritivores on the carcasses than on leaves. These results imply that cross-boundary MDN subsidies indirectly retard the ecosystem processing of leaf litter within the short term, but may enhance those food-limited detritivorous consumers. Because unproductive freshwaters in the Pacific northwest are highly dependent upon the organic matter inputs from surrounding forests, this novel finding has implications for determining conservation and management strategies of salmon-related aquatic ecosystems, in terms of salmon habitat protection and fisheries exploitation.

Notes: Week 8: Marine-Land; Times Cited: 8

Interesting interaction between salmon carcass availability and breakdown of other non-marine detritous.

URL: <Go to ISI>://000186067000005

Reference Type: Journal Article

Record Number: 262

Author: Darimont, C. T.; Reimchen, T. E.

Year: 2002

Title: Intra-hair stable isotope analysis implies seasonal shift to salmon in gray wolf diet

Journal: Canadian Journal Of Zoology-Revue Canadienne De Zoologie

Volume: 80

Issue: 9

Pages: 1638-1642

Date: Sep

Short Title: Intra-hair stable isotope analysis implies seasonal shift to salmon in gray wolf diet

Accession Number: ISI:000178817500019

Keywords: Nitrogen

carbon

bears

enrichment

animals

tissues

mammals

ratios

marine

wolves

Abstract: Seasonal shifts in diet are widespread, but our ability to detect them can be limited. Comparisons of stable isotope signatures in metabolically inert tissue portions grown at different times are inadequately exploited in dietary reconstructions. We propose that segments of guard hair can index diet to periods of growth (i.e., seasons differing in resource availability). We examined inter-hair delta(13)C and delta(15)N signatures from gray wolves (Canis lupus) of British Columbia to test whether the bulk of enriched (marine-derived) nutrients was assimilated during fall, the peak of salmon (Onchorynchus spp.) migration. In five animals, we detected a seasonal dietary shift: relatively more C-13 and N-15 was assimilated during fall than during summer, suggesting use of salmon during fall. Twelve wolves and both controls showed no seasonal shift in diet. Using salmon when available may be adaptive, given its predictability, spatial constraint, caloric content, and lower potential to inflict injury relative to that imposed by large mammals. Our study complements others that also used novel and fine-scale isotope approaches and may permit the identification of otherwise undetectable niche differentiation among conspecifics or heterospecifics.

Notes: Week 8: Marine-Land; Times Cited: 9

Neat technique, similar to otolith microchemistry. Messy results.

URL: <Go to ISI>://000178817500019

Reference Type: Journal Article

Record Number: 243

Author: Stapp, P.

Year: 2002

Title: Stable isotopes reveal evidence of predation by ship rats on seabirds on the Shiant Islands, Scotland

Journal: Journal Of Applied Ecology

Volume: 39

Issue: 5

Pages: 831-840

Date: Oct

Short Title: Stable isotopes reveal evidence of predation by ship rats on seabirds on the Shiant Islands, Scotland

Accession Number: ISI:000178446500012

Keywords: gut content analysis

Hebrides

introduced predators

marine subsidies

Rattus rattus

Bone-collagen

rattus-rattus

carbon isotopes

norway rats

diets

turnover

marine

fractionation

components

delta-c-13

Abstract: 1. Introduced predators are a major threat to native island populations, yet direct evidence of predation is often lacking, especially when it is difficult to detect by traditional dietary methods. 2. Historical declines of nesting seabirds on the Shiant Islands, Outer Hebrides, roughly coincided with the accidental introduction of ship rats Rattus rattus in c. 1900. Rats have been implicated in declines of seabirds, but the Shiant population is one of two remaining naturalized R. rattus populations in Britain, prompting calls for their protection. 3. Live-trapping studies with stable isotopes and gut content analysis were used to investigate whether ship rats prey on Shiant Islands seabirds. Another aim of this study was to determine whether marine-derived foods subsidize rat populations, permitting higher densities, greater productivity and larger body size than expected from terrestrial resources alone. 4. Comparisons of stable carbon and nitrogen isotopic signatures of rat tissues with those of seabirds, marine invertebrates, marine algae and land-based foods revealed that seabirds and other marine prey were the primary source of protein for rats living in colonies or near the shore. These results were corroborated by gut content analysis, and suggest a greater role for active predation of seabirds by rats than has previously been apparent at this locality. 5. Seabird colonies and especially coastal areas supported higher numbers of rats than more inland habitats. Coastal and colony-dwelling rats were more active reproductively and were larger than those living inland. 6. Although rats are capable of surviving solely on terrestrial foods, their ability to use marine prey may buffer populations during lean times, i.e. outside the seabird nesting season, and may in part explain their success and status as pests on islands world-wide. Overall, this work reveals the value of stable isotopes in identifying predation by exotic species, but also underscores potential uncertainties inherent in all diet-based methods in distinguishing predation from scavenging.

Notes: Week 8: Marine-Land; Times Cited: 10

Great detective work to answer the question of how much rats rely on seabird predation.

URL: <Go to ISI>://000178446500012

Reference Type: Journal Article

Record Number: 260

Author: Gende, S. M.; Quinn, T. P.; Willson, M. F.; Heintz, R.; Scott, T. M.

Year: 2004

Title: Magnitude and fate of salmon-derived nutrients and energy in a coastal stream ecosystem

Journal: Journal Of Freshwater Ecology

Volume: 19

Issue: 1

Pages: 149-160

Date: Mar

Short Title: Magnitude and fate of salmon-derived nutrients and energy in a coastal stream ecosystem

Accession Number: ISI:000189324900018

Keywords: Oncorhynchus-kisutch carcasses

bears ursus-arctos

sockeye-salmon

pacific salmon

coho salmon

brown bears

terrestrial ecosystems

southeast alaska

productivity

nitrogen

Abstract: We quantified the energy and mineral (nitrogen, phosphorous) composition of live pink salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha) and chum salmon (O. keta), their eggs, and carcasses, and tracked the fate of chum salmon spawning in a small Alaskan coastal stream. On average, salmon entered streams with 5.3 kJ.g(-1), 3.3% N, 0.48% P. Much of the energy in female salmon was stored in the gametes because the gonads were both large (20% of their wet body mass) and high in energy density (11 kJ/g). Carcasses following senescent death had lower mass-specific energy and N (but not P) compared to fish at stream entrance. Bears removed nearly 50% of the salmon-derived nutrients and energy from the stream by capturing salmon and dragging the carcasses from the stream. Much of the salmon biomass was made available to riparian scavengers because bears partially consumed the fish. Nutrients bound in salmon tissue at senescent death were quickly exported to the estuary after only a few days because of periodic high flows and low rates of scavenging by bears.

Notes: Week 8: Marine-Land; Times Cited: 10

Nice quantification of the fate of salmon biomass in Alaska.

URL: <Go to ISI>://000189324900018

Reference Type: Journal Article

Record Number: 242

Author: Stapp, P.; Polis, G. A.

Year: 2003

Title: Marine resources subsidize insular rodent populations in the Gulf of California, Mexico

Journal: Oecologia

Volume: 134

Issue: 4

Pages: 496-504

Date: Mar

Short Title: Marine resources subsidize insular rodent populations in the Gulf of California, Mexico

Accession Number: ISI:000181582700006

Keywords: Chaetodipus rudinoris

island ecology

Peromyscus maniculatus

spatial

subsidies

Stable isotopes

food webs

density compensation

peromyscus-leucopus

allochthonous input

bone-collagen

small islands

new-zealand

terrestrial

nitrogen

Abstract: Inputs of energy and nutrients from one ecosystem may subsidize consumers in adjacent ones, with significant consequences for local communities and food webs. We used stable isotope and faecal pellet analysis to quantify use of ocean-derived resources by small mammals on islands in the Gulf of California, Mexico. Rodents were live-trapped on grids originating near shore and extending 125-200 m inland to evaluate the extent to which rodents transport marine nutrients inland, and to determine whether marine foods subsidize island populations, permitting higher densities than would be possible based on terrestrial resources alone. Both faeces and stable carbon and nitrogen isotopes revealed that omnivorous mice (Peromyscus maniculatus) consume ocean-derived prey, including littoral and supralittoral invertebrates, and that their diets differed markedly from those of granivorous rodents (Chaetodipus rudinoris). On a small, seabird roosting island, marine prey were important in the diet of mice regardless of their proximity to shore, underscoring the pervasive influence of the ocean on small islands with relatively large coastline area. On a large island, however, consumption of marine foods declined sharply greater than or equal to50 m from shore, which suggests that mice are poor conduits of inland movement of energy and nutrients from the sea. Marine resources seemed to act as subsidies for omnivorous rodents: more P. maniculatus were captured near shore than farther inland and there was an inverse relationship between island area and rodent abundance, suggesting that small islands with large amounts of marine inputs support the highest population densities. Patterns of local and island-wide abundance of P. maniculatus are likely the result of several interacting factors, including frustrated dispersal, competition with C. rudinoris, and the absence of predators. We speculate, however, that the availability of marine resources allows P. maniculatus to reach high densities and to persist on small islands in the Gulf despite low and unpredictable terrestrial productivity. Spatial trophic subsidies thus provide a possible mechanistic explanation for the widely reported inverse relationship between population density and island or habitat area.

Notes: Week 8: Marine-Land; Times Cited: 11

URL: <Go to ISI>://000181582700006

Reference Type: Journal Article

Record Number: 252

Author: Bosman, A. L.; Hockey, P. A. R.

Year: 1988

Title: The Influence Of Seabird Guano On The Biological Structure Of Rocky Intertidal Communities On Islands Off The West-Coast Of Southern-Africa

Journal: South African Journal Of Marine Science-Suid-Afrikaanse Tydskrif Vir Seewetenskap

Volume: 7

Pages: 61-68

Short Title: The Influence Of Seabird Guano On The Biological Structure Of Rocky Intertidal Communities On Islands Off The West-Coast Of Southern-Africa

Accession Number: ISI:A1988T203700007

Notes: Week 8: Marine-Land; Times Cited: 12

URL: <Go to ISI>://A1988T203700007

Reference Type: Journal Article

Record Number: 245

Author: Anderson, W. B.; Wait, D. A.

Year: 2001

Title: Subsidized Island Biogeography Hypothesis: another new twist on an old theory

Journal: Ecology Letters

Volume: 4

Issue: 4

Pages: 289-291

Date: Jul

Short Title: Subsidized Island Biogeography Hypothesis: another new twist on an old theory

Accession Number: ISI:000170417800001

Keywords: diversity

island biogeography

productivity

spatial subsidies

species richness

Terrestrial food webs

species richness

productivity

communities

marine

area

diversity

density

Abstract: We present a new hypothesis for predicting and describing patterns of species diversity on small islands and habitat fragments. We have modified the traditional island biogeography equilibrium theory to incorporate the influence of spatial subsidies from the surrounding matrix, which vary among islands and habitat fragments, on species diversities. The modification indicates three possible directions for the effects of spatial subsidies on diversity, which depend on where the focal community falls on the hypothesized unimodal curve of the productivity-diversity relationship. The idea is novel because no recent syntheses of productivity-diversity-area relationships examine the role of allochthonous resources on recipient communities' diversity patterns.

Notes: Week 8: Marine-Land; Times Cited: 12

Interesting and novel idea, but it doesn't really seem to have taken off.

URL: <Go to ISI>://000170417800001

Reference Type: Journal Article

Record Number: 272

Author: Helfield, J. M.; Naiman, R. J.

Year: 2002

Title: Salmon and alder as nitrogen sources to riparian forests in a boreal Alaskan watershed

Journal: Oecologia

Volume: 133

Issue: 4

Pages: 573-582

Date: Dec

Short Title: Salmon and alder as nitrogen sources to riparian forests in a boreal Alaskan watershed

Accession Number: ISI:000179733800016

Keywords: Alnus crispa

marine-derived nutrients

Oncorhynchus

Picea glauca

riparian

stable isotopes

Elements transported upstream

coastal british-columbia

bears

ursus-arctos

pacific salmon

sockeye-salmon

oncorhynchus-nerka

brown-bears

stream productivity

southeastern alaska

southwestern

alaska

Abstract: Anadromous Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.) transport marine-derived nitrogen (MDN) to the rivers in which they spawn. Isotopic analyses of riparian vegetation in a boreal Alaskan watershed indicate that trees and shrubs near spawning streams derive similar to24-26% of their foliar nitrogen (N) from salmon. Basal area growth of white spruce (Picea glauca) is enhanced at sites receiving MDN inputs. This marine N subsidy appears to be less important to riparian ecosystems where symbiotic N fixation by alder (Alnus crispa) is prevalent, although salmon carcasses may nonetheless be an important source of other marine-derived nutrients affecting productivity in these forests. These findings illustrate the complexity of interactions surrounding riparian forests and the interconnectedness of river and riparian ecosystems.

Notes: Week 8: Marine-Land; Times Cited: 15

N fixing plants (alder) limit the importance of salmon-derived N.

URL: <Go to ISI>://000179733800016

Reference Type: Journal Article

Record Number: 235

Author: Menge, B. A.; Lubchenco, J.; Bracken, M. E. S.; Chan, F.; Foley, M. M.; Freidenburg, T. L.; Gaines, S. D.; Hudson, G.; Krenz, C.; Leslie, H.; Menge, D. N. L.; Russell, R.; Webster, M. S.

Year: 2003

Title: Coastal oceanography sets the pace of rocky intertidal community dynamics

Journal: Proceedings Of The National Academy Of Sciences Of The United States Of America

Volume: 100

Issue: 21

Pages: 12229-12234

Date: Oct 14

Short Title: Coastal oceanography sets the pace of rocky intertidal community dynamics

Accession Number: ISI:000186024300055

Keywords: New-zealand

food webs

top-down

central california

south-island

productivity

marine

organization

recruitment

terrestrial

Abstract: The structure of ecological communities reflects a tension among forces that alter populations. Marine ecologists previously emphasized control by locally operating forces (predation, competition, and disturbance), but newer studies suggest that inputs from large-scale oceanographically modulated subsidies (nutrients, particulates, and propagules) can strongly influence community structure and dynamics. On New Zealand rocky shores, the magnitude of such subsidies differs profoundly between contrasting oceanographic regimes. Community structure, and particularly the pace of community dynamics, differ dramatically between intermittent upwelling regimes compared with relatively persistent downwelling regimes. We suggest that subsidy rates are a key determinant of the intensity of species interactions, and thus of structure in marine systems, and perhaps also nonmarine communities.

Notes: Week 8: Marine-Land; Times Cited: 18

URL: <Go to ISI>://000186024300055

Reference Type: Journal Article

Record Number: 253

Author: Hogg, E. H.; Morton, J. K.

Year: 1983

Title: The Effects Of Nesting Gulls On The Vegetation And Soil Of Islands In The Great-Lakes

Journal: Canadian Journal Of Botany-Revue Canadienne De Botanique

Volume: 61

Issue: 12

Pages: 3240-3254

Short Title: The Effects Of Nesting Gulls On The Vegetation And Soil Of Islands In The Great-Lakes

Accession Number: ISI:A1983SG47400029

Notes: Week 8: Marine-Land; Times Cited: 18

A local example that seems to have had mostly local impact.

URL: <Go to ISI>://A1983SG47400029

Reference Type: Journal Article

Record Number: 259

Author: Schindler, D. E.; Scheuerell, M. D.; Moore, J. W.; Gende, S. M.; Francis, T. B.; Palen, W. J.

Year: 2003

Title: Pacific salmon and the ecology of coastal ecosystems

Journal: Frontiers In Ecology And The Environment

Volume: 1

Issue: 1

Pages: 31-37

Date: Feb

Short Title: Pacific salmon and the ecology of coastal ecosystems

Accession Number: ISI:000221789300017

Keywords: Elements transported upstream

spawning sockeye-salmon

coho salmon

fresh-water

brown bears

oncorhynchus-kisutch

southeastern alaska

delta-c-13 evidence

small-stream

productivity

Abstract: One of the most spectacular phenomena in nature is the annual return of millions of salmon to spawn in their natal streams and lakes along the Pacific coast of North America. The salmon die after spawning, and the nutrients and energy in their bodies, derived almost entirely from marine sources, are deposited in the freshwater ecosystems. This represents a vital input to the ecosystems used as spawning grounds. Salmon-derived nutrients make up a substantial fraction of the plants and animals in aquatic and terrestrial habitats associated with healthy salmon populations. The decline of salmon numbers throughout much of their southern range in North America has prompted concern that the elimination of this "conveyor belt" of nutrients and energy may fundamentally change the productivity of these coastal freshwater and terrestrial ecosystems, and consequently their ability to support wildlife, including salmon. If progress is to be made towards understanding and conserving the connection between migratory salmon and coastal ecosystems, scientists and decision-makers must explore and understand the vast temporal and spatial scales that characterize this relationship.

Notes: Week 8: Marine-Land; Times Cited: 25

URL: <Go to ISI>://000221789300017

Reference Type: Journal Article

Record Number: 264

Author: Reimchen, T. E.

Year: 2000

Title: Some ecological and evolutionary aspects of bear-salmon interactions in coastal British Columbia

Journal: Canadian Journal Of Zoology-Revue Canadienne De Zoologie

Volume: 78

Issue: 3

Pages: 448-457

Date: Mar

Short Title: Some ecological and evolutionary aspects of bear-salmon interactions in coastal British Columbia

Accession Number: ISI:000086286300013

Keywords: Stable isotopes

pacific salmon

coho salmon

streams

Abstract: I examine here quantity and characteristics of chum salmon (Oncorhynchus keta) captured by black bears (Ursus americanus) during autumn spawning migration in an old-growth watershed on Moresby Island (Haida Gwaii), western Canada. Spawning-salmon numbers ranged from 2300 to 6300 over 3 years of investigation (1992-1994) and there were a maximum of eight bears in the watershed. Following capture of a salmon, bears ate an average of 1.6 kg from each salmon carcass, including the brain, ovaries, and dorsal musculature, and generally tended to abandon viscera, testes, and bony remnants such as jaws. Complete counts of these jaws throughout the watershed in autumn 1993 demonstrated a total capture of 4281 salmon, for an average consumption rate of 13 salmon per day per bear over the 45-day spawning period. This comprised 74% of the salmon entering the stream (range among years 58-92%). Most salmon (70-80%) taken by bears were partially or completely spawned-out at the time of capture. Marginally but significantly higher predation rates occurred on males relative to their proportion in the stream, and on larger rather than smaller salmon of both sexes. Higher-quality salmon (larger, fresher) were transferred farthest from the capture site by bears, possibly to minimize competitive interference. Bear predation in this locality does not appear to seriously constrain total reproduction of the salmon, but it may have several genetic influences: (i) there may be selection against large body size of salmon in both males and females and (ii) high predation levels on partially spawned males may facilitate multiple paternity in spawning females and, therefore, increase effective genetic variance among fertilized eggs.

Notes: Week 8: Marine-Land; Times Cited: 30

URL: <Go to ISI>://000086286300013

Reference Type: Journal Article

Record Number: 246

Author: Sanchez-Pinero, F.; Polis, G. A.

Year: 2000

Title: Bottom-up dynamics of allochthonous input: Direct and indirect effects of seabirds on islands

Journal: Ecology

Volume: 81

Issue: 11

Pages: 3117-3132

Date: Nov

Short Title: Bottom-up dynamics of allochthonous input: Direct and indirect effects of seabirds on islands

Accession Number: ISI:000165384000014

Keywords: allochthonous nutrient input

food webs

donor-control

Gulf of

California

Mexico

island ecology

nutrients

seabirds

spatial

subsidies

tenebrionid beetles

Of-california islands

terrestrial food webs

community structure

top-down

path-analysis

productivity

plant

gulf

marine

ecosystem

Abstract: Allochthonous marine input is a key component of the dynamics of islands and terrestrial coastal ecosystems on islands in the Gulf of California, Mexico, where an unproductive desert juxtaposes a highly productive ocean. In this area, seabirds are a major conduit bringing marine productivity to land. Seabirds leave guano on roosting and nesting islands, and carrion on nesting islands. We analyze how seabirds affect the abundance of a dominant consumer group, tenebrionid beetles, on 25 islands in the Gulf of California over a three-year period. Tenebrionid densities vary by three orders of magnitude among islands. Beetles are most abundant in areas influenced by seabirds: they are approximately five times more dense on nesting and roosting islands than on other islands and on mainland sites, and approximately six times more dense inside vs. outside colonies. Path analyses show that seabirds significantly affect beetles by two distinct pathways. On roosting islands, effects are mainly indirect: guano, a fertilizing nutrient, significantly enhances plant productivity; beetles eat plant detritus. On nesting islands, significant effects are primarily direct: beetles eat seabird carrion; the indirect pathway (guano and plants) contributes little on these islands. By providing energy and nutrients to fuel a diverse array of consumer populations, seabirds are central to the dynamics of these island ecosystems. Scavengers and avian parasites directly increase by eating seabird products. Likewise, populations of consumers that eat detritus, plant tissues, and seeds are enhanced indirectly via the fertilizing effects of guano on plants. Increases in these primary consumers indirectly facilitate high densities of many predators. Thus, consumer populations on these islands are deeply subsidized by substantial input from seabirds. Because consumers cannot influence the renewal rate of their allochthonous resources, the dynamics of these consumers and their food webs are largely donor controlled.

Notes: Week 8: Marine-Land; Times Cited: 30

Interesting comparison of nesting and roosting islands and the difference in subsidy (carcasses vs. guano) between the two.

URL: <Go to ISI>://000165384000014

Reference Type: Journal Article

Record Number: 263

Author: Gende, S. M.; Edwards, R. T.; Willson, M. F.; Wipfli, M. S.

Year: 2002

Title: Pacific salmon in aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems

Journal: Bioscience

Volume: 52

Issue: 10

Pages: 917-928

Date: Oct

Short Title: Pacific salmon in aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems

Accession Number: ISI:000178573400013

Keywords: Coastal british-columbia

southeast alaska

sockeye-salmon

stream

productivity

coho salmon

brown bears

oncorhynchus-kisutch

food

webs

nitrogen

carcasses

Notes: Week 8: Marine-Land; Times Cited: 36

URL: <Go to ISI>://000178573400013

Reference Type: Journal Article

Record Number: 249

Author: Anderson, W. B.; Polis, G. A.

Year: 1998

Title: Marine subsidies of island communities in the Gulf of California: evidence from stable carbon and nitrogen isotopes

Journal: Oikos

Volume: 81

Issue: 1

Pages: 75-80

Date: Feb

Short Title: Marine subsidies of island communities in the Gulf of California: evidence from stable carbon and nitrogen isotopes

Accession Number: ISI:000071582300009

Keywords: Terrestrial food webs

seabird rookeries

ratios

protein

diets

flow

Abstract: Coastal sites support larger (2 to > 100 x) populations of many consumers than inland sites on islands in the Gulf of California. Previous data suggested that subsidies of energy and nutrients from the ocean allowed large coastal populations. Stable carbon and nitrogen isotopes are frequently used to analyze diet composition of organisms; they are particularly useful to distinguish between diet sources with distinct isotopic signatures, such as marine and terrestrial diets. We analyzed the C-13 and N-15 concentrations of coastal versus inland spiders and scorpions to test the hypothesis that coastal individuals exhibited more strongly marine-based diets than inland individuals. Coastal spiders and scorpions were significantly more enriched in C-13 and N-15 than inland spiders and scorpions, suggesting that the coastal individuals consumed more marine-based foods than their inland counterparts. These patterns existed in both drought years and wet El Nino years. However, the marine influence was stronger in drought years when terrestrial productivity was nearly non-existent, than in wet years when terrestrial productivity increased by an order of magnitude.

Notes: Week 8: Marine-Land; Times Cited: 43

Confirmation, through stable isotopes, of what Polis had long hypothesized, i.e., that coastal arthropods in the Gulf of California are supported by marine subsidies. The comparison of dry (subsidies more important) and dry years is an interesting twist.

URL: <Go to ISI>://000071582300009

Reference Type: Journal Article

Record Number: 274

Author: Naiman, R. J.; Bilby, R. E.; Schindler, D. E.; Helfield, J. M.

Year: 2002

Title: Pacific salmon, nutrients, and the dynamics of freshwater and riparian ecosystems

Journal: Ecosystems

Volume: 5

Issue: 4

Pages: 399-417

Date: Jun

Short Title: Pacific salmon, nutrients, and the dynamics of freshwater and riparian ecosystems

Accession Number: ISI:000176313700009

Keywords: anadromous fishes

Pacific salmon

Oncorhynchus

marine nutrients

stable isotopes

lake

stream

riparian ecosystems

aquatic

productivity

resource management

Juvenile coho salmon

elements transported upstream

gulf-of-alaska

sockeye-salmon

oncorhynchus-kisutch

british-columbia

southeastern

alaska

interannual variability

zooplankton biomass

stream

productivity

Abstract: Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.) accumulate substantial nutrients in their bodies as they grow to adulthood at sea. These nutrients are carried to predominantly oligotrophic lakes and streams, where they are released during and after spawning. Research over more than 3 decades has shown that the annual deposition of salmon-borne marine-derived nutrients (MD-nutrients) is important for the productivity of freshwater communities throughout the Pacific coastal region. However, the pathways and mechanisms for MD-nutrient transfer and accumulation in freshwater and riparian ecosystems remain virtually unexplored, consequently, there are many uncertainties in this area. This article addresses three related topics. First, we summarize recent advances in our understanding of the linkages among MD-nutrients, freshwater (including riparian) ecosystems, and community dynamics by addressing the importance of MD-nutrients to lakes and streams and by then reviewing large-scale and long-term processes in the atmosphere and ocean that govern variability in salmon populations. Second, we evaluate the validity of the discoveries and their implications for active ecosystem management, noting areas where extrapolation from these results still requires great caution. Finally, we outline five key research issues where additional discoveries could greatly augment our understanding of the processes shaping the structure and dynamics of salmon populations and the characteristics of their freshwater habitat and associated riparian zones. Collectively, the data suggest that the freshwater portion of the salmon production system is intimately linked to the ocean. Moreover, for the system to be sustainable, a holistic approach to management will be required. This holistic approach will need to treat climate cycles, salmon, riparian vegetation, predators, and MD-nutrient flowpaths and feedbacks as an integrated system.

Notes: Week 8: Marine-Land; Times Cited: 46

Nice review putting salmon-derived nutrients in broader context and settting the stage for future research.

URL: <Go to ISI>://000176313700009

Reference Type: Journal Article

Record Number: 268

Author: BenDavid, M.; Hanley, T. A.; Klein, D. R.; Schell, D. M.

Year: 1997

Title: Seasonal changes in diets of coastal and riverine mink: The role of spawning Pacific salmon

Journal: Canadian Journal Of Zoology-Revue Canadienne De Zoologie

Volume: 75

Issue: 5

Pages: 803-811

Date: May

Short Title: Seasonal changes in diets of coastal and riverine mink: The role of spawning Pacific salmon

Accession Number: ISI:A1997XB77800017

Keywords: Oncorhynchus-kisutch

american mink

mustela-vison

coho salmon

nitrogen

locomotion

ecology

animals

alaska

Abstract: Feeding niches of riverine and coastal mink (Mustela vison) in southeast Alaska differ in prey composition and abundance and diving medium during spring and summer. In autumn, however, the upstream migration of spawning Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus sp.) creates a pulse of food for mink. We hypothesized that diets of coastal and riverine mink, and therefore their stable isotope ratios (delta(13)C, delta(15)N), would differ significantly during periods when salmon were absent, but that salmon carcasses would constitute a large portion of the diet of both groups during the salmon spawning season. Stable isotope analyses of clotted blood cells from 24 live-captured mink and muscle tissue from 25 mink carcasses were used to indicate the composition of diets of individual mink in 1992 and 1993. These isotope values were then compared with stable isotope ratios of prey, using a multiple-source mixing model. Our results indicate that riverine mink depended on salmon (carcasses and fry), with little seasonal or individual variation, whereas coastal mink relied on intertidal organisms in spring and summer, with measurable (<25%) consumption of salmon carcasses when they became available in autumn. Coastal and riverine mink in southeast Alaska differ strongly in their diets in spring and summer, with both groups relying on the abundant salmon carcasses during autumn.

Notes: Week 8: Marine-Land; Times Cited: 46

Riverine mink depend on salmon year round, while their coastal conspecifics only utilize salmon seasonally

URL: <Go to ISI>://A1997XB77800017

Reference Type: Journal Article

Record Number: 248

Author: Rose, M. D.; Polis, G. A.

Year: 1998

Title: The distribution and abundance of coyotes: The effects of allochthonous food subsidies from the sea

Journal: Ecology

Volume: 79

Issue: 3

Pages: 998-1007

Date: Apr

Short Title: The distribution and abundance of coyotes: The effects of allochthonous food subsidies from the sea

Accession Number: ISI:000073060300020

Keywords: allochthonous flow

Canis latrans

coastal ecosystems

community

structure

coyotes

food habits

marine input

population density

trophic subsidies

Polar bears

bottom-up

top-down

webs

communities

diet

productivity

organization

namibia

islands

Abstract: We analyzed how the distribution and abundance of a major consumer, the coyote (Canis latrans) is influenced by the input of food from the sea. In the arid deserts of Baja California, coyote abundance along the shore of the Gulf of California is much higher compared to adjacent inland areas. These high densities are achieved because coastal coyotes are subsidized by the Bow of abundant and diverse resources that come directly and indirectly from the ocean. Analysis of seats between coastal and inland sites indicates that the diet breadth of coastal coyotes is expanded (i.e., more food types were eaten) and that much more food is consumed by individuals and populations of coyotes in coastal regions. On average, seat mass at coastal sites is more than double that at inland sites. An average of 47.8% of all items found in coastal seats come directly from the sea. Such allochthonous input facilitates a numerical response: each of our four measures of coyote abundance shows that coyotes are significantly more dense along the coast than inland. Coyote populations on the coast are 2.4-13.7 times more dense than in adjacent inland areas that do not receive marine input. We present data from the literature to suggest that the use of marine resources by carnivorous mammals is widespread worldwide.

Notes: Week 8: Marine-Land; Times Cited: 51

These "maritime mammals" apparently rely heavily on marine-derived productivity in dry Baja California.

URL: <Go to ISI>://000073060300020

Reference Type: Journal Article

Record Number: 277

Author: Willson, M. F.; Gende, S. M.; Marston, B. H.

Year: 1998

Title: Fishes and the forest

Journal: Bioscience

Volume: 48

Issue: 6

Pages: 455-462

Date: Jun

Short Title: Fishes and the forest

Accession Number: ISI:000073738500008

Keywords: Elements transported upstream

terrestrial food webs

pacific salmon

coho salmon

oncorhynchus-kisutch

southeastern alaska

delta-c-13

evidence

stable isotopes

atlantic salmon

streams

Notes: Week 8: Marine-Land; Times Cited: 61

Classic early salmon paper.

URL: <Go to ISI>://000073738500008

Reference Type: Journal Article

Record Number: 275

Author: Helfield, J. M.; Naiman, R. J.

Year: 2001

Title: Effects of salmon-derived nitrogen on riparian forest growth and implications for stream productivity

Journal: Ecology

Volume: 82

Issue: 9

Pages: 2403-2409

Date: Sep

Short Title: Effects of salmon-derived nitrogen on riparian forest growth and implications for stream productivity

Accession Number: ISI:000171049100003

Keywords: Alaska

fertilization

forest growth

marine-derived nutrients

nitrogen

nutrient cycling

Picea sitchensis

riparian forest

river

salmon

Sitka spruce

stable isotopes

Large woody debris

elements transported upstream

southeastern alaska

pacific salmon

coho salmon

oncorhynchus-kisutch

delta-c-13 evidence

old-growth

marine

ecosystem

Abstract: Anadromous Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.) transport marine-derived nitrogen (MDN) to the rivers in which they reproduce. Isotopic analyses indicate that trees and shrubs near spawning streams derive similar to 22-24% of their foliar nitrogen (N) from spawning salmon. As a consequence of this nutrient subsidy, growth rates are significantly increased in Sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis) near spawning streams. As riparian forests affect the quality of instream habitat through shading, sediment and nutrient filtration, and production of large woody debris (LWD), this fertilization process serves not only to enhance riparian production, but may also act as a positive feedback mechanism by which salmon-borne nutrients improve spawning and rearing habitat for subsequent salmon generations and maintain the long-term productivity of river corridors along the Pacific coast of North America.

Notes: Week 8: Marine-Land; Times Cited: 62

Important paper quantifying the magnitude of the salmon subsidy to terrestrial vegetation using stable isotopes.

URL: <Go to ISI>://000171049100003

Reference Type: Journal Article

Record Number: 265

Author: Hilderbrand, G. V.; Schwartz, C. C.; Robbins, C. T.; Jacoby, M. E.; Hanley, T. A.; Arthur, S. M.; Servheen, C.

Year: 1999

Title: The importance of meat, particularly salmon, to body size, population productivity, and conservation of North American brown bears

Journal: Canadian Journal Of Zoology-Revue Canadienne De Zoologie

Volume: 77

Issue: 1

Pages: 132-138

Date: Jan

Short Title: The importance of meat, particularly salmon, to body size, population productivity, and conservation of North American brown bears

Accession Number: ISI:000081598800016

Keywords: Yellowstone grizzly bears

stable isotopes

black bears

pacific

salmon

national-park

ursus-arctos

alaska

ecosystem

nitrogen

diets

Abstract: We hypothesized that the relative availability of meat, indicated by contribution to the diet, would be positively related to body size and population productivity of North American brown, or grizzly, bears (Ui;rus arctos). Dietary contributions of plane matter and meat derived from both;terrestrial and marine sources, were quantified by stable-isotope analysis (delta(13)C and delta(15)N) Of hair samples from 13 brown bear populations. Estimates of adult female body mass, mean litter size, and population density were obtained from two field studies of ours and from other published reports. The populations ranged from largely vegetarian to largely carnivorous, and food resources ranged from mostly terrestrial to mostly marine (salmon, Oncorhyachus spp.). The proportion of meat in the diet was significantly correlated with mean adult female body mass (r = 0.87, P < 0.01), mean litter size (r = 0.72, P < 0.01), and mean population density (r = 0.91, P < 0.01). Salmon was the most important source of meat for the largest, most carnivorous bears and most productive populations. We conclude that availability of meat, particularly salmon; greatly influences habitat quality for brown bears at both the individual level and the population lever.

Notes: Week 8: Marine-Land; Times Cited: 66

Salmon makes for bigger more fecund bears and probably keeps population sizes above what they would be otherwise.

URL: <Go to ISI>://000081598800016

Reference Type: Journal Article

Record Number: 267

Author: Wipfli, M. S.; Hudson, J.; Caouette, J.

Year: 1998

Title: Influence of salmon carcasses on stream productivity: response of biofilm and benthic macroinvertebrates in southeastern Alaska, USA

Journal: Canadian Journal Of Fisheries And Aquatic Sciences

Volume: 55

Issue: 6

Pages: 1503-1511

Date: Jun

Short Title: Influence of salmon carcasses on stream productivity: response of biofilm and benthic macroinvertebrates in southeastern Alaska, USA

Accession Number: ISI:000075805400020

Keywords: British-columbia

pacific salmon

coho salmon

enhancement

periphyton

fertilization

decomposition

enrichment

carbon

river

Abstract: This study was conducted to determine if salmon carcasses (from spawning adults) increased stream biofilm ash-free dry mass (AFDM) and benthic macroinvertebrate abundance in southeastern Alaska, U.S.A. Thirty-six once-through artificial streams were situated along, and received water and drifting invertebrates from, a natural stream. Two treatments (salmon carcass, control) were sampled six times during a 3-month period in a randomized incomplete block design with a 2 x 6 factorial treatment structure. Additionally, two natural stream sites were sampled once for biofilm and macroinvertebrates, one site receiving 75 000 adult salmon migrants during 1996 and the other upstream of spawning salmon. While biofilm AFDM was 15 times higher in carcass-enriched reaches of Margaret Creek, there were no detectable treatment differences in the artificial streams. Total macroinvertebrate densities were up to eight and 25 times higher in carcass-enriched areas of artificial and natural streams, respectively; Chironomidae midges, Baetis and Cinygmula mayflies, and Zapada stoneflies were the most abundant taxa. The increased biofilm in Margaret Creek and macroinvertebrate abundance in both systems suggest that salmon carcasses elevated freshwater productivity. This marine-based positive feedback mechanism may be crucial for sustaining aquatic-riparian ecosystem productivity and long-term salmonid population levels.

Notes: Week 8: Marine-Land; Times Cited: 68

Nice experimental study to test the importance of salmon for stream inverts.

URL: <Go to ISI>://000075805400020

Reference Type: Journal Article

Record Number: 278

Author: Willson, M. F.; Halupka, K. C.

Year: 1995

Title: Anadromous Fish As Keystone Species In Vertebrate Communities

Journal: Conservation Biology

Volume: 9

Issue: 3

Pages: 489-497

Date: Jun

Short Title: Anadromous Fish As Keystone Species In Vertebrate Communities

Accession Number: ISI:A1995RB70400008

Keywords: Merganser mergus-merganser

salmon oncorhynchus-kisutch

juvenile

pacific salmon

eastern vancouver island

food-searching behavior

selective predation

southeast alaska

atlantic salmon

bald eagles

ecology

Abstract: Many wildlife species feed on anadromous fishes of several life-history stages. There is evidence for some wildlife species that the availability of anadromous fish is critically important for survival or reproduction. In some regions anadromous fishes in fresh water appear to be keystone food resources for vertebrate predators and scavengers forging art ecologically significant link between aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. The spatial distribution of anadromous fish in fresh water, including the occurrence of runs in very small streams, has important consequences for wildlife biology (social interactions, distribution, activity patterns, possibly survivorship) and conservation of biodiversity.

Notes: Week 8: Marine-Land; Times Cited: 71

Great paper on the importance of anadromous fish more broadly, not just salmon.

URL: <Go to ISI>://A1995RB70400008

Reference Type: Journal Article

Record Number: 266

Author: Ben-David, M.; Hanley, T. A.; Schell, D. M.

Year: 1998

Title: Fertilization of terrestrial vegetation by spawning Pacific salmon: the role of flooding and predator activity

Journal: Oikos

Volume: 83

Issue: 1

Pages: 47-55

Date: Oct

Short Title: Fertilization of terrestrial vegetation by spawning Pacific salmon: the role of flooding and predator activity

Accession Number: ISI:000075876400006

Keywords: Seasonal-changes

stable isotopes

coho salmon

nitrogen

carbon

stream

diets

delta-c-13

alaska

river

Abstract: Spawning Pacific salmon (Onchorhynchus) transport marine-derived nutrients into streams and rivers. Subsequently, these marine-derived nutrients are incorporated into freshwater and terrestrial food webs through decomposition and predation. In this study, we investigated the influence of spawning Pacific salmon on terrestrial vegetation using stable isotope analysis. We hypothesized that terrestrial vegetation near streams or in areas with activity of piscivorous predators will show higher delta(15)N values compared with the same species growing elsewhere. The influence of spawning Pacific salmon as observed in elevated delta(15)N in terrestrial consumers was also investigated. Data collected from five species of plants in 18 transects from the stream to the upland forest (0 to 1000 m) indicated that a significant decrease in delta(15)N values occurred with increase in distance and relative elevation from the stream in three of the five plant species sampled. Values of delta(15)N in plants at sites actively used by piscivorous predators were higher than those of the same plants growing elsewhere, and similar to values measured near the stream. A decrease in values of delta(15)N and increase in values of delta(13)C in muscles of small mammals, with increase in distance from the stream, indicated that this signature was not a result of direct consumption of salmon carcasses but rather an indirect assimilation of marine-derived nitrogen through terrestrial vegetation. These results indicate that salmon carcasses contribute to the nitrogen pool available to riparian vegetation. The spatial distribution of the marine-derived nitrogen is apparently determined by flooding and the activity patterns of piscivorous predators. The importance of these nitrogen additions to the riparian zone, however, will depend on whether nitrogen is a limiting factor to plant growth in this system, and requires further investigation.

Notes: Week 8: Marine-Land; Times Cited: 75

Important earlier study showing that landscape characteristics (i.e., elevation change from river) impact the spatial distribution of salmon-derived nutrients.

URL: <Go to ISI>://000075876400006

Reference Type: Journal Article

Record Number: 251

Author: Polis, G. A.; Hurd, S. D.

Year: 1995

Title: Extraordinarily High Spider Densities On Islands - Flow Of Energy From The Marine To Terrestrial Food Webs And The Absence Of Predation

Journal: Proceedings Of The National Academy Of Sciences Of The United States Of America

Volume: 92

Issue: 10

Pages: 4382-4386

Date: May 9

Short Title: Extraordinarily High Spider Densities On Islands - Flow Of Energy From The Marine To Terrestrial Food Webs And The Absence Of Predation

Accession Number: ISI:A1995QX87600061

Keywords: Bottom-up

top-down

lizards

populations

communities

abundance

araneidae

araneae

forces

Abstract: Some islands in the Gulf of California support very high densities of spiders. Spider density is negatively correlated with island size; many small islands support 50-200 spiders per m(3) of cactus. Energy for these spiders comes primarily from the ocean and not from in situ productivity by land plants. We explicitly connect the marine and terrestrial systems to show that insular food webs represent one endpoint of the marine web. We describe two conduits for marine energy entering these islands: shore drift and seabird colonies. Both conduits are related to island area, having a much stronger effect on smaller islands. This asymmetric effect helps to explain the exceptionally high spider densities on small islands. Although productivity sets the maximal potential densities, predation (by scorpions) limits realized spider abundance. Thus, prey availability and predation act in concert to set insular spider abundance.

Notes: Week 8: Marine-Land; Times Cited: 88

A classic paper that really set the set the stage for later work by Polis and others on subsidies. I've left out quite a few of Polis's marine subsidy papers to keep this bibliography to a manageable size.

URL: <Go to ISI>://A1995QX87600061

Reference Type: Journal Article

Record Number: 250

Author: Polis, G. A.; Hurd, S. D.

Year: 1996

Title: Linking marine and terrestrial food webs: Allochthonous input from the ocean supports high secondary productivity on small islands and coastal land communities

Journal: American Naturalist

Volume: 147

Issue: 3

Pages: 396-423

Date: Mar

Short Title: Linking marine and terrestrial food webs: Allochthonous input from the ocean supports high secondary productivity on small islands and coastal land communities

Accession Number: ISI:A1996TV85900005

Keywords: Rocky intertidal communities

population-dynamics

benguela ecosystem

baja-california

river continuum

sandy beaches

seabird guano

anak-krakatau

gulf

arthropods

Abstract: This study quantifies the how of energy and biomass from a productive marine system to a relatively unproductive terrestrial system. Biomass from marine food webs (here, the Gulf of California) enters the terrestrial webs of islands and coastal areas through two conduits: (1) shore drift of algal wrack and carrion and (2) colonies of seabirds. Both conduits support dense assemblages of consumers: arthropods are 85-560 times more abundant in the supralittoral than inland and 2.2 times more abundant on islands with seabird colonies than those without. Marine input (MI), not terrestrial primary productivity (TP) by land plants, provides most energy and biomass for terrestrial communities on 16 of 19 study islands. The ratio of perimeter to area (PIA) significantly predicts arthropod abundance on islands and is the major determinant of the relative importance of allochthonous how; we expect PIA ratio to be important wherever transport of nutrients, detritus, and organisms among habitats occurs. Similar transport phenomena generally take place, often with significant impact, on coastal habitats and islands worldwide. Such input subsidizes a diverse array of terrestrial consumers; in many cases, subsidized consumers reach extraordinarily high densities and thus can depress their in situ resources. In general, we propose that such flow is often a key feature of the energetics, structure, and dynamics of populations, food webs, and communities whenever any two habitats, differing in productivity, are juxtaposed.

Notes: Week 8: Marine-Land; Times Cited: 128

Classic paper, combines wrack and guano to estimate relative boost to secondary productivity from these sources.

URL: <Go to ISI>://A1996TV85900005

Reference Type: Journal Article

Record Number: 269

Author: Bilby, R. E.; Fransen, B. R.; Bisson, P. A.

Year: 1996

Title: Incorporation of nitrogen and carbon from spawning coho salmon into the trophic system of small streams: Evidence from stable isotopes

Journal: Canadian Journal Of Fisheries And Aquatic Sciences

Volume: 53

Issue: 1

Pages: 164-173

Date: Jan

Short Title: Incorporation of nitrogen and carbon from spawning coho salmon into the trophic system of small streams: Evidence from stable isotopes

Accession Number: ISI:A1996UB97900018

Keywords: Dissolved organic-carbon

pacific salmon

size

Abstract: Epilithic organic matter, all aquatic macroinvertebrates except shredders, and fish were significantly enriched with N-15 and C-13 in streams (western Washington state, U.S.A.) where spawning coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) were present. Riparian vegetation adjacent to salmon-bearing streams and shredding macroinvertebrates were enriched with N-15 but not C-13. The highest levels of enrichment of the stream biota with the heavier isotopes occurred in the early spring, shortly after carcasses had decomposed. Following spawning, age-0 coho salmon exhibited a doubling in rate of growth. Age-0 cutthroat trout in a nearby stream without salmon exhibited no change in growth rate during the winter. Salmon-derived organic matter was incorporated into the stream biota through direct consumption of eggs, carcasses, and fry and by sorption onto the streambed substrate of dissolved organic matter released by decomposing carcasses. Autotrophic uptake was not an important avenue of incorporation. The proportion of nitrogen contributed by spawning salmon varied among trophic categories, ranging from about 17% in collector-gatherers to more than 30% in juvenile coho salmon. Carbon contributed by spawning salmon ranged from 0% in the foliage of riparian plants and shredders to 34% in juvenile coho salmon.

Notes: Week 8: Marine-Land; Times Cited: 141

Key study showing the importance of salmon-derived nitrogen to riparian vegetation, benthic inverts, and juvenile salmon.

URL: <Go to ISI>://A1996UB97900018

Reference Type: Journal Article

Record Number: 279

Author: Duggins, D. O.; Simenstad, C. A.; Estes, J. A.

Year: 1989

Title: Magnification Of Secondary Production By Kelp Detritus In Coastal Marine Ecosystems

Journal: Science

Volume: 245

Issue: 4914

Pages: 170-173

Date: Jul 14

Short Title: Magnification Of Secondary Production By Kelp Detritus In Coastal Marine Ecosystems

Accession Number: ISI:A1989AE78300027

Notes: Week 8: Marine-Land; Times Cited: 160

One of the very earliest and most influential marine subsidy papers. In her review of the work of Nakano and Polis, Mary Power, cites this paper as a counterexample to her statement that before Polis's work, ecologists were not focusing on cross-boundary flux.

URL: <Go to ISI>://A1989AE78300027

Reference Type: Journal Article

Record Number: 304

Author: Poveda, K.; Steffan-Dewenter, I.; Scheu, S.; Tscharntke, T.

Year: 2006

Title: Belowground effects of organic and conventional farming on aboveground plant-herbivore and plant-pathogen interactions

Journal: Agriculture Ecosystems & Environment

Volume: 113

Issue: 1-4

Pages: 162-167

Date: Apr

Type of Article: Article

Short Title: Belowground effects of organic and conventional farming on aboveground plant-herbivore and plant-pathogen interactions

Alternate Journal: Agric. Ecosyst. Environ.

ISSN: 0167-8809

Accession Number: ISI:000235765100014

Keywords: aphids

cereals

defaunation

farming systems

soil organisms

Septoria

spp

ROOT HERBIVORY

HOST-PLANT

INSECT

SOIL

BIODIVERSITY

EARTHWORMS

PREDATORS

LINKAGES

SYSTEMS

GROWTH

Abstract: Soil organisms may significantly affect the aboveground system. However, the influence of farming practices in modifying the effects of soil organisms on aboveground systems is poorly understood. The aim of our study was to investigate: (1) How important are soil organisms for plant growth and the development of herbivores and pathogens above the ground? (2) How do agricultural management practices affect interactions between soil organisms, plants and their aboveground herbivores and pathogens? To answer these questions we investigated the effect of experimental defaunation of soils from organic versus conventional farms on growth of wheat, abundance of aphids and infection of wheat by Septoria fungi. Plant biomass in soil from conventional farms exceeded that of soils from organic farms, presumably due to the higher nutrient input in the conventional farming system. Soil defaunation likely mobilized nutrients that increased plant growth. Aphid abundance and Septoria infection was reduced by defaunation but only in organic soils. This suggests that soil organisms in organic farming systems are more important for aphid performance and the infection rate by Septoria than in conventional systems. Hence, changes in the soil animal food web caused by fanning practice feed back on above-round organisms, and this appears to be more pronounced in organic farming systems. Further, the results indicate that soil organisms may modify higher trophic levels (aphid and pathogen infection) without significantly affecting lower trophic levels (plant growth). (c) 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Notes: Week 9: Above and Below Ground; ISI Document Delivery No.: 018LF

Times Cited: 0

Experiment examining role of soil (organic vs. conventional) on below-above ground interactions through wheat plants, aphid development, and fungal pathogen infestation. Two farming types (conventional and organic) were used and within those two types, half of the soil plots were defaunated by freezing. Wheat seeds were sown in each pot. Plants were naturally colonized by aphids and fungi. Number of aphids each week was counted and percentage infection of fungi was estimated. Plant shoot and ear biomass was greater in conventional soils than organic. Shoot, ear, and root biomass was greater in defaunated soils than control soil. In organic plots, there were less aphids on defaunated soils and less fungal infection. Soil invertebrates in organic soils facilitated aphids and fungi without increasing plant biomass. Plant food quality therefore can be enhanced without affecting growth.

URL: <Go to ISI>://000235765100014

Link to PDF: internal-pdf://Poveda_2006_AgEcoEnvt-3089022469/Poveda_2006_AgEcoEnvt.pdf

Author Address: Univ Gottingen, D-37073 Gottingen, Germany. Tech Univ Darmstadt, Inst Zool, D-64287 Darmstadt, Germany.

Poveda, K, Univ Gottingen, Waldweg 26, D-37073 Gottingen, Germany.

kpoveda@gwdg.de

Language: English

Reference Type: Journal Article

Record Number: 309

Author: Bardgett, R. D.; Wardle, D. A.; Yeates, G. W.

Year: 1998

Title: Linking above-ground and below-ground interactions: How plant responses to foliar herbivory influence soil organisms

Journal: Soil Biology & Biochemistry

Volume: 30

Issue: 14

Pages: 1867-1878

Date: Dec

Type of Article: Review

Short Title: Linking above-ground and below-ground interactions: How plant responses to foliar herbivory influence soil organisms

Alternate Journal: Soil Biol. Biochem.

ISSN: 0038-0717

Accession Number: ISI:000076458300002

Keywords: UPLAND GRASSLAND SOIL

MICROBIAL BIOMASS

NATIONAL-PARK

SERENGETI

GRASSLANDS

BOUTELOUA-GRACILIS

CARBON ALLOCATION

TRIFOLIUM-REPENS

NUTRIENT-UPTAKE

ROOT EXUDATION

BLUE GRAMA

Abstract: Studies of the effects of above-ground herbivory on soil organisms and decomposer food webs, as well as the processes that they regulate, have largely concentrated on the effects of non-living inputs into the soil, such as dung, urine, body parts and litter. However, there is an increasing body of information which points to the importance of plant physiological responses to herbivory in regulating soil organisms and therefore, implicitly, key soil processes such as decomposition and nutrient mineralisation. In this review we identify the mechanisms by which foliar herbivory may indirectly affect the soil biota and associated below-ground processes through affecting plants, so as to better understand the nature of interactions which exist between above-ground and below-ground biota. We consider two broad pathways by which above-ground foliar herbivory may affect soil biotic communities. The first of these occurs through herbivore effects on patterns of root exudation and carbon allocation. These effects manifest themselves either as short-term changes in plant C allocation and root exudation or as long-term changes in root biomass and morphology. Evidence suggests that these mechanisms positively influence the size and activity of the soil biotic community and may alter the supply of nutrients in the rhizosphere for plant uptake and regrowth. The second of these involves herbivores influencing soil organisms through altering the quality of input of plant litter. Possible mechanisms by which this occurs are through herbivory enhancing nitrogen contents of root litter, through herbivory affecting production of secondary metabolites and concentrations of nutrients in foliage and thus in leaf litter and through selective foliar feeding causing shifts in plant community structure and thus the nature of litter input to the soil. While the effects of herbivory on soil organisms via plant responses maybe extremely important, the directions of these effects are often unpredictable because several mechanisms are often involved and because of the inherently complex nature of soil food-web interactions; this creates obvious difficulties in developing general principles about how herbivory affects soil food-webs. Finally, it is apparent that very little is understood on how responses of soil organisms to herbivory affect those ecosystem-level processes regulated by the soil food-web (e.g. decomposition, nutrient mineralisation) and that such information is essential in developing a balanced understanding about how herbivory affects ecosystem function. (C) 1998 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

Notes: Week 9: Above and Below Ground; ISI Document Delivery No.: 129HT

Times Cited: 123

Review paper on how aboveground herbivores influence belowground soil biota. Root exudus provides excellent nutrient source for microorganisms in the rhizosphere and root exudation had been shown to be affected by aboveground herbivory. Above ground grazing has been found in some cases to increase and in others to decrease root biomass. Litter quality is important in regulating soil biota in its carbon to nutrient ratios, amounts of phenolics, and amounts of carbohydrates. Herbivores aboveground can also influence plant community composition by selective grazing which alters species specific root-associated microfauna. Both direct and indirect effects are both numerous as a result of aboveground herbivorous grazing on belowground biota.

URL: <Go to ISI>://000076458300002

Link to PDF: internal-pdf://Bardgett_1998_SoilBiolBiochem-2370482693/Bardgett_1998_SoilBiolBiochem.pdf

Author Address: Univ Manchester, Sch Biol Sci, Manchester M13 9PT, Lancs, England. Landcare Res, Lincoln 8152, New Zealand. Landcare Res, Palmerston North, New Zealand.

Bardgett, RD, Univ Manchester, Sch Biol Sci, Stopford Bldg,Oxford Rd, Manchester M13 9PT, Lancs, England.

rbardget@fs1.scg.man.ac.uk

Language: English

Reference Type: Journal Article

Record Number: 318

Author: Scheu, S.; Theenhaus, A.; Jones, T. H.

Year: 1999

Title: Links between the detritivore and the herbivore system: effects of earthworms and Collembola on plant growth and aphid development

Journal: Oecologia

Volume: 119

Issue: 4

Pages: 541-551

Date: Jun

Type of Article: Article

Short Title: Links between the detritivore and the herbivore system: effects of earthworms and Collembola on plant growth and aphid development

Alternate Journal: Oecologia

ISSN: 0029-8549

Accession Number: ISI:000081128300009

Keywords: soil fauna

soil food web

herbivores

Lumbricidae

springtails

APORRECTODEA-TRAPEZOIDES

ECTOMYCORRHIZAL FUNGI

MYCORRHIZAL FUNGI

MICROBIAL BIOMASS

ELEVATED CO2

HOST-PLANT

SOIL

NITROGEN

SUCCESSION

SEEDLINGS

Abstract: Effects of Collembola (Heteromurus nitidus and Onychiurus scotarius) and earthworms (Aporrectodea caliginosa and Octolasion tyrtaeum) on the growth of two plant species from different functional groups (Poa anna and Trifolium repens), and on the development of aphids (Myzus persicae) were investigated in a laboratory experiment lasting 20 weeks. Using soil from a fallow site which had been set aside for about 15 years, we expected that nitrogen would be of limited supply to plants and hypothesized that the soil animals studied, particularly earthworms, would increase nutrient availability to plants and thereby also modify aphid reproduction and development. Plant growth was modified strongly by the presence of soil animals. Earthworms caused a more than twofold increase in shoot and root mass of P. annua but increased that of T. repens by only 18% and 6%, respectively. However, earthworms neither affected plant shoot/root ratio nor the nitrogen concentration in plant tissue. In contrast, the presence of Collembola caused a reduction in plant biomass particularly that of P. annua roots, but plant tissue nitrogen concentration was increased, although only slightly. Aphid reproduction on T. repens was lowered in the presence of Collembola on average by 45% but on P. annua increased by a factor of about 3. It is concluded that Collembola decrease aphid reproduction on more palatable host plants like T. repens but increase that on less palatable ones like P. annua. Earthworm presence also affected aphid reproduction but the effect was less consistent than that of Collembola. In the presence of earthworms, aphid reproduction was in one experimental period increased by some 70%. Earthworms also modified the numbers of Collembola and their vertical distribution in experimental chambers. Exploitation of deeper soil layers by H. nitidus was increased but, generally, O. scotarius numbers were reduced whereas those of H. nitidus increased in earthworm treatments. The presence of Collembola also influenced earthworm body mass during the experiment. In general it declined, but in the presence of Collembola loss of body mass of A. caliginosa was more pronounced. We conclude that inhibiting effects between Collembola and earthworms resulted from the use of a common resource, litter material rich in nitrogen. This is supported by the higher C/N ratio of the litter material in the presence of earthworms and Collembola by the end of the experiment. Effects of soil invertebrates like Collembola and earthworms on plant performance and aphid development are assumed to be modified by complex direct and indirect interactions among soil animal groups.

Notes: Week 9: Above and Below Ground; ISI Document Delivery No.: 210WU

Times Cited: 43

Belowground-aboveground experiment with Collembola (spring-tails), earthworms, grass, legumes, and aphids. 56 microcosms set up with defaunated soil and litter material. 14 microcosms had only Collembola, 14 had only earthworms, 14 had both Collembola and earthworms, and 14 had neither. After 5 weeks, three indiv. of either grass or legume species was added to each microcosm. In weeks 15 and 16, one reproductive aphid was added to each microcosm. Experiment ran for a total of 20 weeks. Number of earthworms and biomass of earthworms declined in every microcosm and biomass declined more dramatically in presence of Collembola. Collembola number increased in all microcosms, more dramatically in those with grass. Earthworms reduced carbon in soil in both grass (only when Collembola was present) and legume systems. Both earthworms (dep. on plant species) and Collembola reduced nitrogen concentration in soil. Both earthworms and collembola caused nitrogen leaching and earthworm effect diminshed when Collembola is present. Earthworms increased biomass of both grass and legume, but of grass more dramatically and effects on both were diminshed by presence of Collembola. Collembola increased root/shoot ratio of both plants, particularly of the grass. Earthworms did not affect root/shoot ratio. Earthworms caused increased nitrogen in the roots, while Collembola caused increased nitrogen in the shoots (and decreased nitrogen in the roots). Grass leaves tissue nitrogen decreased then remained constant. Legume tissue concentration increased, then declined. Earthworms increased carbon in grass leaves, not in legumes. More aphid reproduction occured on legumes than on grasses. When Collembola were present, reproduction on legumes decreased but reproduction on grasses was unaffected. Earthworms also increased aphid reproduction. Survival of aphids was better on grasses with earthworms, but unaffected on legumes. The authors conclude that there were inhibitory effects between earthworms and Collembola and that plant nitrogen tissue concentration was insufficient to explain the links between belowground earthworms and Collembola in this study.

URL: <Go to ISI>://000081128300009

Link to PDF: internal-pdf://Scheu_1999_Oecologia-4177034245/Scheu_1999_Oecologia.pdf

Author Address: Tech Univ Darmstadt, Inst Zool, D-64287 Darmstadt, Germany. Univ Gottingen, Inst Zool & Anthropol, D-37073 Gottingen, Germany. Univ London Imperial Coll Sci Technol & Med, NERC, Ctr Populat Biol, Ascot SL5 7PY, Berks, England.

Scheu, S, Tech Univ Darmstadt, Inst Zool, Schnittspahnstr 3, D-64287 Darmstadt, Germany.

Language: English

Reference Type: Journal Article

Record Number: 323

Author: Goverde, M.; van der Heijden, M. G. A.; Wiemken, A.; Sanders, I. R.; Erhardt, A.

Year: 2000

Title: Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi influence life history traits of a lepidopteran herbivore

Journal: Oecologia

Volume: 125

Issue: 3

Pages: 362-369

Date: Nov

Type of Article: Article

Short Title: Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi influence life history traits of a lepidopteran herbivore

Alternate Journal: Oecologia

ISSN: 0029-8549

Accession Number: ISI:000165442700007

Keywords: herbivory

lycaenidae

mycorrhiza

plant-fungal-insect interactions

Polyommatus icarus

LOTUS-CORNICULATUS

PLANT NITROGEN

ELEVATED CO2

GROWTH

COLONIZATION

LEAVES

ROOTS

TEMPERATURE

COMMUNITIES

SEEDLINGS

Abstract: Results from pot and microcosm studies in the greenhouse have shown that plant growth and foliar chemistry is altered by the presence and species composition of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF). The growth and survival of herbivores which feed on plants could, as a consequence, also be affected by these mutualistic soil fungi. Consequently, interactions between AMF, plants and herbivores could occur. To test this, larvae of the common blue butterfly, Polyommatus icarus (Lycaenidae), were fed with sprigs of Lotus corniculatus (Fabaceae) plants which were inoculated with one of two different AMF species, with a mixture of these AMF species or with sprigs of plants which were not inoculated with AMF Survival and larval weight of third instar larvae fed with plants colonised by AMF were greater than those of larvae fed with non-mycorrhizal plants. Survival of larvae feeding on non-mycorrhizal plants was 1.6 times lower than that of larvae feeding on plants inoculated with a mixture of AMF species and 3.8 times lower than that of larvae feeding on plants inoculated with single AMF species. Furthermore, larvae fed with non-mycorrhizal plants attained only about half the weight of larvae fed with mycorrhizal plants after 11 days of growth. These differences in larval performance might be explained by differences in leaf chemistry, since mycorrhizal plants had a 3 times higher leaf P concentration and a higher C/N-ratio. Our results, thus, show that the presence of belowground mutualistic soil fungi influences the performance of aboveground herbivores by altering their food quality. Larval consumption, larval food use and adult lipid concentrations of the common blue butterfly differed between larvae which were fed with plants inoculated with different AMF species. This suggests that the performance of herbivores is not only influenced by the presence of AMF but also depends on the identity of the AMF species colonising the host plants. Moreover, a significant interaction term between AMF species and maternal identity of the larvae occurred for adult dry weight, indicating that the performance of offspring from different females was differently influenced by AMF species composition. To our knowledge, these results show for the first time that the species composition of AMF communities can influence life-history traits of butterfly larvae and possibly herbivores in general.

Notes: Week 9: Above and Below Ground; ISI Document Delivery No.: 376DJ

Times Cited: 31

URL: <Go to ISI>://000165442700007

Link to PDF: internal-pdf://Goverde_2000_Oecologia-0467342336/Goverde_2000_Oecologia.pdf

Author Address: Univ Basel, Dept Integrat Biol, Sect Conservat Biol, CH-4056 Basel, Switzerland. Univ Basel, Dept Integrat Biol, Sect Plant Physiol, CH-4056 Basel, Switzerland.

Goverde, M, Univ Basel, Dept Integrat Biol, Sect Conservat Biol, St Johanns Vorstadt 10, CH-4056 Basel, Switzerland.

Language: English

Reference Type: Journal Article

Record Number: 316

Author: Hooper, D. U.; Bignell, D. E.; Brown, V. K.; Brussaard, L.; Dangerfield, J. M.; Wall, D. H.; Wardle, D. A.; Coleman, D. C.; Giller, K. E.; Lavelle, P.; Van der Putten, W. H.; De Ruiter, P. C.; Rusek, J.; Silver, W. L.; Tiedje, J. M.; Wolters, V.

Year: 2000

Title: Interactions between aboveground and belowground biodiversity in terrestrial ecosystems: Patterns, mechanisms, and feedbacks

Journal: Bioscience

Volume: 50

Issue: 12

Pages: 1049-1061

Date: Dec

Type of Article: Review

Short Title: Interactions between aboveground and belowground biodiversity in terrestrial ecosystems: Patterns, mechanisms, and feedbacks

Alternate Journal: Bioscience

ISSN: 0006-3568

Accession Number: ISI:000166618200005

Keywords: PLANT-SPECIES RICHNESS

SOIL BIODIVERSITY

FOOD-WEBS

HABITAT

RELATIONSHIPS

NATURAL COMMUNITIES

NATIONAL-PARK

FOREST SOILS

BOTTOM-UP

LONG-TERM

DIVERSITY

Notes: Week 9: Above and Below Ground; ISI Document Delivery No.: 396CF

Times Cited: 67

URL: <Go to ISI>://000166618200005

Link to PDF: internal-pdf://Hooper_2001_BioScience-1675736069/Hooper_2001_BioScience.pdf

Author Address: Western Washington Univ, Dept Biol, Bellingham, WA 98225 USA. Univ London Queen Mary & Westfield Coll, Sch Biol Sci, London E1 4NS, England. Univ Reading, Dept Agr, Ctr AgriEnvironm Res, Reading RG6 6AT, Berks, England. Univ Wageningen & Res Ctr, Dept Environm Sci, NL-6700 EC Wageningen, Netherlands. Macquarie Univ, Sch Biol Sci, Ctr Biodivers & Bioresources, Sydney, NSW 2109, Australia. Colorado State Univ, Nat Resource Ecol Lab, Ft Collins, CO 80523 USA. Landcare Res, Lincoln, NE USA. Univ Georgia, Inst Ecol, Athens, GA 30602 USA. Univ Zimbabwe, Dept Soil Sci & Agr Engn, Harare, Zimbabwe. Univ Paris 06, ORSTOM, Lab Ecol Sols Trop, F-93143 Bondy, France. Netherlands Inst Ecol, Ctr Terr Ecol, NL-6666 ZG Heteren, Netherlands. Univ Utrecht, Dept Environm Studies, NL-3508 TC Utrecht, Netherlands. Acad Sci Czech Republ, Inst Soil Biol, CR-37005 Ceske Budejovice, Czech Republic. Univ Calif Berkeley, Dept Environm Sci Policy & Management, Berkeley, CA 94720 USA. Michigan State Univ, Ctr Microbial Ecol, E Lansing, MI 48824 USA. Univ Giessen, Dept Anim Ecol, D-35392 Giessen, Germany.

Hooper, DU, Western Washington Univ, Dept Biol, Bellingham, WA 98225 USA.

Language: English

Reference Type: Journal Article

Record Number: 321

Author: Masters, G. J.; Jones, T. H.; Rogers, M.

Year: 2001

Title: Host-plant mediated effects of root herbivory on insect seed predators and their parasitoids

Journal: Oecologia

Volume: 127

Issue: 2

Pages: 246-250

Type of Article: Article

Short Title: Host-plant mediated effects of root herbivory on insect seed predators and their parasitoids

Alternate Journal: Oecologia

ISSN: 0029-8549

Accession Number: ISI:000168395600013

Keywords: multi-trophic interactions

tephritid

natural enemies

TEPHRITID FLY

IMPACT

GROWTH

OVIPOSITION

DENSITY

FIELD

Abstract: The effects of root herbivory on a tephritid seed predator (Terellia ruficauda) and its parasitoids were investigated. Soil fauna were manipulated by insecticide treatment; host plant (Cirsium palustre) phenology and the oviposition behaviour of both tephritid and parasitoids (Pteromalus elevatus and Torymus chloromerus) recorded. Although insecticide-treated land hence reduced root herbivory) plants had larger flowerheads, population abundances of both tephritids and parasitoids were greater on thistle plants subjected to root herbivory. Percentage parasitism was similar in both treatments. Root herbivory is thought to enhance the nutrient quality of plants and this may have resulted in the tephritid preferentially feeding on thistles whose roots had been attacked. Parasitoids on these plants were probably affected by a combination of increased plant attractivity las for the tephritids), smaller flowerheads aiding ovipositor entry and more tephritid hosts being present. This is the first study to show that root herbivores, through plant-mediated interactions, can affect seed herbivores and also, albeit indirectly through the host, natural enemy trophic levels.

Notes: Week 9: Above and Below Ground; ISI Document Delivery No.: 427GC

Times Cited: 32

Field experiment examining effects of root herbivores on seed-eaters and their parasitoids. 50 plants (thistle) were treated with soil insecticide 50 plants were untreated. Plant height, width, rosette diameter, longest leaf length and number of open buds were recorded. Numbers of adult tephritids (seed-eaters) and their parasitoids were also recorded twice a week from early May to late August; at the end of the experiment, flower buds were dissected and again counted for seed-eaters and parasitoids. Treated plants flowered earlier and had flowerbuds of greater diameter than untreated plants. Tephritids and parasitoids visited untreated plants more often ie plants experiencing root herbivory. The early flowering of the treated plants may have influenced the tephritid and parasitoid. Authors conclude that soil insecticides that remove root herbivores leads to indirect above ground plant and herbivore activity.

URL: <Go to ISI>://000168395600013

Link to PDF: internal-pdf://Masters_2001_Oecologia-3822616320/Masters_2001_Oecologia.pdf

Author Address: CABI Biosci, Ascot SL5 7TA, Berks, England. Univ London Imperial Coll Sci Technol & Med, NERC, Ctr Populat Biol, Ascot SL5 7TA, Berks, England.

Masters, GJ, CABI Biosci, Silwood Pk, Ascot SL5 7TA, Berks, England.

Language: English

Reference Type: Journal Article

Record Number: 317

Author: McNabb, D. M.; Halaj, J.; Wise, D. H.

Year: 2001

Title: Inferring trophic positions of generalist predators and their linkage to the detrital food web in agroecosystems: a stable isotope analysis

Journal: Pedobiologia

Volume: 45

Issue: 4

Pages: 289-297

Date: Jun

Type of Article: Article

Short Title: Inferring trophic positions of generalist predators and their linkage to the detrital food web in agroecosystems: a stable isotope analysis

Alternate Journal: Pedobiologia

ISSN: 0031-4056

Accession Number: ISI:000169759300001

Keywords: detrital food web

stable isotopes

generalist predators

spiders

carabids

detritivores

LABORATORY EXPERIMENTS

INTRAGUILD PREDATION

NITROGEN ISOTOPES

INSECT

PREDATORS

GROUND BEETLES

WOLF SPIDERS

PREY

COLEOPTERA

DELTA-C-13

CARABIDAE

Abstract: We investigated the feasibility of using stable isotope analysis of carbon and nitrogen to infer the trophic level of generalist arthropod predators and the relative strengths of their linkages to detrital and grazing food webs in agroecosystems. Generalist predators are potential biocontrol agents because they prey on herbivores in the grazing food web. Many of these predators also feed on detritivores and fungivores in the soil food web; thus, knowledge of this detrital trophic link may be instrumental to the effective manipulation of generalist predators to enhance their effectiveness in biological control. We analyzed patterns of isotopic concentrations of delta C-13 and delta N-15 in several groups of arthropod predators and their potential prey in replicated cucurbit gardens to which a detrital supplement had been added. Similarity in delta C-13 values between spiders and Collembola suggests that detritivores in this crop system may represent a key prey resource for small spiders, including sheet-web weavers (Linyphiidae) and juvenile wolf spiders (Lycosidae). Isotopic values of delta N-15 place spiders more than one trophic level above Collembola, perhaps dire to substantial intraguild predation and cannibalism. Patterns of delta C-13 and delta N-15 for carabid beetles reveal large interspecific variation in the extent of omnivory, in agreement with documented broad ranges of carabid feeding habits. We conclude that stable isotope analysis is a promising tool for investigating trophic connections in arthropod-dominated food webs in agroecosystems.

Notes: Week 9: Above and Below Ground; ISI Document Delivery No.: 450TN

Times Cited: 15

Cited Reference Count: 40

URL: <Go to ISI>://000169759300001

Link to PDF: internal-pdf://McNabb_2001_Pedobiologia-3974579461/McNabb_2001_Pedobiologia.pdf

Author Address: Univ Kentucky, Dept Entomol, Lexington, KY 40546 USA.

McNabb, DM, Univ Kentucky, Dept Entomol, S-225 Agr Sci Bldg N, Lexington, KY 40546 USA.

Language: English

Reference Type: Journal Article

Record Number: 312

Author: Scheu, S.

Year: 2001

Title: Plants and generalist predators as links between the below-ground and above-ground system

Journal: Basic and Applied Ecology

Volume: 2

Issue: 1

Pages: 3-13

Type of Article: Review

Short Title: Plants and generalist predators as links between the below-ground and above-ground system

Alternate Journal: Basic Appl. Ecol.

ISSN: 1439-1791

Accession Number: ISI:000171075600002

Keywords: soil fauna

herbivores

indirect interactions

trophic cascades

food

web

pest control

decomposer system

herbivore system

ARBUSCULAR MYCORRHIZAL FUNGI

APHID RHOPALOSIPHUM-PADI

COMMUNITY

STRUCTURE

BIOLOGICAL-CONTROL

FOOD WEBS

NATURAL ENEMIES

HOST-PLANT

APORRECTODEA-TRAPEZOIDES

SECONDARY PRODUCTIVITY

RESOURCE AVAILABILITY

Abstract: This review highlights that the above-ground food web strongly depends on the structure and activity of the below-ground animal community. Two pathways connecting the below- and the aboveground community are distinguished: One functioning via soil animal-mediated changes in plant performance which in consequence affect herbivores and thereby the above-ground community; the second functioning via generalist predators which benefit from below-ground energy supply. The first pathway may be considered as bottom-up control of the above-ground community by belowground animals, the second functions by strengthening top-down forces above the ground when generalist predators switch their attacks from decomposers amongst herbivores. It is assumed that both pathways are of significant importance in many terrestrial systems, surprisingly, so far both are hardly investigated. It is stressed that in the plant pathway microbi-detririvores in soil like earthworms, collembolans and protozoans might be considerably more important than root herbivores which directly affect plant growth. The generalist predator pathway is considered to be particularly important in natural systems like grasslands, however, when employing intelligent management strategies which support microbi-detritivore populations and get generalist predators to switch prey from microbi-detritivores to herbivores this pathway may also help in controlling herbivore pest species in arable systems.

Notes: Week 9: Above and Below Ground; ISI Document Delivery No.: 473XZ

Times Cited: 54

This is a review paper that discusses links between belowground and aboveground systems in terms of plant nutrient links and generalist predator pathways. Plants can act as nutrient links both directly and indirectly in terms of the quality and quantity of leaf litter they provide to decomposer organisms and to aboveground herbivores. Between herbivores above and belowground there are positive and negative relationships, depending on context and species. Plants as a nutrient link can be considered "bottom up" control. The other main link discussed is the generalist predator link through trophic cascades. By preying on both insect herbivores aboveground and decomposer organisms, generalist predators can suppress insect herbivores and provide powerful biological controls for agricultural systems. However decomposer organisms are needed to keep those generalist predator populations high enough to be effective. This generalist predator pathway can be considered "top-down" type control.

URL: <Go to ISI>://000171075600002

Link to PDF: internal-pdf://Scheu_2000_BAE-4258229504/Scheu_2000_BAE.pdf

Author Address: Tech Univ Darmstadt, Inst Zool, D-64287 Darmstadt, Germany.

Scheu, S, Tech Univ Darmstadt, Inst Zool, Schnittspahnstr 3, D-64287 Darmstadt, Germany.

Language: English

Reference Type: Journal Article

Record Number: 314

Author: Van der Putten, W. H.; Vet, L. E. M.; Harvey, J. A.; Wackers, F. L.

Year: 2001

Title: Linking above- and belowground multitrophic interactions of plants, herbivores, pathogens, and their antagonists

Journal: Trends in Ecology & Evolution

Volume: 16

Issue: 10

Pages: 547-554

Date: Oct

Type of Article: Editorial Material

Short Title: Linking above- and belowground multitrophic interactions of plants, herbivores, pathogens, and their antagonists

Alternate Journal: Trends Ecol. Evol.

ISSN: 0169-5347

Accession Number: ISI:000171174800010

Keywords: ARBUSCULAR MYCORRHIZAL FUNGI

BIOLOGICAL-CONTROL

NATURAL ENEMIES

POPULATIONS

RESISTANCE

CHALLENGES

RESPONSES

EVOLUTION

PATTERNS

DEFENSE

Abstract: Plants function in a complex multitrophic environment. Most multitrophic studies, however, have almost exclusively focused on aboveground interactions, generally neglecting the fact that above- and belowground organisms interact. The spatial and temporal dynamics of above- and belowground herbivores, plant pathogens, and their antagonists, can differ in space and time. This affects the temporal interaction strengths and impacts of above- and belowground higher trophic level organisms on plants. Combining both above- and belowground compartments in studies of multitrophic interactions throughout the life cycle of plants will improve our understanding of ecology and evolution in the real world.

Notes: Week 9: Above and Below Ground; ISI Document Delivery No.: 475QD

Times Cited: 72

Review of tritrophic interactions and linking them above and belowground and discussion of future research directions. The author reviews differences in the belowground trophic system from the aboveground trophic system (smaller spatial scales, slower transport rates) and then discusses the aboveground and belowground systems seperately. Direct and indirect defence traits are highlighted in plants as protection against aboveground herbivory. Belowground communities are discussed, highlighting soil pathogen influences. Major links between plants, herbivores, pathogens, and their antagonists are both nutritive and non-nutritive (defence pathways) compounds. Evolution can occur in these systems with selection as a driver with key interactions driving specialization (multi-trophic selection arena) but will depend on relative interactive strengths between trophic levels. Spatial and temporal differences between above and below ground systems are discusses, such as the time lag in the responses belowground to above ground plant diversity experiments. Plant life history can shed light on interactive trophic strengths during the course of a plant's lifetime.

URL: <Go to ISI>://000171174800010

Link to PDF: internal-pdf://VanderPutten_2001_Trends-0450403077/VanderPutten_2001_Trends.pdf

Author Address: Netherlands Inst Ecol, Ctr Terr Ecol, Multitroph Interact Dept, NL-6666 ZG Heteren, Netherlands.

Van der Putten, WH, Netherlands Inst Ecol, Ctr Terr Ecol, Multitroph Interact Dept, POB 40, NL-6666 ZG Heteren, Netherlands.

Language: English

Reference Type: Journal Article

Record Number: 320

Author: Wackers, F. L.; Bezemer, T. M.

Year: 2003

Title: Root herbivory induces an above-ground indirect defence

Journal: Ecology Letters

Volume: 6

Issue: 1

Pages: 9-12

Date: Jan

Type of Article: Article

Short Title: Root herbivory induces an above-ground indirect defence

Alternate Journal: Ecol. Lett.

ISSN: 1461-023X

Accession Number: ISI:000179805100003

Keywords: above- below-ground interactions

Agriotes lineatus

cotton

extrafloral nectar

Gossypium herbaceum

indirect defence

induced

defence

root herbivory

wireworms

NECTAR PRODUCTION

PLANTS

INSECT

COTTON

Abstract: Indirect plant defences have largely been studied within the scope of above-ground interactions. Here we provide novel evidence that root herbivory can induce an above-ground indirect defence. Cotton plants (Gossypium herbaceum) exposed to root-feeding wireworms (Agriotes lineatus) increased their foliar extrafloral nectar production ten-fold in comparison to undamaged control plants. Mechanical root damage also yielded an increase in nectar production. In nature, extrafloral nectar production allows plants to recruit predators, which in turn protect the plant against above-ground insect herbivores. Our results show that root-feeding herbivores may alter such above-ground defensive interactions.

Notes: Week 9: Above and Below Ground; ISI Document Delivery No.: 625EZ

Times Cited: 9

Cited Reference Count: 23

URL: <Go to ISI>://000179805100003

Link to PDF: internal-pdf://Wackers_2003-3453415168/Wackers_2003.pdf

Author Address: Netherlands Inst Ecol, NIOO, CTO, NL-6666 ZG Heteren, Netherlands. Univ Wageningen & Res Ctr, Entomol Lab, NL-6700 EH Wageningen, Netherlands.

Wackers, FL, Netherlands Inst Ecol, NIOO, CTO, POB 40, NL-6666 ZG Heteren, Netherlands.

Language: English

Reference Type: Journal Article

Record Number: 305

Author: Blossey, B.; Hunt-Joshi, T. R.

Year: 2003

Title: Belowground herbivory by insects: Influence on plants and aboveground herbivores

Journal: Annual Review of Entomology

Volume: 48

Pages: 521-547

Type of Article: Review

Short Title: Belowground herbivory by insects: Influence on plants and aboveground herbivores

Alternate Journal: Annu. Rev. Entomol.

ISSN: 0066-4170

Accession Number: ISI:000180709200023

Keywords: root herbivory

plant-herbivore interaction

biological weed control

contramensalism

plant physiology

WESTERN CORN-ROOTWORM

BELOW-GROUND HERBIVORY

LOOSESTRIFE

LYTHRUM-SALICARIA

WATER WEEVIL COLEOPTERA

BIOLOGICAL-CONTROL AGENTS

MASKED CHAFER COLEOPTERA

COOL-SEASON TURFGRASSES

SPURGE

EUPHORBIA-ESULA

PURPLE-LOOSESTRIFE

HOST-PLANT

Abstract: Investigations of plant-herbivore interactions continue to be popular; however, a bias neglecting root feeders may limit our ability to understand how herbivores shape plant life histories. Root feeders can cause dramatic plant population declines, often associated with secondary stress factors such as drought or grazing. These severe impacts resulted in substantial interest in root feeders as agricultural pests and increasingly as biological weed control agents, particularly in North America. Despite logistical difficulties, establishment rates in biocontrol programs are equal or exceed those of aboveground herbivores (67.2% for aboveground herbivores, 77.5% for belowground herbivores) and root feeders are more likely to contribute to control (53.7% versus 33.6%). Models predicting root feeders would be negatively affected by competitively superior aboveground herbivores may be limited to early successional habitats or generalist root feeders attacking annual plants. In later successional habitats, root feeders become more abundant and appear to be the more potent force in driving plant performance and plant community composition. Aboveground herbivores, even at high population levels, were unable to prevent buildup of root herbivore populations and the resulting population collapse of their host plants. Significant information gaps exist about the impact of root feeders on plant physiology and secondary chemistry and their importance in natural areas, particularly in the tropics.

Notes: Week 9: Above and Below Ground; ISI Document Delivery No.: 640VT

Times Cited: 25

URL: <Go to ISI>://000180709200023

Link to PDF: internal-pdf://Blossey_AnnualReviews_2003-0001983237/Blossey_AnnualReviews_2003.pdf

Author Address: Cornell Univ, Dept Nat Resources, Ithaca, NY 14853 USA. Arizona State Univ, Dept Biol, Tempe, AZ 85287 USA.

Blossey, B, Cornell Univ, Dept Nat Resources, Fernow Hall, Ithaca, NY 14853 USA.

Language: English

Reference Type: Journal Article

Record Number: 326

Author: Wurst, S.; Jones, T. H.

Year: 2003

Title: Indirect effects of earthworms (Aporrectodea caliginosa) on an above-ground tritrophic interaction

Journal: Pedobiologia

Volume: 47

Issue: 1

Pages: 91-97

Type of Article: Article

Short Title: Indirect effects of earthworms (Aporrectodea caliginosa) on an above-ground tritrophic interaction

Alternate Journal: Pedobiologia

ISSN: 0031-4056

Accession Number: ISI:000181084100011

Keywords: multitrophic interactions

soil nutrients

Aporrectodea caliginosa

aphids

parasitoids

soil biota

PLANT-MEDIATED INTERACTIONS

HOST-PLANT

ROOT HERBIVORY

GROWTH

NITROGEN

LUMBRICIDAE

ALLOCATION

SEEDLINGS

INSECTS

SOIL

Abstract: Effects of earthworms in soils of contrasting nitrogen content on a plant-aphid-parasitoid interaction were investigated in a greenhouse experiment. Presence of earthworms (Aporrectodea caliginosa) increased root biomass and carbon content of shoots of Cardamine hirsuta. The nitrogen content of shoots and roots was increased by earthworms, but only in the more enriched nutrient soil. Aphid reproduction (Myzus persicae) was enhanced by the presence of earthworms. Soil type, but not earthworm presence, affected the dynamics of the parasitoid wasp Aphidius colemani, the number of parasitised aphids was increased on plants growing in the enriched soil. Larger parasitoids also emerged from mummies of plants growing in this soil.

Notes: Week 9: Above and Below Ground; ISI Document Delivery No.: 647GB

Times Cited: 11

URL: <Go to ISI>://000181084100011

Link to PDF: internal-pdf://Wurst_2003_Pedobiologia-0517974528/Wurst_2003_Pedobiologia.pdf

Author Address: Univ London Imperial Coll Sci Technol & Med, NERC, Ctr Populat Biol, Ascot SL5 7PY, Berks, England. Tech Univ Darmstadt, Inst Zool, D-64287 Darmstadt, Germany. Cardiff Univ, Cardiff Sch Biosci, Cardiff CF10 3TL, S Glam, Wales.

Wurst, S, Univ London Imperial Coll Sci Technol & Med, NERC, Ctr Populat Biol, Silwood Pk, Ascot SL5 7PY, Berks, England.

swurst@bio.tu-darmstadt.de

Language: English

Reference Type: Journal Article

Record Number: 311

Author: Moore, J. C.; McCann, K.; Setala, H.; De Ruiter, P. C.

Year: 2003

Title: Top-down is bottom-up: Does predation in the rhizosphere regulate aboveground dynamics?

Journal: Ecology

Volume: 84

Issue: 4

Pages: 846-857

Date: Apr

Type of Article: Review

Short Title: Top-down is bottom-up: Does predation in the rhizosphere regulate aboveground dynamics?

Alternate Journal: Ecology

ISSN: 0012-9658

Accession Number: ISI:000182813600005

Keywords: nutrient dynamics

rhizosphere

soil food webs

stability

trophic

structure

ARBUSCULAR MYCORRHIZAL FUNGI

SOIL BIOLOGICAL-ACTIVITY

FOOD-WEBS

TROPHIC INTERACTIONS

FOLSOMIA-CANDIDA

REAL ECOSYSTEMS

EXPLOITATION

ECOSYSTEMS

TERRESTRIAL ECOSYSTEMS

SUCCESSIONAL PATTERNS

ECTOMYCORRHIZAL FUNGI

Abstract: We explore two aspects of how predation within the rhizosphere influences nutrient availability, plant productivity, and aboveground community dynamics. First, plant roots and soil microbes have a long history of interaction that is centered on the reciprocal acquisition of carbon by microbes and nitrogen by plants. Predators within the rhizosphere alter these interactions in ways that benefit plants but also influence the dynamics of other species within ecosystems and processes that are important to ecosystem function and stability. These same predators regulate their prey in a traditional "top-down" manner but in doing so alter the release of nutrients that may limit plant productivity and thereby affect plant growth in a "bottom-up" fashion as well. Second, much attention has been given to the importance of specific interactions, or, as presented within this series, genes and/or gene products as critical control points. We suggest that control should be viewed within the framework of interactivity. The interdependence between the aboveground and belowground realms can be explained in terms of the patterning of trophic interactions within the rhizosphere and the influence of these interactions on the supply of nutrients and rates of nutrient uptake by plants. While specific interactions may be important, it is the patterning of these interactions into assemblages of species that share similar growth rates and habitats that is the salient feature of the rhizosphere that confers stability, affects nutrient retention, and regulates aboveground and belowground dynamics.

Notes: Week 9: Above and Below Ground; ISI Document Delivery No.: 677NC

Times Cited: 21

Two trophic interactions involving predation as a control point regulating the availability of nutrients from belowground to aboveground are discussed: the nutrient enrichment model and the altering of symbiotic mutualistic interactions. A thorough discussion of the rhizosphere food web is provided. Nutrient enrichment model: growing root leads to greater microbial activity that utilizes nutrients, increases their consumers/predators, who release nutrients after consuming prey. Plant growth is moderated the relative imporatnce of nutrient mineralization by top-down control (predation) of soil predators upon microbial prey and nutrient immobilization through fungal activity (bottom-up control, availability of resources to plants). A model is described that has an aboveground plant, herbivore and the herbivore's predator with a belowground souce nitrogen and long-term dynamics were noted when adjusting nitrogen uptake rates (nutrient enrichment model) or by adjusting symbiotic mutualistic interactions. Dynamics were dependent upon nitrogen availability and uptake and were stabilized by nutrient limitation whereas nutrient enrichment created more unstable states. Authors conclude that nutrient transfer rates regulate rhizosphere food webs, undermining the perspective that gene signals are the center of regulation.

URL: <Go to ISI>://000182813600005

Link to PDF: internal-pdf://Moore_2003_Ecology-3243297029/Moore_2003_Ecology.pdf

Author Address: Univ No Colorado, Dept Biol Sci, Greeley, CO 80639 USA. McGill Univ, Dept Biol, Montreal, PQ H3A 1B1, Canada. Univ Helsinki, Dept Ecol & Environm Sci, FIN-15140 Lahti, Finland. Univ Utrecht, Dept Environm Studies, NL-3508 Utrecht, Netherlands.

Moore, JC, Univ No Colorado, Dept Biol Sci, Greeley, CO 80639 USA.

Language: English

Reference Type: Journal Article

Record Number: 315

Author: Bardgett, R. D.; Wardle, D. A.

Year: 2003

Title: Herbivore-mediated linkages between aboveground and belowground communities

Journal: Ecology

Volume: 84

Issue: 9

Pages: 2258-2268

Date: Sep

Type of Article: Article

Short Title: Herbivore-mediated linkages between aboveground and belowground communities

Alternate Journal: Ecology

ISSN: 0012-9658

Accession Number: ISI:000185226100003

Keywords: decomposition

ecosystem function

herbivores

multitrophic

interactions

nutrient mineralization

plant litter

root herbivores

soil biota

soil fauna

EXPERIMENTAL GRASSLAND COMMUNITY

SOIL-BORNE PATHOGENS

INSECT

HERBIVORY

PLANT SUCCESSION

MICROBIAL COMMUNITY

GRAZING ECOSYSTEM

MOOSE HERBIVORY

NITROGEN

PRODUCTIVITY

DIVERSITY

Abstract: Understanding how terrestrial ecosystems function requires a combined aboveground-belowground approach, because of the importance of feedbacks that occur between herbivores, producers, and the decomposer subsystem. In this paper, we identify several mechanisms by which herbivores can indirectly affect decomposer organisms and soil processes through altering the quantity and quality of resources entering the soil. We show that these mechanisms are broadly similar in nature for both foliar and root herbivory, regardless of whether they operate in the short term as a result of physiological responses of individual plants to herbivore attack or long-term following alteration of plant community structure, by herbivores and subsequent changes in the quality of litter inputs to soil. We propose that a variety of possible mechanisms is responsible for the idiosyncratic nature of herbivore effects on soil biota and ecosystem function; positive, negative, or neutral effects of herbivory are possible depending upon the balance of these different mechanisms. However, we predict that positive effects of herbivory on soil biota and soil processes are most common in ecosystems of high soil fertility and high consumption rates, whereas negative effects are most common in unproductive ecosystems with low consumption rates. The significance of multiple-species herbivore communities is also emphasized, and we propose that if resource use complementarity among herbivore species or functional groups leads to greater total consumption of phytomass, and thus greater net herbivory, then both positive and negative consequences of increasing herbivore diversity for belowground properties and processes are theoretically possible. Research priorities are highlighted and include a need for comparative studies of herbivore impacts on above- and belowground processes across ecosystems of varying productivity, as well as a heed for experimental testing of the influence of antiherbivore defense compounds on complex multitrophic interactions in the rhizosphere and the significance of multiple herbivore species communities on these plant-soil interactions.

Notes: Week 9: Above and Below Ground; ISI Document Delivery No.: 719VQ

Times Cited: 51

Review paper discussing the role of herbivory (both foliar and root) upon belowground systems and feedbacks to aboveground systems. Three mechanisms of herbivore influences upon decomposer systems are discussed: alteration of resource quantity (by inducing plant physiological changes), changes in resource quality (directly through excretion or indirectly by inducing tissue responses), and alterations to functional composition of vegetation (through long time scales). Differences between single-herbivore species systems and multiple-herbivore species systems are proposed as a range of potential effects, depending on species to species interactions and resource-partitioning effects. Herbivore effects are thought to be in general positive on soil biota in productive, fertile systems and negative in unproductive ecosystems. Suggested areas for future research are stressed.

URL: <Go to ISI>://000185226100003

Link to PDF: internal-pdf://Bardgett_2003_Ecology-0500981253/Bardgett_2003_Ecology.pdf

Author Address: Univ Lancaster, Inst Environm & Nat Sci, Lancaster LA1 4YQ, England. Landcare Res, Lincoln, NE USA. Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Dept Forest Vegetat Ecol, SE-90183 Umea, Sweden.

Bardgett, RD, Univ Lancaster, Inst Environm & Nat Sci, Lancaster LA1 4YQ, England.

Language: English

Reference Type: Journal Article

Record Number: 327

Author: Wurst, S.; Langel, R.; Reineking, A.; Bonkowski, M.; Scheu, S.

Year: 2003

Title: Effects of earthworms and organic litter distribution on plant performance and aphid reproduction

Journal: Oecologia

Volume: 137

Issue: 1

Pages: 90-96

Date: Sep

Type of Article: Article

Short Title: Effects of earthworms and organic litter distribution on plant performance and aphid reproduction

Alternate Journal: Oecologia

ISSN: 0029-8549

Accession Number: ISI:000185674200011

Keywords: multitrophic interactions

nitrogen uptake

plant foraging

soil

macrofauna

herbivores

LOLIUM-PERENNE L.

NITROGEN CAPTURE

ROOT PROLIFERATION

WHITE CLOVER

GROWTH

SOIL

HETEROGENEITY

LUMBRICIDAE

RESPONSES

RYEGRASS

Abstract: Human management practices and large detritivores such as earthworms incorporate plant litter into the soil, thereby forming a heterogeneous soil environment from which plant roots extract nutrients. In a greenhouse experiment we investigated effects of earthworms and spatial distribution of N-15-labelled grass litter on plants of different functional groups [Lolium perenne (grass), Plantago lanceolata (forb), Trifolium repens (legume)]. Earthworms enhanced shoot and root growth in L. perenne and P. lanceolata and N uptake from organic litter and soil in all plant species. Litter concentrated in a patch (compared with litter mixed homogeneously into the soil) increased shoot biomass and N-15 uptake from the litter in L. perenne and enhanced root proliferation in P. lanceolata when earthworms were present. Growth of clover (T. repens) was rather independent of the presence of earthworms and organic litter distribution: nevertheless, clover took up more nitrogen in the presence of earthworms and exploited more N-15 from the added litter than the other plant species. The magnitude of the effects of earthworms and organic litter distribution differed between the plant species, indicating different responses of plants with contrasting root morphology. Aphid (Myzus persicae) reproduction was reduced on P. lanceolata in the presence of earthworms. We suggest that earthworm activity may indirectly alter plant chemistry and hence defence mechanisms against herbivores.

Notes: Week 9: Above and Below Ground; ISI Document Delivery No.: 727RZ

Times Cited: 12

URL: <Go to ISI>://000185674200011

Link to PDF: internal-pdf://Wurst_2003_Oecologia-3773538816/Wurst_2003_Oecologia.pdf

Author Address: Tech Univ Darmstadt, Inst Zool, D-64287 Darmstadt, Germany. Univ Gottingen, Forschungszentrum Waldokosyst, Kompetenzzentrum Stabile Isotope, D-37077 Gottingen, Germany.

Wurst, S, Tech Univ Darmstadt, Inst Zool, Schnittspahnstr 3, D-64287 Darmstadt, Germany.

Language: English

Reference Type: Journal Article

Record Number: 313

Author: Wardle, D. A.; Bardgett, R. D.; Klironomos, J. N.; Setala, H.; van der Putten, W. H.; Wall, D. H.

Year: 2004

Title: Ecological linkages between aboveground and belowground biota

Journal: Science

Volume: 304

Issue: 5677

Pages: 1629-1633

Date: Jun

Type of Article: Review

Short Title: Ecological linkages between aboveground and belowground biota

Alternate Journal: Science

ISSN: 0036-8075

Accession Number: ISI:000221934300038

Keywords: ARBUSCULAR MYCORRHIZAL FUNGI

PLANT COMMUNITY STRUCTURE

ELEVATED

CARBON-DIOXIDE

SOIL BIOTA

ECOSYSTEM PROPERTIES

SPECIES-DIVERSITY

BOREAL FORESTS

HOST-PLANT

NITROGEN

GRASSLAND

Abstract: All terrestrial ecosystems consist of aboveground and belowground components that interact to influence community- and ecosystem-level processes and properties. Here we show how these components are closely interlinked at the community level, reinforced by a greater degree of specificity between plants and soil organisms than has been previously supposed. As such, aboveground and belowground communities can be powerful mutual drivers, with both positive and negative feedbacks. A combined aboveground-belowground approach to community and ecosystem ecology is enhancing our understanding of the regulation and functional significance of biodiversity and of the environmental impacts of human-induced global change phenomena.

Notes: Week 9: Above and Below Ground; ISI Document Delivery No.: 827WL

Times Cited: 75

Discussion of aboveground-belowground biotic community linkages. Plants provide decomposer systems with roots and carbon. Decomposers recycle nutrients which influences plant growth and community composition. Plant community composition influences root-associated organisms (specific) and decomposer communities (context is important). Authors discuss positive and negative direct and indirect influences of linkages with positive or negative feebacks possible and the differences between these for fertile, productive ecosystems and infertile, unproductive ecosystems. Community responses are discussed from above to below (fertile vs. unfertile ecosystems) and from below to above (sympionts, root-feeding pathogens). Also plant community structure responds to detrital food web changes - absence of soil macrofauna led to altered nutrient dynamics above ground. The influence of belowground community diversity upon aboveground ecosystems is discussed across a gradient of relative ecosystem fertility. Decomposer diversity effects upon plant production may not always be positive, such as when earthworms are included (negative). In general, larger bodied soil organisms tend to reduce the aboveground effects of small-sized soil organisms. Global change consequences are discussed, such as CO2 enrichment, plant invasions (& nitrogen effects), and soil organism invasions, and the importance of the above-below linkages in analyzing those consequences.

URL: <Go to ISI>://000221934300038

Link to PDF: internal-pdf://Wardle_2004_Science-4023387653/Wardle_2004_Science.pdf

Author Address: Landcare Res, Lincoln, New Zealand. Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Dept Forest Vegetat Ecol, SE-90183 Umea, Sweden. Univ Lancaster, Inst Environm & Nat Sci, Dept Biol Sci, Lancaster LA1 4YQ, England. Univ Guelph, Dept Bot, Guelph, ON N1G 2W1, Canada. Univ Helsinki, Dept Ecol & Environm Sci, FIN-15140 Lahti, Finland. Netherlands Inst Ecol, Dept Multitroph Interact, Heteren, Netherlands. Colorado State Univ, Nat Resource Ecol Lab, Ft Collins, CO 80523 USA.

Wardle, DA, Landcare Res, POB 69, Lincoln, New Zealand.

david.wardle@svek.slu.se

Language: English

Reference Type: Journal Article

Record Number: 325

Author: Wurst, S.; Dugassa-Gobena, D.; Langel, R.; Bonkowski, M.; Scheu, S.

Year: 2004

Title: Combined effects of earthworms and vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizas on plant and aphid performance

Journal: New Phytologist

Volume: 163

Issue: 1

Pages: 169-176

Date: Jul

Type of Article: Article

Short Title: Combined effects of earthworms and vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizas on plant and aphid performance

Alternate Journal: New Phytol.

ISSN: 0028-646X

Accession Number: ISI:000221977600019

Keywords: vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhiza (VAM)

earthworms

nitrogen uptake

iridoid glycosides

aphids

below-above-ground interactions

LIFE-HISTORY TRAITS

HOST-PLANT

DEFENSIVE CHEMISTRY

LITTER

DISTRIBUTION

EXTERNAL HYPHAE

FUNGI

NITROGEN

SOIL

GROWTH

TRANSPORT

Abstract: Vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhiza (VAM) and earthworms are known to affect plant and herbivore performance. However, surprisingly few studies have investigated their interactions. In a glasshouse experiment we investigated the effects of earthworms (Aporrectodea caliginosa) and VAM (Glomus intraradices) on the growth and chemistry of Plantago lanceolata and the performance of aphids (Myzus persicae). Earthworms did not affect VAM root colonization. Earthworms enhanced shoot biomass, and VAM reduced root biomass. VAM increased plant phosphorus content, but reduced the total amount of N in leaves. Earthworms led to a preferential uptake of soil N compared with N-15 from the added grass residues in the absence of VAM. Earthworm presence reduced the concentration of catalpol. Earthworms and VAM combined accelerated the development of M. persicae, while the development tended to be delayed when only VAM or earthworms were present. We suggest that earthworms promote plant growth by enhancing soil N availability and may affect herbivores by influencing concentrations of secondary metabolites. VAM enhances the P uptake of plants, but presumably competes with plant roots for N.

Notes: Week 9: Above and Below Ground; ISI Document Delivery No.: 828MO

Times Cited: 5

URL: <Go to ISI>://000221977600019

Link to PDF: internal-pdf://Wurst_2004_NewPhytologist-3370032640/Wurst_2004_NewPhytologist.pdf

Author Address: Tech Univ Darmstadt, Inst Zool, D-64287 Darmstadt, Germany. Univ Gottingen, Inst Pflanzenpathol & Pflanzenschutz, D-37077 Gottingen, Germany. Univ Gottingen, Forschungszentrum Waldokosyst, Kompetenzzentrum Stabile Isotope, D-37077 Gottingen, Germany.

Wurst, S, Tech Univ Darmstadt, Inst Zool, Schnittspahnstr 3, D-64287 Darmstadt, Germany.

swurst@bio.tu-darmstadt.de

Language: English

Reference Type: Journal Article

Record Number: 324

Author: Newington, J. E.; Setala, H.; Bezemer, T. M.; Jones, T. H.

Year: 2004

Title: Potential effects of earthworms on leaf-chewer performance

Journal: Functional Ecology

Volume: 18

Issue: 5

Pages: 746-751

Date: Oct

Type of Article: Article

Short Title: Potential effects of earthworms on leaf-chewer performance

Alternate Journal: Funct. Ecol.

ISSN: 0269-8463

Accession Number: ISI:000224000900016

Keywords: below-ground/above-ground linkage

earthworm

indirect nutrient effect

Mamestra brassicae

microcosm

PLANT-GROWTH

FAUNAL INTERACTIONS

MYCORRHIZAL FUNGI

INSECT

HERBIVORES

SYSTEM

ROOT

RHIZOSPHERE

PREDATORS

LINKS

Abstract: 1. Detritivores affect plant performance and therefore have the potential indirectly to affect above-ground herbivore populations. 2. In a microcosm study we asked whether changes in the performance of two plant species, Cardamine hirsuta L. and Veronica persica Poiret., arising from the activity of various earthworm communities influenced the consumption rate and development of a leaf-chewer, Mamestra brassicae L. 3. Earthworms increased soil nitrate and foliar nitrogen concentrations. There was no associated increase in plant biomass. 4. There was no significant effect of earthworm treatment on the biomass of M. brassicae larvae. However, highest larval mortality occurred in microcosms without earthworms, while the proportion of larvae that had reached the final instar was lowest. In a 24 h feeding trial, the consumption rate of V. persica foliage by M. brassicae was higher when plants were grown in soil containing earthworms. The complexity of earthworm communities did not affect M. brassicae consumption rates and consequent development. 5. This is the first study to show the potential of detritivore communities indirectly to affect leaf-chewing herbivores. It highlights the need to explore the interactions that occur between above- and below-ground components of plant-insect communities.

Notes: Week 9: Above and Below Ground; ISI Document Delivery No.: 855UR

Times Cited: 3

Experiment examined belowground to aboveground influences by looking at earthworm effects on a lepidopteran herbivore through shallow or deep rooting plant intermediates. 60 pots prepared with soil mixture base and leaf mulch layer on top. A microbial leachate and a population of Collembolan species were added to each pot. Pots were then seeded with each of the plants and after 14 days earthworms were added. Control had no earthworms, two treatments had one earthworm species, last treatment had four earthworm species. 12 weeks later, caterpillers were added to all microcosms. A feeding trial was also run using leaf discs to look at food consumption for larvae. Highest soil nitrate was found in the four earthworm treatment. Plant biomass was unaffected by earthworms however foliar N was highest in the presence of earthworms. The highest proportion of caterpillar larvae was found with the one earthworm species. Larvae also consumed more leaves when earthworms were present. Authors concluded that belowground activity can influence aboveground activity (of leaf-chewers) by changing nutrients available to plants and by affecting quality of foliage.

URL: <Go to ISI>://000224000900016

Link to PDF: internal-pdf://Newington_2004_FunctEco-3957165056/Newington_2004_FunctEco.pdf

Author Address: Univ London Imperial Coll Sci Technol & Med, NERC, Ctr Populat Biol, Ascot SL5 7PY, Berks, England. Univ Helsinki, Dept Ecol & Environm Sci, FIN-15140 Lahti, Finland. NIOO CTO, Dept Multitroph Interact, NL-6666 ZG Heteren, Netherlands. Univ Wales Coll Cardiff, Biodivers & Ecol Proc Res Grp, Cardiff Sch Biosci, Cardiff CF10 3TL, S Glam, Wales.

Newington, JE, Environm Agcy, Rivers House,Belvedere Rd,Abbey Wood, London SE2 9AQ, England.

john.newington@environment-agency.gov.uk

Language: English

Reference Type: Journal Article

Record Number: 308

Author: Poveda, K.; Steffan-Dewenter, I.; Scheu, S.; Tscharntke, T.

Year: 2005

Title: Effects of decomposers and herbivores on plant performance and aboveground plant-insect interactions

Journal: Oikos

Volume: 108

Issue: 3

Pages: 503-510

Date: Mar

Type of Article: Article

Short Title: Effects of decomposers and herbivores on plant performance and aboveground plant-insect interactions

Alternate Journal: Oikos

ISSN: 0030-1299

Accession Number: ISI:000226898200008

Keywords: HOST-PLANT

RAPHANUS-RAPHANISTRUM

MEDIATED INTERACTIONS

FLORAL

CHARACTERS

FOLIAR HERBIVORY

ROOT HERBIVORY

WILD RADISH

GROWTH

POLLINATORS

EARTHWORMS

Abstract: Most ecologists acknowledge that plants are subject to complex interactions between both below- and aboveground dwelling animals. However, these complex interactions are seldomly investigated simultaneously. In a factorial common garden experiment we tested single and combined effects of decomposers, root herbivores and leaf herbivores on the growth, flower visitation, and abundance of naturally colonizing aphids and parasitoids on wild mustard (Sinapis arvensis). We found that the individual presence of either root herbivores or decomposers resulted in increased aphid abundance, demonstrating that the same aboveground plant-insect interaction can be released by different belowground processes. Enhanced aphid densities caused higher numbers of parasitoids. Furthermore, decomposers increased plant growth and plant fitness (measured as the number of seeds produced), indicating that mustard may benefit from nutrients provided by decomposers, regardless whether plants are attacked by root herbivores or leaf herbivores, or both simultaneously. More flower visits were observed in plants attacked by root herbivores but without leaf herbivores than in plants with both herbivores, suggesting that root herbivory can modify flower attractivity to pollinators. Our results suggest that patterns in plant-insect interactions above the ground are not only affected by aboveground factors but also by a wealth of different belowground processes mediated by the plant.

Notes: Week 9: Above and Below Ground; ISI Document Delivery No.: 895XQ

Times Cited: 2

URL: <Go to ISI>://000226898200008

Link to PDF: internal-pdf://Poveda_2005_Oikos-2822589701/Poveda_2005_Oikos.pdf

Author Address: Tech Univ Darmstadt, DE-37073 Darmstadt, Germany. Univ Gottingen, DE-37073 Gottingen, Germany.

Poveda, K, Tech Univ Darmstadt, Schnittspahnstr 3, DE-37073 Darmstadt, Germany.

kpoveda@uaoe.gwdg.de

Language: English

Reference Type: Journal Article

Record Number: 310

Author: Bezemer, T. M.; De Deyn, G. B.; Bossinga, T. M.; van Dam, N. M.; Harvey, J. A.; Van der Putten, W. H.

Year: 2005

Title: Soil community composition drives aboveground plant-herbivore-parasitoid interactions

Journal: Ecology Letters

Volume: 8

Issue: 6

Pages: 652-661

Date: Jun

Type of Article: Article

Short Title: Soil community composition drives aboveground plant-herbivore-parasitoid interactions

Alternate Journal: Ecol. Lett.

ISSN: 1461-023X

Accession Number: ISI:000229389500010

Keywords: aboveground-belowground interactions

aphid

Aphidius colemani

fitness

herbivory

microcosm

nematode

parasitoid

Rhopalosiphum padi

ARBUSCULAR MYCORRHIZAL FUNGI

BELOW-GROUND HERBIVORY

ROOT HERBIVORY

HOST-PLANT

INSECT HERBIVORES

EARTHWORMS

PERFORMANCE

GRASSLAND

ECOSYSTEMS

DIVERSITY

Abstract: Soil organisms can influence higher trophic level aboveground organisms, but only very few studies have considered such effects. We manipulated soil community composition of model grassland ecosystems by introducing nematode communities, microorganisms, neither or both groups. Above ground, aphids (Rhopalosiphum padi) and parasitoids (Aphidius colemani) were introduced, and we measured individual performance and population dynamics of plants, aphids and parasitoids. In microcosms with nematode inoculations either with or without microorganism inoculation, aphids offspring production was significantly reduced by 31%. Aphid populations on both host plants Agrostis capillaris and Anthoxanthum odoratum were lowest in microcosms with combined nematode and microorganism inoculations. Opposite results were found for parasitoids. While the number of emerged parasitoids did not differ between treatments, parasitoid mortality and the proportion of males were significantly lower in microcosms with nematode and microorganism inoculations. Parasitized aphids were significantly larger in microcosms with nematodes inoculated. Plant biomass did not differ, but in the preferred host plant A. odoratum, foliar phenolic content was reduced in the presence of nematodes, and also the concentration of amino acids in the phloem. This study shows that the composition of the soil community matters for aboveground multitrophic interactions.

Notes: Week 9: Above and Below Ground; ISI Document Delivery No.: 930AZ

Times Cited: 6

URL: <Go to ISI>://000229389500010

Link to PDF: internal-pdf://Bezemer_2005_EcologyLetters-2236336645/Bezemer_2005_EcologyLetters.pdf

Author Address: Netherlands Inst Ecol NIOO KNAW, Ctr Terr Ecol, NL-6666 ZG Heteren, Netherlands. Univ Wageningen & Res Ctr, Nat Conservat & Plant Ecol Grp, NL-6708 PD Wageningen, Netherlands. Univ Wageningen & Res Ctr, Nematol Lab, NL-6700 ES Wageningen, Netherlands. Univ Wageningen & Res Ctr, Entomol Lab, NL-6700 EH Wageningen, Netherlands.

Bezemer, TM, Netherlands Inst Ecol NIOO KNAW, Ctr Terr Ecol, NL-6666 ZG Heteren, Netherlands.

martijn.bezemer@wur.nl

Language: English

Reference Type: Journal Article

Record Number: 307

Author: Wardle, D. A.; Williamson, W. M.; Yeates, G. W.; Bonner, K. I.

Year: 2005

Title: Trickle-down effects of aboveground trophic cascades on the soil food web

Journal: Oikos

Volume: 111

Issue: 2

Pages: 348-358

Date: Nov

Type of Article: Article

Short Title: Trickle-down effects of aboveground trophic cascades on the soil food web

Alternate Journal: Oikos

ISSN: 0030-1299

Accession Number: ISI:000232979300015

Keywords: BELOW-GROUND COMMUNITIES

MICROBIAL BIOMASS

SPECIES IDENTITY

HOST-PLANT

DIVERSITY

ECOSYSTEMS

BIOTA

HERBIVORY

NEMATODES

FOREST

Abstract: Trophic cascades are increasingly being regarded as important features of aboveground and belowground food webs, but the effects of aboveground cascades on soil food webs, and vice versa, remains essentially unexplored. We conducted an experiment consisting of model synthesised communities containing grassland plant and invertebrate species, in which treatments included soil only, soil+plants, soil+plants+aphids, and soil+plants+aphids+predators; predator treatments consisted of the lacewing Micromus tasmaniae and ladybird beetle Coccinella undecimpunctata added either singly or in combination. Addition of Micromus largely reversed the negative effects of aphids on plant biomass, while both of the predator species caused large changes in the relative abundances of dominant plant species. Predators of aphids also affected several components of the belowground subsystem. Micromus had positive indirect effects on the primary consumer of the soil decomposer food web (microflora), probably through promoting greater input of basal resources to the decomposer subsystem. Predator treatments also influenced densities of the tertiary consumers of the soil food web (top predatory nematodes), most likely through inducing changes in plant community composition and therefore the quality of resource input to the soil. The secondary consumers of the soil food web (microbe-feeding nematodes) were, however, unresponsive. The fact that some trophic levels of the soil food web but not others responded to aboveground manipulations is explicable in terms of top-down and bottom-up forces differentially regulating different belowground trophic levels. Addition of aphids also influenced microbial community structure, promoted soil bacteria at the expense of fungi, and enhanced the diversity of herbivorous nematodes; in all cases these effects were at least partially reversed by addition of Micromus. These results in tandem point to upper level consumers in aboveground food webs as a potential driver of the belowground subsystem, and provide evidence that predator-induced trophic cascades aboveground can have effects that trickle through soil food webs.

Notes: Week 9: Above and Below Ground; ISI Document Delivery No.: 979XU

Times Cited: 2

Experimental study examining whether aboveground trophic cascades have impacts on three belowground trophic levels (primary consumers: microflora, herbivorous nematodes; secondary consumers: microbe-feeding nematodes, rotifers; tertiary consumers: predatory nematodes). Aboveground plant biomass, root biomass, soil percent carbon, soil percent nitrogen, and soil pH were measured at the end of the experiment. Microbial basal respiration and substrate induced respiration (indicative of active microbial biomass) was determined. Two measures of microbial community composition were measured: one by analyzing phospholipid fatty acids to separate bacteria and fungi and another based on characterizing substrate utilisation (measured respiratory response (CO2) of the microflora to each of the added substrates. Soil nematodes were extracted and divided into three trophic levels: microbe feeders, herbivores, predators). The presence of two predator species (as opposed to just one) influenced plant species composition more than belowground trophic interactions. Aboveground trophic webs had the most significant effects on tertiary consumers belowground. Primary consumers also were affected; secondary consumers were not.

URL: <Go to ISI>://000232979300015

Link to PDF: internal-pdf://Wardle_2005_Oikos-3544162821/Wardle_2005_Oikos.pdf

Author Address: Landcare Res, Lincoln, New Zealand. Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Dept Forest Vegetat Ecol, SE-90183 Umea, Sweden. Landcare Res, Palmerston North, New Zealand.

Wardle, DA, Landcare Res, POB 69, Lincoln, New Zealand.

david.wardle@svek.slu.se

Language: English

Reference Type: Journal Article

Record Number: 319

Author: De Deyn, G. B.; Van der Putten, W. H.

Year: 2005

Title: Linking aboveground and belowground diversity

Journal: Trends in Ecology & Evolution

Volume: 20

Issue: 11

Pages: 625-633

Date: Nov

Type of Article: Review

Short Title: Linking aboveground and belowground diversity

Alternate Journal: Trends Ecol. Evol.

ISSN: 0169-5347

Accession Number: ISI:000233213100010

Keywords: MYCORRHIZAL FUNGAL DIVERSITY

PLANT-INSECT INTERACTIONS

SOIL FOOD-WEB

SPECIES RICHNESS

COMMUNITY COMPOSITION

GRASSLAND ECOSYSTEMS

BIODIVERSITY

SCALE

HERBIVORES

ECOLOGY

Abstract: Aboveground and belowground species interactions drive ecosystem properties at the local scale, but it is unclear how these relationships scale-up to regional and global scales. Here, we discuss our current knowledge of aboveground and belowground diversity links from a global to a local scale. Global diversity peaks towards the Equator for large, aboveground organisms, but not for small (mainly belowground) organisms, suggesting that there are size-related biodiversity gradients in global aboveground-belowground linkages. The generalization of aboveground-belowground diversity relationships, and their role in ecosystem functioning, requires surveys at scales that are relevant to the organisms and ecosystem properties. Habitat sizes and diversity gradients can differ significantly between aboveground and belowground organisms and between ecosystems. These gradients in biodiversity and plant community trait perception need to be acknowledged when studying aboveground-belowground biodiversity linkages.

Notes: Week 9: Above and Below Ground; ISI Document Delivery No.: 983EE

Times Cited: 4

URL: <Go to ISI>://000233213100010

Link to PDF: internal-pdf://DeDeyn_2005_Trends-0181769728/DeDeyn_2005_Trends.pdf

Author Address: Univ Guelph, Dept Integrat Biol, Guelph, ON N1G 2W1, Canada. Univ Wageningen & Res Ctr, Nematol Lab, NL-6700 ES Wageningen, Netherlands. Netherlands Inst Ecol, NL-6666 GA Heteren, Netherlands.

De Deyn, GB, Univ Guelph, Dept Integrat Biol, Guelph, ON N1G 2W1, Canada.

gerlindede@gmail.com

Language: English

Reference Type: Journal Article

Record Number: 322

Author: Gange, A. C.; West, H. M.

Year: 1994

Title: Interactions between Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi and Foliar-Feeding Insects in Plantago-Lanceolata L

Journal: New Phytologist

Volume: 128

Issue: 1

Pages: 79-87

Date: Sep

Type of Article: Article

Short Title: Interactions between Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi and Foliar-Feeding Insects in Plantago-Lanceolata L

Alternate Journal: New Phytol.

ISSN: 0028-646X

Accession Number: ISI:A1994PK32000009

Keywords: MYCORRHIZA

FOLIAR-FEEDING INSECT

HERBIVORY

PLANTAGO LANCEOLATA

CARBON/NITROGEN RATIO

ROOTS

NITROGEN

GROWTH

CARBON

HERBIVORY

LEPIDOPTERA

ALLOCATION

STORAGE

BIOMASS

Abstract: A field experiment was conducted to investigate whether infection by arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi has any effect on herbivory by foliar-feeding insects. Plants of Plantago lanceolata L. were grown in a randomized block design and natural levels of mycorrhizal infection reduced by the application of the granular fungicide iprodione. Plant growth responses were examined and herbivore bioassays performed by rearing both a chewing and sucking insect on the leaves of mycorrhizal and fungicide-treated plants. Fungicide application successfully reduced mycorrhizal infection, and this led to reductions in foliar biomass, caused by a lower leaf number. However, fungicide-treated plants suffered consistently higher levels of damage by generalist chewing and leaf-mining insects, which colonized the plants. The chewing insect bioassay confirmed the field results, in that larvae of Arctia caja L. (Lepidoptera: Arctiidae) consumed more leaf material from plants in which infection was reduced. There was no evidence that AM fungi altered food quality for the chewing insect. Instead, infection caused an increase in the carbon/nutrient balance, which in turn led to increased levels of the carbon-based feeding deterrents, aucubin and catalpol. The sucking insect, Myzus persicae (Sulzer) reacted in an opposite fashion to the chewer, with performance being greater on mycorrhizal plants. Again, there was no evidence that an alteration in food quality was the cause, and in this case infection may result in changes in leaf morphology which benefit the insect. We suggest that under conditions of high light and low nutrient availability, AM infection can alter the carbon/nutrient balance of plants, leading to an increased allocation to carbon-based defences. This can have important consequences for insect herbivore performance and the patterns of herbivory in field situations.

Notes: Week 9: Above and Below Ground; ISI Document Delivery No.: PK320

Times Cited: 71

URL: <Go to ISI>://A1994PK32000009

Link to PDF: internal-pdf://Gange_1994_NewPhytologist-1339695360/Gange_1994_NewPhytologist.pdf

Author Address: Univ lancaster,div biol sci,lancaster la1 4yq,england.

Gange, ac, univ london,royal holloway & bedford new coll,dept biol,egham hill,egham tw20 0ex,surrey,england.

Language: English

Reference Type: Journal Article

Record Number: 306

Author: Wardle, D. A.; Barker, G. M.

Year: 1997

Title: Competition and herbivory in establishing grassland communities: implications for plant biomass, species diversity and soil microbial activity

Journal: Oikos

Volume: 80

Issue: 3

Pages: 470-480

Date: Dec

Type of Article: Article

Short Title: Competition and herbivory in establishing grassland communities: implications for plant biomass, species diversity and soil microbial activity

Alternate Journal: Oikos

ISSN: 0030-1299

Accession Number: ISI:A1997YL29100007

Keywords: INTERSPECIFIC COMPETITION

INSECT HERBIVORY

ASSEMBLY RULES

FOOD WEBS

SUCCESSION

ECOSYSTEMS

RICHNESS

PASTURE

MICROORGANISMS

COLONIZATION

Abstract: The two main biotic factors affecting grassland plant species are herbivory and competition. We investigated the significance of both these factors in establishing grassland communities through manipulation experiments conducted in both winter and summer in glasshouse conditions. Manipulations consisted of addition of aboveground and below-ground herbivores, reduction of herbivory through use of an insecticide, and varying of competitive pressure by removing either dicotyledonous or monocotyledonous seedlings as they appeared. In the winter experiment, the total biomass of dicotyledonous plants was reduced by both above-ground and belowground herbivory, while monocotyledonous plant biomass was unaffected. However, in the summer experiment, only those treatments in which competition was manipulated had any detectable effect. This suggests that the relative importance of competition and herbivory can vary considerably. The above-ground herbivory treatment sometimes stimulated and sometimes reduced plant species diversity, and sometimes also induced significantly higher dicotyledonous species diversity than the root herbivory treatment. Those treatments in which competitive pressure was manipulated had no detectable effects on diversity. There were many strong effects detected when plant species were considered individually, with different species responding to different treatments, and with all treatments affecting at least some species. Different species therefore respond quite differently to competition and herbivory. None of the treatments affected soil microbial activity or active soil microbial biomass in the winter experiment, although active biomass was significantly positively correlated with dicotyledonous plant biomass. In the summer experiment, soil activity was positively affected by monocotyledonous plants, while active biomass was the same in all treatments except for the treatment with all plants removed, where biomass was less. None of the soil biotic variables showed any relationship with plant species richness. Our study shows that competition and herbivory can both exert important influences at both the community and ecosystem levels of resolution.

Notes: Week 9: Above and Below Ground; ISI Document Delivery No.: YL291

Times Cited: 28

Aboveground-belowground experiment exploring competition and foliar and root herbivory in developing grasslands. 280 pots set up with sandy loam subsoil base. Top soil was created from 10 pasture sites within 4 different macroclimate sites, so 40 different topsoil types altogether. Each topsoil type was put in 7 pots and subjected to one treatment of the following: aboveground herbivory by molluscs, belowground herbivory by insects, herbivore reduction by insecticide, blank with no plants, monocots removed, dicots removed, no treatment. Experiment was set up for summer and for winter. Analyses included plant biomass, species diversity, species composition, soil microfauna biomass and respiration. Plant biomass effects were strongest in winter for above and below ground herbivory treatments which adversely affected dicots but not monocots. Root biomass was greatest in the winter insecticide treatment and was reduced by above ground herbivory and monocot removal. Dicot diversity was reduced by aboveground herbivory in winter, however enhanced diversity for monocots. In winter herbivory reduced dicot biomass and diversity, resulting in enhancement of monocot diversity. In summer dicot diversity was greater with above ground herbivory than with below ground herbiovory. Individual plant species responses were also observed and perhaps led to the changes observed in plant communities. Soil respiration was positively correlated with root biomass and was better when dicots were removed. Results also showed that microbial variables (respiration, biomass) are regulated by total plant productivity but not species composition. Herbivory and competition were shown to be important in determining the composition of grassland communities, translating to shifts in biomass and other plant species.

URL: <Go to ISI>://A1997YL29100007

Link to PDF: internal-pdf://Wardle_1997_Oikos-0658336513/Wardle_1997_Oikos.pdf

Author Address: Ruakura agr res ctr,agres,hamilton,new zealand.

Language: English

Reference Type: Journal Article

Record Number: 194

Author: Olson, M.H.; Hage, M.M.; Binkley, M.D.; Binder, J.R.

Year: 2005

Title: Impact of migratory snow geese on nitrogen and phosphorus dynamics in a freshwater reservoir

Journal: Freshwater Biology

Volume: 50

Issue: 5

Pages: 882-890

Short Title: Impact of migratory snow geese on nitrogen and phosphorus dynamics in a freshwater reservoir

Keywords: linking habitats through continental scale movements

geese

reservoir populations

migration

migratory waterfowl

nutrient subsidy

Abstract: 1. We examined impacts of nutrient loading, particularly of nitrogen and phosphorus, from greater snow geese (Chen caerulescens atlantica) on a reservoir in south-eastern Pennsylvania, U.S.A. Approximately 100 000 geese use the reservoir for 2–6 weeks prior to their spring migration northward.

2. We estimated the magnitude of nutrient loading by geese during their presence and compared that to surface input and output rates. We also conducted nutrient limitation bioassay experiments to examine patterns of algal nutrient limitation upstream and downstream of the reservoir.

3. During their presence from 1 February to 27 March 2001, snow geese contributed 85–93% of the phosphorus and 33–44% of the nitrogen loaded to the reservoir. Both nutrients were exported from the reservoir slowly rather than as a quick pulse. Consequently, phosphorus concentrations in the outflow were higher than in the inflow from February to the end of July. However, nitrogen concentrations were consistently lower in the outflow than the inflow.

4. Nutrient limitation bioassays conducted in June and July indicated that primary production in the outflow was limited by nitrogen whereas the inflow was co-limited by nitrogen and phosphorus. Further downstream from the reservoir, primary production was consistently phosphorus limited. Therefore, nitrogen limitation persisted long after the geese had left, but was relatively localised.

Notes: Week 10: Continental Scale Linkages; An additional example of birds migrate, birds poop. One interesting point here, however, is that the nutrient subsidy from geese hangs around in the resevoir long after the geese have left. That is, the nutrients are still detectable in the system up to four months after the geese have migrated on to another system.

Reference Type: Journal Article

Record Number: 193

Author: Van Eerden, M.R.; Drent, R.H.; Stahl, J.; Bakker, J.P.

Year: 2005

Title: Connecting seas: western Palaearctic continental flyway for water birds in the perspective of changing land use and climate

Journal: Global Change Biology

Volume: 11

Issue: 6

Pages: 894-908

Short Title: Connecting seas: western Palaearctic continental flyway for water birds in the perspective of changing land use and climate

Keywords: linking habitats through continental scale movements

geese

carrying capacity

salt-marsh

fertilizer use

improved grasslands

Abstract: The western Palaearctic continental flyway that connects the tundra and taiga belts of Russia with north-west Europe is the major migratory avenue for an estimated 9.3 million herbivorous water birds (swans, geese and ducks). Agricultural practices together with protection measures subsidize the carrying capacity of winter habitats of the birds. Densities of these birds are highest in the Netherlands, where nitrogen (N) inputs to farmland have increased during the last 70 years and became the highest in Europe (>250 kg manure and fertilizer ha1 yr1). A comparison of population trends of 13 species of avian herbivores reveals generally expanding populations in the past 50 years, with the greatest increases from 1970 to 1990. Populations of the smallest avian herbivores, such as ducks, are either stable or have peaked and are now in decline, whereas numbers of larger herbivores (geese and swans) continue to increase and barnacle and greylag geese now breed in the Netherlands, in addition to northern sites.

During the northerly spring migration, stop-over sites, mostly in the agricultural regions of eastern Europe and Scandinavia, lie between the 3 and 6°C mean daily temperature isotherms in April, temperatures at which grasses start to grow, where flooding of riparian wetlands frequently occurs and fertilizers are applied to farmland. However, the restructuring of agricultural practices in an enlarged EU is likely to affect water bird populations and their migration routes. The reduced use of N in the Netherlands is predicted to constrain population growth, especially of the smallest avian herbivores with their high basal metabolic rates, because of the declining food quality of grass leaves. The introduction of large-scale farming of oilseed rape, winter cereals, sugar beet and potatoes at the expense of grassland also will adversely affect these birds, whereas larger species are likely to continue exploiting these crops.

Notes: Week 10: Continental Scale Linkages; Another example of agriculture subsidizing migrating bird populations that ultimately browse on the Arctic salt marshes. This study includes geese, ducks, and swans, however the linkage (crop-geese-salt marsh) is not as strong as shown by the Jefferies' group. The focus of this paper is on how changing agricultural practices may affect populations and migratory routes of these birds, rather than the negative impact of the ag subsidy on coast marshes.

Reference Type: Journal Article

Record Number: 176

Author: Weathers, K. C.; Likens, G. E.

Year: 1997

Title: Clouds in southern Chile: An important source of nitrogen to nitrogen-limited ecosystems?

Journal: Environmental Science & Technology

Volume: 31

Issue: 1

Pages: 210-213

Date: Jan

Short Title: Clouds in southern Chile: An important source of nitrogen to nitrogen-limited ecosystems?

ISSN: 0013-936X

Accession Number: ISI:A1997WC40000049

Keywords: linking habitats through continental scale movements

water deposition

atmospheric deposition

north-america

remote areas

precipitation

chemistry

forests

mountain

growth

world

Abstract: Rainwater collected from remote, southern Chile is reported to be some of the most dilute in the world and is estimated to result in the deposition of less than or equal to 1 kg ha(-1) yr(-1) of nitrogen to ecosystems. Rainwater, however, is only one form of atmospheric deposition. Cloudwater deposition and the deposition of particles and gases can result in significant atmospheric inputs to ecosystems. Here we report the first data on cloudwater chemistry from remote, southern Chile. Cloud samples were collected from 1987 to 1994 using active cloudwater collectors. Average cloudwater chemistry from remote, southern Chile was dominated by ions commonly associated with seawater [e.g., Ca2+, Mg2+, Na+, Cl-), but had surprisingly high concentrations of inorganic nitrogen (NH4+ (48.3) and NO3- (19.6 mu equiv/L)] as well. Relative to volume-weighted mean concentrations of rainwater from a nearby location, cloudwater ranged from 2 (H+) to 80 (NH4+) times more concentrated. Estimated nitrogen deposition via cloudwater suggests that clouds may be a very important source of nitrogen, especially for nitrogen-limited ecosystems in this region.

Notes: Week 10: Continental Scale Linkages; Cloudwater from areas collected in southern Chile have, on average, higher chemical concentrations than rainwater. Cloudwater as a nutrient source was previously unaccounted for and has now been found to be a very important source of N to a region that is limited by N. Although the authors did not measure cloudwater deposition, using literature values, they estimate potential nitrogen deposition via cloudwater as 1-8 kg N/ha/year. As atmospheric N increases around the world due to anthropogenic activities, quantifying cloud deposition as a source of N is especially important. While this paper lacks detail in why/how cloudwater is ecologically significant, the study is represents several years of cloud sampling and makes a clear case for the consideration of cloudwater as a source of nutrients.

Wc400

Times Cited:22

Cited References Count:29

URL: <Go to ISI>://A1997WC40000049

Author Address: Weathers, KC

Inst Ecosyst Studies,Box Ab,Millbrook,Ny 12545

Language: English

Reference Type: Journal Article

Record Number: 190

Author: Brower, L. P.

Year: 1988

Title: Avian predation on the Monarch butterfly and its implications for mimicry theory

Journal: The American Naturalist

Volume: 131

Pages: s4-s6

Short Title: Avian predation on the Monarch butterfly and its implications for mimicry theory

Keywords: linking habitats through continental scale movements

monarch butterfly

migration

Abstract: No abstract available

Notes: Week 10: Continental Scale Linkages; Monarch butterflies serve as a potentially large, seasonal prey subsidy for birds at their over-wintering sites in Mexico. Black-beaked orioles and black-headed grosbeaks prey on large quantities of monarch butterflies each day during the winter season, each having adapted to ingesting large amounts of cardenolides, the toxins in monarchs that discourage predation from most animals. From mid-January to the end of March, these birds consumed between 4,550 and 34,300 monarchs per day, resulting in an estimated total of 2 million butterflies consumed during the over-wintering season. This provides evidence dispelling the argument that bird predation on insects is inadequate to cause mimicry adaptations. In the context of intercontinental linkages, this study shows that an intercontinental migrant, the monarch butterfly, heavily subsidizes two species of birds during the winter in Mexico.

Reference Type: Journal Article

Record Number: 187

Author: Art, H. W.; Bormann, F. H.; Voigt, G. K.; Woodwell, G. M.

Year: 1974

Title: Barrier Island Forest Ecosystem - Role of Meteorologic Nutrient Inputs

Journal: Science

Volume: 184

Issue: 4132

Pages: 60-62

Short Title: Barrier Island Forest Ecosystem - Role of Meteorologic Nutrient Inputs

ISSN: 0036-8075

Accession Number: ISI:A1974S443400015

Keywords: linking habitats through continental scale movements

meteorologic nutrient inputs

Abstract: The Sunken Forest, located on Fire Island, a barrier island in the Atlantic Ocean off Long Island, New York, is an ecosystem in which most of the basic cation input is in the form of salt spray. This meteorologic input is sufficient to compensate for the lack of certain nutrients in the highly weathered sandy soils. In other ecosystems these nutrients are generally supplied by weathering of soil particles. The compensatory effect of meteorologic input allows for primary production rates in the Sunken Forest similar to those of inland temperate forests.

Notes: Week 10: Continental Scale Linkages; The authors looked at forests along a gradient of distances from the ocean. Weathering nutrient inputs increased with distance from ocean, whereas meteorologic inputs decreased with distance from ocean. High meteorologic inputs coupled with high weathering inputs could account for high levels of biomass accumulation and PP found in some coastal areas. This paper is a good early example of how highly weathered systems such as Sunken Island Forest can still support high levels of PP through atmospheric inputs of nutrients.

S4434

Times Cited:38

Cited References Count:37

URL: <Go to ISI>://A1974S443400015

Author Address: Williams Coll,Biol Dept,Williamstown,Ma 01267
Yale Univ,Sch Forestry & Environm Studies,New Haven,Ct 06511
Brookhaven Natl Lab,Biol Dept,Upton,Ny 11973
Williams Coll,Ctr Environm Studies,Williamstown,Ma 01267

Language: English

Reference Type: Journal Article

Record Number: 178

Author: Gauthier, G.; Bety, J.; Giroux, J. F.; Rochefort, L.

Year: 2004

Title: Trophic interactions in a high arctic snow goose colony

Journal: Integrative and Comparative Biology

Volume: 44

Issue: 2

Pages: 119-129

Date: Apr

Short Title: Trophic interactions in a high arctic snow goose colony

ISSN: 1540-7063

Accession Number: ISI:000222909700005

Keywords: linking habitats through continental scale movements

stable-carbon isotopes

foxes alopex-lagopus

exploitation ecosystems

population-dynamics

bylot-island

nesting success

lemming cycles

salt-marsh

geese

food

Abstract: We examined the role of trophic interactions in structuring a high arctic tundra community characterized by a large breeding colony of greater snow geese (Chen caerulescens atlantica). According to the exploitation ecosystem hypothesis of Oksanen et al. (1981), food chains are controlled by top-down interactions. However, because the arctic primary productivity is low, herbivore populations are too small to support functional predator populations and these communities should thus be dominated by the plant/herbivore trophic-level interaction. Since 1990, we have been monitoring annual abundance and productivity of geese, the impact of goose grazing, predator abundance (mostly arctic foxes, Alopex lagopus) and the abundance of lemmings, the other significant herbivore in this community, on Bylot Island, Nunavut, Canada. Goose grazing consistently removed a significant proportion of the standing crop (similar to40%) in tundra wetlands every, year. Grazing changed plant community composition and reduced the production of grasses and sedges to a low-level equilibrium compared to the situation where the presence of geese had been removed. Lemming cyclic fluctuations were strong and affected fox reproduction. Fox predation on goose eggs was severe and generated marked annual variation in goose productivity. Predation intensity on geese was closely related to the lemming cycle, a consequence of an indirect interaction between lemming and geese via shared predators. We conclude that, contrary to the exploitation ecosystem hypothesis, both the plant/herbivore and predator/prey interactions are significant in this arctic community.

Notes: Week 10: Continental Scale Linkages; The authors suggest that both interactions are significant in this community partly due to allochthonous subsidies between spatially separated ecosystems. That is, migrating geese sustain fox populations when lemming populations are low. Additionally, the authors speculate how agricultural subsidies supporting growing goose populations will affect the strength of trophic interactions in this food web. This paper is a good example of how the authors set out to describe what they thought was a simple food-chain (due to low productivity and low species richness in the Arctic) and, instead, discovered the "openness" of the system. One downside to the study is that they do not measure strength of trophic interactions; rather, they infer interaction strength through population and predation estimates.

841DO

Times Cited:5

Cited References Count:66

URL: <Go to ISI>://000222909700005

Author Address: Gauthier, G

Univ Laval, Dept Biol, St Foy, PQ G1K 7P4, Canada

Univ Laval, Dept Biol, St Foy, PQ G1K 7P4, Canada
Univ Laval, Ctr Etud Nord, St Foy, PQ G1K 7P4, Canada
Univ Quebec, Dept Sci Biol, Montreal, PQ H3C 3P8, Canada
Univ Laval, Dept Phytol, St Foy, PQ G1K 7P4, Canada

Language: English

Reference Type: Journal Article

Record Number: 192

Author: Post, D. M.; Taylor, J. P.; Kitchell, J. F.; Olson, M. H.; Schindler, D. E.; Herwig, B. R.

Year: 1998

Title: The role of migratory waterfowl as nutrient vectors in a managed wetland

Journal: Conservation Biology

Volume: 12

Issue: 4

Pages: 910-920

Date: Aug

Short Title: The role of migratory waterfowl as nutrient vectors in a managed wetland

ISSN: 0888-8892

Accession Number: ISI:000075179800023

Keywords: linking habitats through continental scale movements

intertidal community structure

lesser snow geese

seabird guano

salt-marsh

phosphorus

nitrogen

phytoplankton

conservation

consequences

herbivory

Abstract: Dense aggregations of waterfowl, often caused by loss of native wetlands and increased waterfowl numbers, can result in the destruction of wetland vegetation and agricultural crops, increase the risk of infectious disease outbreaks, and decrease water quality. Problems related to water quality may be particularly severe in arid regions of the southwestern United States, where water quality and quantity are contentious issues. Over 40,000 Lesser Snow Geese (Chen caerulescens caerulescens) and Ross' Geese (Chen rossii) winter annually at Bosque del Apache National Wildlife Refuge, New Mexico. Daily feeding bouts by geese move large quantities of nutrients from farm fields where they feed to managed wetlands where they roost. Using energy and mass balance models, population estimates, daily and seasonal migration patterns, and feeding behaviors, we estimated the mass and ratio of nitrogen to phosphorus of nutrients loaded by geese into the wetlands of the Bosque del Apache National Wildlife Refuge. Loading rates peaked in late November 1995 at more than 300 kg nitrogen per day and over 30 kg phosphorus per day. As feeding behaviors changed through the winter and bird densities declined, loading rates fell. Our estimates suggest that in the winter of 1995-1996, bird-borne nutrients supplied nearly 40% of the nitrogen and 75% of the phosphorus entering the primary wetland used for geese roosting. High loading rates by geese are a consequence of their colonial roosting behavior; over 90% of the geese roost on 10% of the wetland area. The effects of nutrient loading could be reduced by increasing flushing rates or dispersal of roosting waterfowl. The loss of natural wetlands, however, limits options for expanding wetland area available to waterfowl, and it may be difficult to increase flushing rates in this arid region. Thus, management of waterfowl and the nutrients they move will continue to be an important issue for wetlands of wildlife refuges.

Notes: Week 10: Continental Scale Linkages; The authors used both field observations and models to estimate nutrient loading to managed wetlands by migrating geese colonies. The emphasis of this paper is really on the conservation of a critical resource (wildlife refuges), rather than the cascading ecological impacts of a nutrient subsidy. However, understanding the ecological impacts of this nutrient subsidy is of great importance considering the conservation of these managed wetlands, especially as urban development expands around this area.

106YV

Times Cited:18

Cited References Count:61

URL: <Go to ISI>://000075179800023

Author Address: Post, DM

Cornell Univ, Ecol & Systemat Sect, Corson Hall, Ithaca, NY 14853 USA

Univ Wisconsin, Ctr Limnol, Madison, WI 53706 USA
US Fish & Wildlife Serv, Bosque Apache Natl Wildlife Refuge, Socorro, NM 87801 USA

Language: English

Reference Type: Journal Article

Record Number: 191

Author: Roemer, G. W.; Donlan, C. J.; Courchamp, F.

Year: 2002

Title: Golden eagles, feral pigs, and insular carnivores: How exotic species turn native predators into prey

Journal: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America

Volume: 99

Issue: 2

Pages: 791-796

Date: Jan 22

Short Title: Golden eagles, feral pigs, and insular carnivores: How exotic species turn native predators into prey

ISSN: 0027-8424

Accession Number: ISI:000173450100047

Keywords: linking habitats through continental scale movements

island spotted skunk

santa-cruz island

california

birds

fox

competition

communities

demography

ecosystems

extinction

Abstract: island ecosystems are particularly vulnerable to exotic species. Here we show how an introduced prey has led to the wholesale restructuring of an island food web, including the near extinction of an endemic carnivore. Introduced pigs, by providing abundant food, enabled golden eagles to colonize the California Channel Islands. Eagles preyed heavily on the island fox, whose resulting decline toward extinction released populations of the competitively inferior island skunk. The presence of exotic pigs led to major ecosystem shifts by indirectly causing predation to replace competition as the dominant force shaping these island communities.

Notes: Week 10: Continental Scale Linkages; The presence of exotic feral pigs in the California Channel Islands allowed for the establishment of golden eagles on these islands. Without the presence of golden eagles, island foxes dominate over skunk competitors. The eagles preferentially prey on fox over skunk, and thus the introduction of exotic pigs has indirectly released island skunks from competition with foxes by facilitating golden eagle colonization of the islands. In the context of inter-continental linkages, this research illustrates an example of an exotic species subsidizing a top-level predator, whose presence cascades down the food web to island foxes and skunks. Food webs can be drastically altered via a number of different mechanisms as a result of an invading species.

514PK

Times Cited:42

Cited References Count:41

URL: <Go to ISI>://000173450100047

Author Address: Roemer, GW

New Mexico State Univ, Dept Wildlife & Fisheries Sci, POB 30003,MSC 4901, Las Cruces, NM 88003 USA

Univ Calif Los Angeles, Dept Organism Biol Ecol & Evolut, Los Angeles, CA 90095 USA
Univ Calif Santa Cruz, Long Marine Lab, Island Conservat & Ecol Grp, Santa Cruz, CA 95060 USA
Univ Paris 11, CNRS, F-91405 Orsay, France

Language: English

Reference Type: Journal Article

Record Number: 175

Author: Chadwick, O. A.; Derry, L. A.; Vitousek, P. M.; Huebert, B. J.; Hedin, L. O.

Year: 1999

Title: Changing sources of nutrients during four million years of ecosystem development

Journal: Nature

Volume: 397

Issue: 6719

Pages: 491-497

Date: Feb 11

Short Title: Changing sources of nutrients during four million years of ecosystem development

ISSN: 0028-0836

Accession Number: ISI:000078574900040

Keywords: linking habitats through continental scale movements

term soil development

montane rain-forest

north pacific-ocean

biogeochemical theory

primary succession

hawaiian-islands

dust

deposition

phosphorus

transport

Abstract: As soils develop in humid environments, rook-derived elements ave! gradually lost, and under constant conditions it seems that ecosystems should reach a state of profound and irreversible nutrient depletion. We show here that inputs of elements from the atmosphere can sustain the productivity of Hawaiian rainforests on highly weathered soils. nations are supplied in marine aerosols and phosphorus is deposited in dust from central Asia, which is over 6,000 km away.

Notes: Week 10: Continental Scale Linkages; The Vitousek lab has advocated Hawaii as a model ecosystem because of its isolation. Using geochemical tracers, the authors showed a significant and important contribution of P from the atmosphere to old sites limited by P due to parent rock weathering. These studies are a good first step in understanding this cross-continental trophic linkage, however, no measurements were given of how these P inputs have directly affected primary production or subsequent trophic patterns on these old, weathered sites.

166KN

Times Cited:171

Cited References Count:71

URL: <Go to ISI>://000078574900040

Author Address: Chadwick, OA

Univ Calif Santa Barbara, Dept Geog, Santa Barbara, CA 93106 USA

Univ Calif Santa Barbara, Dept Geog, Santa Barbara, CA 93106 USA
Cornell Univ, Dept Geol Sci, Ithaca, NY 14853 USA
Stanford Univ, Dept Biol Sci, Stanford, CA 94305 USA
Univ Hawaii Manoa, Dept Atmospher Sci, Honolulu, HI 96822 USA
Cornell Univ, Ecol & Systemat Sect, Ithaca, NY 14853 USA

Language: English

Reference Type: Book Section

Record Number: 174

Author: Jefferies, R.L.; Henry, H.A.L.; Abraham, K.F.

Year: 2004

Title: Agricultural nutrient subsidies to migratory geese and change in Arctic coastal habitats

Editor: Polis, G.A.; Power, M.E.; Huxel, G.R.

Book Title: Food webs at the landscape level

City: Chicago

Publisher: University of Chicago Press

Pages: 268-283

Short Title: Agricultural nutrient subsidies to migratory geese and change in Arctic coastal habitats

Keywords: linking habitats through continental scale movements

geese

croplands

Abstract: No abstract - Chapter 18 of Polis' book.

Notes: Week 10: Continental Scale Linkages; This book chapter provides a nice summary of Jefferies' work on agricultural subsidies to migratory geese and the subsequent impacts on Arctic salt marshes. Lesser snow geese have expanded their winter ranges to include rice fields and croplands. Increasing lesser snow geese populations have coincided with changing agricultural practices along the Mississippi and Central Flyways. Area and yield of rice, wheat, corn, and soybeans have increased along with the amount of N fertilizers since the 1950's. The authors describe the effect of this agricultural subsidy as an "apparent trophic cascade" where the large nutrient subsidy is equivalent to that of the removal of predator control of the herbivore. The result is a dramatic increase in foraging activities by geese in their Arctic breeding grounds, leading to the destruction of salt marsh swards and freshwater plant assemblages.

This book chapter is a good overview of the three aspects of this continental trophic linkage - the subsidy, the geese population, and the depletion of the Arctic salt marsh vegetation. The bar graphs provide a quick and simple summary, but the authors also discuss in fair detail feedback loops that control this linkage at different population densities.

Reference Type: Journal Article

Record Number: 182

Author: Rodriguez, L. F.

Year: 2006

Title: Can invasive species facilitate native species? Evidence of how, when, and why these impacts occur

Journal: Biological Invasions

Volume: 8

Issue: 4

Pages: 927-939

Date: Jun

Short Title: Can invasive species facilitate native species? Evidence of how, when, and why these impacts occur

ISSN: 1387-3547

Accession Number: ISI:000238531200031

Keywords: linking habitats through continental scale movements

competitive release

facilitation

habitat modification

indirect facilitation

invasive species

novel facilitation

pollination

predatory release

substitutive facilitation

trophic subsidy

mussel dreissena-polymorpha

biological-control agents

positive interactions

musculista-senhousia

ecosystem engineers

macroinvertebrate communities

introduced honeybees

benthic communities

exotic habitats

butterfly fauna

Abstract: Although the predatory and competitive impacts of biological invasions are well documented, facilitation of native species by non-indigenous species is frequently overlooked. A search through recent ecological literature found that facilitative interactions between invasive and native species occur in a wide range of habitats, can have cascading effects across trophic levels, can re-structure communities, and can lead to evolutionary changes. These are critical findings that, until now, have been mostly absent from analyses of ecological impacts of biological invasions. Here I present evidence for several mechanisms that exemplify how exotic species can facilitate native species. These mechanisms include habitat modification, trophic subsidy, pollination, competitive release, and predatory release. Habitat modification is the most frequently documented mechanism, reflecting the drastic changes generated by the invasion of functionally novel habitat engineers. Further, I predict that facilitative impacts on native species will be most likely when invasive species provide a limiting resource, increase habitat complexity, functionally replace a native species, or ameliorate predation or competition. Finally, three types of facilitation (novel, substitutive, and indirect) define why exotic species can lead to facilitation of native species. It is evident that understanding biological invasions at the community and ecosystem levels will be more accurate if we integrate facilitative interactions into future ecological research. Since facilitative impacts of biological invasions can occur with native endangered species, and can have wide-ranging impacts, these results also have important implications for management, eradication, and restoration.

Notes: Week 10: Continental Scale Linkages; This conceptual article addresses the often ignored potential facilitative impacts of invasive species on native species. The author reviewed 61 studies that yielded evidence of non-native species facilitating native populations. From this review, several general mechanisms of facilitation were identified. This list includes: 1) Habitat modifications 2) Trophic subsidies 3) Providing novel hosts for native insect larvae 4)Providing alternative hosts for parasites, thus relieving native populations of parasite pressure 5) Pollination 6) Competitive release 7) Predatory release. Several case studies are cited for each mechanism. This study concludes that facilitative effects on native species are most likely to occur when the invading species 1)provides a limited resource 2)alters habitat complexity 3)replaces a native species and fills their niche or 4)provides an escape from competitors or predators. Since facilitative impacts of invasive species can have numerous effects of food webs and community composition, addressing such impacts when evaluating the effects of a particular invasive species is critical.

056NO

Times Cited:0

Cited References Count:100

URL: <Go to ISI>://000238531200031

Author Address: Rodriguez, LF

Univ Calif Davis, Sect Evolut & Ecol, Davis, CA 95616 USA

Univ Calif Davis, Sect Evolut & Ecol, Davis, CA 95616 USA
Ecol & Conservat, Inst Biol, Zapopan 45070, Jalisco, Mexico

Language: English

Reference Type: Journal Article

Record Number: 189

Author: Calvert, W. H.; Hedrick, L. E.; Brower, L. P.

Year: 1979

Title: Mortality of the Monarch Butterfly (Danaus-Plexippus L) - Avian Predation at 5 Overwintering Sites in Mexico

Journal: Science

Volume: 204

Issue: 4395

Pages: 847-851

Short Title: Mortality of the Monarch Butterfly (Danaus-Plexippus L) - Avian Predation at 5 Overwintering Sites in Mexico

ISSN: 0036-8075

Accession Number: ISI:A1979GV41300031

Keywords: linking habitats through continental scale movements

monarch butterfly

Abstract: Analyses of predated butterflies on the forest floor at five monarch over-wintering sites in Mexico and observations of birds foraging in mixed flocks indicate that individual birds of several species have learned to penetrate the monarch's cardenolide-based chemical defense. Predation is inversely proportional to colony size and appears to be on evolutionary explanation of the dense aggregations.

Notes: Week 10: Continental Scale Linkages; This paper does not discuss monarchs as a food subsidy for birds. However, this paper notes how several bird species have learned to penetrate the chemical defense of the monarchs and explains why dense aggregations of monarchs are common (predation decreases with increasing area of colony). This paper is a supplement to the Brower paper on monarchs as a food subsidy.

Gv413

Times Cited:84

Cited References Count:24

URL: <Go to ISI>://A1979GV41300031

Author Address: Amherst Coll,Webster Ctr Biol Sci,Amherst,Ma 01002

Language: English

Reference Type: Journal Article

Record Number: 177

Author: Jefferies, R. L.; Rockwell, R. F.; Abraham, K. E.

Year: 2004

Title: Agricultural food subsidies, migratory connectivity and large-scale disturbance in arctic coastal systems: A case study

Journal: Integrative and Comparative Biology

Volume: 44

Issue: 2

Pages: 130-139

Date: Apr

Short Title: Agricultural food subsidies, migratory connectivity and large-scale disturbance in arctic coastal systems: A case study

ISSN: 1540-7063

Accession Number: ISI:000222909700006

Keywords: linking habitats through continental scale movements

lesser snow geese

salt-marsh

plant-growth

goose herbivory

habitat loss

hudson-bay

vegetation

nitrogen

fragmentation

population

Abstract: An allochthonous input can modify trophic relationships, by providing an external resource that is normally limiting within a system. The subsidy may not only elicit a growth response of the primary producers via a bottom-up effect, but it also may lead to runaway herbivore growth in the absence of increased predation. If the consumer is migratory and predation is similarly dampened in the alternative system, the increased numbers may produce a top-down cascade of direct and indirect effects on an ecosystem that may be a great distance from the source of the subsidy. In an extreme case, it can lead to a catastrophic shift in ecosystem functioning as a result of biotic exploitation that produces an alternative stable state. The loss of resilience is particularly sensitive to herbivore density which can result in two different outcomes to the vegetation on which the consumer feeds. Over-compensatory growth of above-ground biomass gives way to sward destruction and near irreversible changes in soil properties as density of a herbivore increases. A striking temporal asymmetry exists between a reduction in the consumer population and recovery of damaged vegetation and degraded soils.

Notes: Week 10: Continental Scale Linkages; This paper is a more detailed version of Jefferies' book chapter in Polis. As such, the paper provides a thorough explanation of the two positive feedbacks, the apparent trophic cascade, and the proposed spring hunt to control the geese population. Another quality of the paper is that they go beyond the cropland-geese-salt marsh linkage and discuss how loss of vegetation in the Arctic salt marshes is affecting other biotic communities.

841DO

Times Cited:5

Cited References Count:87

URL: <Go to ISI>://000222909700006

Author Address: Jefferies, RL

Univ Toronto, Dept Bot, 25 Willcocks St, Toronto, ON M5S 3B2, Canada

Univ Toronto, Dept Bot, Toronto, ON M5S 3B2, Canada
Amer Museum Nat Hist, Dept Ornithol, New York, NY 10024 USA
Ontario Minist Nat Resources, Peterborough, ON, Canada

Language: English

Reference Type: Journal Article

Record Number: 188

Author: Durbin, A. G.; Nixon, S. W.; Oviatt, C. A.

Year: 1979

Title: Effects of the Spawning Migration of the Alewife, Alosa-Pseudoharengus, on Freshwater Ecosystems

Journal: Ecology

Volume: 60

Issue: 1

Pages: 8-17

Short Title: Effects of the Spawning Migration of the Alewife, Alosa-Pseudoharengus, on Freshwater Ecosystems

ISSN: 0012-9658

Accession Number: ISI:A1979GW05900002

Keywords: linking habitats through continental scale movements

alewife

migration

nutrient subsidy

Abstract: The influx of large numbers of alewife, Alosa pseudoharengus, into relatively small freshwater systems may have a considerable impact upon pre-established food chains and nutrient cycles. We estimate the total nutrient input to Pausacaco Pond, RI, USA, from alewives amounted to 0.43 g P, 2.7 g N, and 16.8 g C/m2 over a 2-mo period. This is largely through mortality of the spawning fish, and to a lesser extent through excretion. These inputs were much greater than the eventual nutrient loss to the system through emigration of juvenile fish.

In tank experiments using pond microcosms, the initial response to the addition of the fish was a large phytoplankton bloom and an increase in production and respiration in the leaf litter. This increased production in the litter community would support a long lasting supply of insect and benthic invertebrate food for young fish.

The respiration rate of autumn leaves incubated in alewife streams during the migration was significantly higher than that of leaves incubated simiultaneously in a stream which had no alewife run. Respiration rates of leaves incubated in the same streams before the arrival of alewives did not differ significantly. The increase in litter respiration, an indication of microbial and invertebrate activity on the leaf surface, was attributed to the additional nutrients supplied by the fish.

Notes: Week 10: Continental Scale Linkages; This paper was useful because it quantified nutrient inputs by alewives to relatively productive systems. This is, of course, opposite of salmon nutrient subsidies to relatively unproductive streams in the Pacific northwest. As such, this was a good example of another migrating fish that links habitats by means other than nutrient regeneration. So even though alewives do not die in their spawning streams, and instead carry many nutrients back with them to the sea, they still provide a signifant nutrient subsidy to streams and tributaries along the Atlantic coast.

Gw059

Times Cited:51

Cited References Count:42

URL: <Go to ISI>://A1979GW05900002

Author Address: Durbin, Ag

Univ Rhode Isl,Grad Sch Oceanog,Kingston,Ri 02881

Language: English

Reference Type: Journal Article

Record Number: 183

Author: King, R. B.; Ray, J. M.; Stanford, K. M.

Year: 2006

Title: Gorging on gobies: beneficial effects of alien prey on a threatened vertebrate

Journal: Canadian Journal of Zoology-Revue Canadienne De Zoologie

Volume: 84

Issue: 1

Pages: 108-115

Date: Jan

Short Title: Gorging on gobies: beneficial effects of alien prey on a threatened vertebrate

ISSN: 0008-4301

Accession Number: ISI:000236285900013

Keywords: linking habitats through continental scale movements

color-pattern variation

erie water snakes

western lake-erie

round goby

neogobius-melanostomus

generalist predator

invasional meltdown

smallmouth bass

climate indexes

gravid snakes

Abstract: Invasive species often have rapid and far-reaching negative impacts on populations and ecological communities. These effects are most common when invasive species have few competitors or predators. Although higher level carnivores do consume invasive species, quantitative effects of new and abundant food sources on predators have rarely been documented and, as a consequence, potentially positive effects of invasive species may be under appreciated. We investigated the effects of the invasive round goby (Neogobius melanostomus (Pallas, 1814)) on diet composition, growth rate, and body size of the Lake Erie Water Snake (Nerodia sipedon insularum (Conant and Clay, 1937)), which is threatened in the USA and endangered in Ontario, Canada. Water Snakes have shifted their diet, and round gobies now constitute > 92% of prey consumed. This shift in diet has occurred in just one or two Water Snake generations, yet has resulted in more rapid growth and attainment of larger body size in Water Snakes. These positive effects may reduce predation, speed reproductive maturity, increase offspring production, and fuel population growth of this threatened species.

Notes: Week 10: Continental Scale Linkages; This study examines the beneficial effect of round goby on the endangered Lake Erie Water Snake. The study finds that since invading the Lake Erie in 1993, round goby has become the predominant prey of the Lake Erie water snake, comprising 92% of prey recovered from snake stomachs. This change in diet has occurred in just 1-2 generations and is likely due to 1)incredible abundance of round goby 2) reductions in native prey due to round goby and 3) increased catchabilty for round goby when compared to other prey taxa (due to goby’s susceptibility to the snake’s foraging behavior of probing crevices among and beneath rocky substrate). The replacement of native species by round goby in the diet of this water snake has led to an increased growth rate in individual snakes, translating to larger body size and, potentially, to reaching reproductive maturity more quickly. Thus, the round goby invasion is facilitating the recovery of the Lake Erie water wnake, serving as a rare example of the potential positive effects of an invasive species. For the Lake Erie water snake, and for North American water snakes in the Great Lakes, the round goby represents an intercontinental food subsidy.

025RZ

Times Cited:1

Cited References Count:55

URL: <Go to ISI>://000236285900013

Author Address: King, RB

No Illinois Univ, Dept Biol Sci, De Kalb, IL 60115 USA

No Illinois Univ, Dept Biol Sci, De Kalb, IL 60115 USA

Language: English

Reference Type: Journal Article

Record Number: 185

Author: Pearson, D. E.; Callaway, R. M.

Year: 2006

Title: Biological control agents elevate hantavirus by subsidizing deer mouse populations

Journal: Ecology Letters

Volume: 9

Issue: 4

Pages: 443-450

Date: Apr

Short Title: Biological control agents elevate hantavirus by subsidizing deer mouse populations

ISSN: 1461-023X

Accession Number: ISI:000236384100009

Keywords: linking habitats through continental scale movements

biological control

centaurea maculosa

disease ecology

food subsidies

hantavirus

indirect effects

invasive species

non-target effects

peromyscus maniculatus

urophora

southwestern united-states

sin-nombre-virus

quadrifasciata meig diptera

knapweed centaurea-diffusa

urophora-affinis frfld

spotted knapweed

pulmonary syndrome

reservoir populations

ecology

tephritidae

Abstract: Biological control of exotic invasive plants using exotic insects is practiced under the assumption that biological control agents are safe if they do not directly attack non-target species. We tested this assumption by evaluating the potential for two host-specific biological control agents (Urophora spp.), widely established in North America for spotted knapweed (Centaurea maculosa) control, to indirectly elevate Sin Nombre hantavirus by providing food subsidies to populations of deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus), the primary reservoir for the virus. We show that seropositive deer mice (mice testing positive for hantavirus) were over three times more abundant in the presence of the biocontrol food subsidy. Elevating densities of seropositive mice may increase risk of hantavirus infection in humans and significantly alter hantavirus ecology. Host specificity alone does not ensure safe biological control. To minimize indirect risks to non-target species, biological control agents must suppress pest populations enough to reduce their own numbers.

Notes: Week 10: Continental Scale Linkages; This study focuses on the elevation of the hantavirus due to gall flies subsidizing deer mouse populations. Data indicate that there is a threefold increase in deer mouse density on plots with high amounts of spotted knapweed (and gall flies) when compared to low density plots. Furthermore, abundance of deer mice seropositive for hantavirus are found in great densities with a gall fly subsidy, and proportions of deer mice with the virus is also higher with a gall fly subsidy. This study illustrates that the gall fly food subsidy increases winter survival of deer mice and indirectly leads to an increase in the incidence of Sin Nombre Hantavirus. Thus, food web subsidies may have unknown negative effects.

027AE

Times Cited:1

Cited References Count:42

URL: <Go to ISI>://000236384100009

Author Address: Pearson, DE

US Forest Serv, USDA, Rocky Mt Res Stn, 800 E Beckwith Ave, Missoula, MT 59801 USA

Univ Montana, Div Biol Sci, Missoula, MT 59812 USA

Language: English

Reference Type: Journal Article

Record Number: 181

Author: Baxter, C. V.; Fausch, K. D.; Murakami, M.; Chapman, P. L.

Year: 2004

Title: Fish invasion restructures stream and forest food webs by interrupting reciprocal prey subsidies

Journal: Ecology

Volume: 85

Issue: 10

Pages: 2656-2663

Date: Oct

Short Title: Fish invasion restructures stream and forest food webs by interrupting reciprocal prey subsidies

ISSN: 0012-9658

Accession Number: ISI:000224844700002

Keywords: linking habitats through continental scale movements

food webs

hokkaido

japan

invasion ecology

large-scale field experiment

oncorhynchus mykiss

resource subsidies

riparian ecology

salvelinus malma

stream ecology

terrestrial invertebrates

headwater stream

desert stream

rainbow-trout

predators

inputs

consequences

ecosystems

linkages

dynamics

Abstract: Habitat alteration and biotic invasions are the two leading causes of global environmental change and biodiversity loss. Recent innovative experiments have shown that habitat disturbance can have drastic effects that cascade to adjacent ecosystems by altering the flow of resource subsidies from donor systems. Likewise, exotic species invasions could alter subsidies and affect distant food webs, but very few studies have tested this experimentally. Here we report evidence from a large-scale field experiment in northern Japan that invasion of normative rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) interrupted reciprocal flows of invertebrate prey that drove stream and adjacent riparian forest food webs. Rainbow trout usurped terrestrial prey that fell into the stream, causing native Dolly Varden charr (Salvelinus malma) to shift their foraging to insects that graze algae from the stream bottom. This indirectly increased algal biomass, but also decreased biomass of adult aquatic insects emerging from the stream to the forest. In turn, this led to a 65% reduction in the density of riparian-specialist spiders in the forest. Thus, species invasions can interrupt flows of resources between interconnected ecosystems and have effects that propagate across their boundaries, effects that may be difficult to anticipate without in-depth understanding of food web relationships.

Notes: Week 10: Continental Scale Linkages; This study investigated the effects of an invasive fish species, rainbow trout, on trophic subsidies between a river system and the surrounding riparian forest. Under control conditions, terrestrial invertebrates that fell into the river from the riparian forest represented a trophic subsidy of 50% of the annual energy budget of the native Dolly Varden charr. Aquatic insects emerging from the river provided a reciprocal subsidy to forest birds, representing 26% of annual intake. Rainbow trout dramatically reduced the biomass of terrestrial prey consumed by native Dolly Varden charr, presumably through competition for prime foraging sties. As a result, Dolly Varden charr shifted diets to primarily benthic stream insects, resulting in increased periphyton biomass and reduced insect emergence. A reduction in the densities of riparian spiders dependent on emerging insects illustrates the interruption of the trophic subsidy by the invasive trout. These results are among the first to demonstrate that invasive species can have strong consequences on other systems via disrupting subsidies. Community shifts are often associated with invasive species, and cross-system effects may be more common than previously realized. These findings stress the importance of comprehending the connectivity between different ecosystems.

867LS

Times Cited:11

Cited References Count:36

URL: <Go to ISI>://000224844700002

Author Address: Baxter, CV

Idaho State Univ, Dept Biol Sci, Pocatello, ID 83209 USA

Colorado State Univ, Grad Degree Program Ecol, Ft Collins, CO 80523 USA
Colorado State Univ, Dept Fishery & Wildlife Biol, Ft Collins, CO 80523 USA
Hokkaido Univ, Tomakomai Res Stn, Field Sci Ctr No Biosphere, Tomakomai 0530035, Japan
Colorado State Univ, Dept Stat, Ft Collins, CO 80523 USA

Language: English

Reference Type: Journal Article

Record Number: 184

Author: Pearson, D. E.; Callaway, R. M.

Year: 2003

Title: Indirect effects of host-specific biological control agents

Journal: Trends in Ecology & Evolution

Volume: 18

Issue: 9

Pages: 456-461

Date: Sep

Short Title: Indirect effects of host-specific biological control agents

ISSN: 0169-5347

Accession Number: ISI:000185311800011

Keywords: linking habitats through continental scale movements

spotted knapweed

centaurea-maculosa

competitive ability

field experiments

weed

plants

risky

suppression

tephritidae

lepidoptera

Abstract: Biological control is a crucial tool in the battle against biological invasions, but biocontrol agents can have a deleterious impact on native species. Recognition of risks associated with host shifting has increased the emphasis on host specificity of biocontrol agents for invasive weeds. However, recent studies indicate host-specific biocontrol agents can also exhibit substantial nontarget effects through indirect interactions and food-web subsidies. Based on an evaluation of these studies, we conclude that the interaction strength between biocontrol agents and their hosts is at least as important as host specificity for determining the outcome of biocontrol introductions. Host-specific biocontrol agents that establish, but fail to reduce the densities of their hosts can facilitate bottom-up effects that link the target weed to other native organisms through food webs, thereby expanding the impacts of the invasive weed. We believe that indirect nontarget effects of host-specific biocontrol agents arising from food-web subsidies could prove more deleterious to native species than are the direct nontarget effects currently recognized from host shifting.

Notes: Week 10: Continental Scale Linkages; This study investigates biological control agents as food-web subsidies. Current rigorous testing of biocontrol organisms for host-specificity is not sufficient to ensure that the introduced control organism does not affect other species in the food web. Introduced biocontrol organisms may become super abundant if they are ineffective in reducing the population of their host organism; this in turn can lead to a sizeable food subsidy to native consumers. This has largely been interpreted as a means by which previously unused resources (the invasive host) benefit the food chain. This paper proposes that such a view is over simplistic, and offers the example gall flies and knapweed to substantiate the claim. Gall flies were introduced to control spotted knapweed, but failed to reduce knapweed densities. Gall fly larvae now serve to subsidize several species of consumer over the winter, especially the deer mouse, known carrier of the Sin Nombre Virus (Hantavirus). This subsidy of deer mice may lead to increased hantavirus outbreaks. The conclusion is that for biocontrol agents to be safely introduced, they must be able to sufficiently reduce host populations as to control their own densities. Such determinations can be made by considering the strength of the interaction between host and control agent.

721HW

Times Cited:35

Cited References Count:67

URL: <Go to ISI>://000185311800011

Author Address: Pearson, DE

US Forest Serv, USDA, Rocky Mt Res Stn, Box 8089, Missoula, MT 59807 USA

Univ Montana, Div Biol Sci, Missoula, MT 59812 USA

Language: English

Reference Type: Journal Article

Record Number: 186

Author: Nyari, A.; Ryall, C.; Peterson, A. T.

Year: 2006

Title: Global invasive potential of the house crow Corvus splendens based on ecological niche modelling

Journal: Journal of Avian Biology

Volume: 37

Issue: 4

Pages: 306-311

Date: Jul

Short Title: Global invasive potential of the house crow Corvus splendens based on ecological niche modelling

ISSN: 0908-8857

Accession Number: ISI:000238486700003

Keywords: linking habitats through continental scale movements

west-nile-virus

new-york-state

predictive models

climate-change

plant

distributions

australia

evolution

infection

geography

Abstract: Summaries of recent rapid range expansions shown by the house crow Corvus splendens have provided insights into the global nature of this invasion process, but its long-term potential has not yet been evaluated. To explore the potential dimensions of this geographic expansion, we used ecological niche modeling based on known occurrences of the species on its native distributional area, in the context of GIS data sets describing climatic variables, topographic information, and human presence. Our models provided predictions of areas already invaded that were statistically significantly more coincident than expected under random (null) models. The predicted potential range of the species includes areas already affected, as well as potentially suitable areas in Central America, the Caribbean, equatorial and West Africa, and mainland and insular Southeast Asia, not yet colonized.

Notes: Week 10: Continental Scale Linkages; This study uses ecological niche modeling to predict the possible future distribution of the house crow. It loosely applies to food-web linkages because invaded areas are primarily urban or semiurban, where house crows receive a subsidy from human food and refuse. In this case, the inter-continental invader is not itself a subsidy, but rather benefits from a subsidy. The crows themselves may also function as a subsidy to various scavengers, but such data is not discussed in this paper.

055YH

Times Cited:0

Cited References Count:44

URL: <Go to ISI>://000238486700003

Author Address: Nyari, A

Univ Kansas, Nat Hist Museum, Lawrence, KS 66045 USA

Univ Kansas, Nat Hist Museum, Lawrence, KS 66045 USA
Univ Kansas, Biodivers Res Ctr, Lawrence, KS 66045 USA
Kingston Univ, Royal Sch Earth Sci & Geog, Kingston upon Thames KT1 2EE, Surrey, England

Language: English

Reference Type: Journal Article

Record Number: 179

Author: Jefferies, R. L.; Jano, A. P.; Abraham, K. F.

Year: 2006

Title: A biotic agent promotes large-scale catastrophic change in the coastal marshes of Hudson Bay

Journal: Journal of Ecology

Volume: 94

Issue: 1

Pages: 234-242

Date: Jan

Short Title: A biotic agent promotes large-scale catastrophic change in the coastal marshes of Hudson Bay

ISSN: 0022-0477

Accession Number: ISI:000234028800022

Keywords: alternative vegetative states

landsat imagery

population numbers of lesser snow geese

soil salinity

self-organized patchiness

arctic salt-marsh

lesser snow geese

james bay

northwest-territories

chen-caerulescens

plant-growth

vegetation

goose

salinity

lowland

Abstract: 1 Herbivores may initiate small changes to plant-soil systems that trigger positive feedbacks leading to rapid catastrophic shifts in vegetative states, including irreversible changes in soil properties. In the coastal marshes of Hudson and James bays, foraging by increasing numbers of lesser snow geese (Chen caerulescens caerulescens A.O.U.) has led to loss of vegetation, and exposure and partial erosion of sediment.
2 Multi-temporal analysis of LANDSAT data has been carried out to detect vegetation change from 1973 to 1999 or later at nine sites in the coastal marshes of these bays where staging and/or breeding geese are present annually.
3 Images were co-registered, and for each image NDVI (Normalized Differential Vegetation Index) channels were generated. For each location, pairwise normalized differences were calculated between these NDVI images for each successive period defined by the imagery acquisition dates. The resulting secondary NDVI difference images expressed changes in NDVI values for each time interval and yielded three well-defined classes: water, vegetation decline and no detectable change in vegetation.
4 At the nine widely separated study sites, the intertidal saltmarsh (an ecological sere) has been lost (to a total of 35 000 ha) and an alternative stable state (exposed sediment) established. Similar changes have occurred elsewhere along the 2000-km coastline where the geese breed or stage.
5 Re-vegetation of these coastal marshes will take decades because of near-irreversible changes in soil properties that require erosion and re-deposition of unconsolidated sediment before large-scale plant colonization can occur, and because large numbers of geese continue to forage annually producing this dramatic top-down effect.

Notes: Week 10: Continental Scale Linkages; Though no new information is given on the cropland-geese-salt marsh linkage, this paper provides convincing LANDSAT images of vegetation loss in the Arctic salt marshes due to overbrowsing by large goose populations.

994JU

Times Cited:0

Cited References Count:52

URL: <Go to ISI>://000234028800022

Author Address: Jefferies, RL

Univ Toronto, Dept Bot, 25 Willcocks St, Toronto, ON M5S 3B2, Canada

Univ Toronto, Dept Bot, Toronto, ON M5S 3B2, Canada
Ontario Minist Nat Resources, Peterborough, ON K9J 8M5, Canada

Language: English